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Monday, August 12, 2013

PPT On Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis Presentation Transcript: 

2.What is tuberculosis?

3.Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease. It is caused Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was first isolated in 1882 by Robert Koch, a German physisian, who received the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Many years ago it was a lethal disease, as there was no cure, but today it can be successfully treated with antibiotics.

4.What causes tuberculosis?

5.It is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually spread from person to person through airborne particles and from infected particles.
If somebody’s immune system is strong he is not developing infection, although he will carry the bacteria but it won’t be contagious. If his immune system isn’t strong enough to fight bacteria, then he will be ill and contagious.

6.Who is in risk for getting infected?
people living with those  who have active TB infection,
poor / homeless people,
People born in countries with higher rates of TB among population,
prison inmates,
alcoholics and drug users,
people with diabetes, certain cancers, and HIV infection,
health-care workers.

7.It is needed a combination of skin, blood, and imaging tests, so as doctors to diagnose TB.
Mantoux test, is the most common diagnostic test. It is a simple skin test that  consists of a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin injected into the forearm. After 48 to 72 hours, they check for skin reaction. Positive test is indicated by a hard red bump in the injected area.
8.To determine whether TB is active or latent (inactive), doctors usually run blood and microscopic sputum analyses or cultures.
Finally, chest x-rays and computer tomography (CT) scans are also used to diagnose TB.

9.    The vaccine is bacillus Calmette – Guérin (BCG) which, confers inconsistent protection against contracting pulmonary TB and it is the most used vaccine worldwide, with more than 90% of all children being vaccinated. It needs though to be done again as immunity lasts for 10 years. As tuberculosis is uncommon in most of Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, BCG is only administered to people at high risk.
10.It depends on the type of infection: active of latent.
Inactive state: an antibiotic called isoniazid (INH) is prescribed for six to twelve months, except pregnant women, as it has possible side effects such as liver damage and peripheral neuropathy.  Active TB: INH and drugs such as rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, as well as streptomycin if the disease is extensive. Drug therapies for TB may last many months or even years.  It is important to finish medications and treatment as prescribed from their doctor in order to completely eradicate the TB bacteria from the body. In December 2012, a new medicine Sirturo (bedaquiline) was approved as part of a combination therapy for adults with multi-drug resistant TB. 

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