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Friday, March 30, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Currency Symbol For Indian Rupee

PPT On Currency Symbol For Indian Rupee Download

Presentation Transcript:
1. Design concept of the symbol is based on Devanagari and Roman script

2. The symbol seamlessly integrates both Devanagari and Roman script

 3. The symbol denotes letter ‘R’ from Rupiah in Devanagari script

4. The uniqueness of Shiro-Rekha gives the symbol an Indian identity

5. The symbol also denotes part of letter ‘R’ from Rupee in Roman script

6. The horizontal lines represents the tricolor of our Indian flag

7. Equality sign symbolizes the relativity of economy and balanced economy

8. The symbol is designed in harmonious with other currency symbols

9. The unison design appeal to both Indian and foreign nationals

10. The use of existing letter simplifies the writing process across the globe

11. Minimal strokes makes it quick and easy to write

12. Familiarity, simplicity and less elements gives it a very high recall value

13. The symbol is simple to design and construct by any type designers

14. Opposite visual forces makes the design stable and balanced

15. The symbol is highly legible at smaller sizes and in reverse color

16. Design of Paisa can become a part of the symbol’s family

17. The symbol naturally blends with both Indian and Arabic numerals

 18. The symbol naturally blends with both Indian and Arabic numerals

19. Unicode for the Rupee symbol

 20. For more info please refer our PPT.

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Sales Quota Setting

PPT On Sales Quota Setting Download

Presentation Transcript:
1. Sales Quota Setting

 2. Sales Quota A sales quota is a quantitative goal assigned to a sales unit relating to a particular period of time. A sales unit may be a territory, a branch office, a region ,a distributor or a person. sales quota provides a source of motivation, a basis for incentives, compensation and increasing standards of performance of sales person and uncover the strength and weaknesses in the selling structure of the firm

 3. Purpose of sales Quota setting Providing goals and incentives to achieve a certain performance level Controlling sales person’s activities Evaluating performance Controlling selling expenses Make effective compensation plan

 4. Types of sales Quotas Sales Volume Quotas Financial Quotas Activities Quotas Combination of these quotas Sales Volume Quotas: can be measured by- volume of sales made by individuals Volume of sales made in geographical area Volume of sales made in a product line Volume of sales made in a distribution outlet Also set to balance the sales of slow moving products and fast moving products, may be set in terms of unit sales, rupee sales, may be combination or point wise

5. Methods of setting sales volume quota Past sales: last year sales 100 % increase in market share expected 10% then for this year sales quota will be 110% Total market estimate: market size estimate, projection made by field staff at each territory Territorial sales potential: represents the maximum sales opportunities open to the same selling unit. Compensation plan: companies sometimes base sales volume quotas solely upon the projected amounts of compensation that management believes sales personnel should receive.

6. Continue….types of sales quotas Financial Quotas: determined to attain desired net profits by controlling increased sales expenses. Net profit Quotas Expenses Quotas Activity Quotas: refers to the numbers of selling activities that a salesman is expected to performed in his area over a period of time. Combination Quotas: quotas can be set in combination of two or three types i.e. rupee sales volume, net profit quota or unit sales volume quota. it controls performance of both selling and non selling activities, this method is common in large number of consumer and industrial product companies.

7. Administration of Quota System The skill in administering the quota system is very important to realize the full benefit for control purpose and also to secure cooperation among staff . Accurate,fair and attainable quotas Securing and maintaining sales personnel's acceptance Participation of sales personnel Keeping sales personnel informed

8. Thank You.

Friday, March 23, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Geometric Design of Roads

PPT On Geometric Design of Roads


Presentation Transcript:
1. Geometric Design of Roads

2. Introduction
Geometric design is an important aspect of highway design
Visible dimensions of roadway
Different elements in geometric design of roads and highways
The safe, efficient and economic operation is governed by the good geometric design standards
The design engineers has to see the following aspects:
Adequate geometric design in planning a highway facility : Volume and composition of traffic should be the basis of design

3. Introduction
Faulty geometrics are costly (rectification of errors)
The design should be consistent (standards should be compatible with each other)
The design should have all the aspects (signs, markings, proper lighting, intersections, etc.)
The highway should be considered as an integral part of environment
The design selection : initial cost of construction, total transportation cost and road user cost should be minimized.
Safety should be built into the design elements
The design should enable all road users (motor vehicles, animal drawn vehicles, cyclist and pedestrians)

4. Geometric Design of Roads
Deals with visible dimensions of a roadway and is dictated by:

Requirements of traffic
Horizontal and vertical alignments
Sight distances
Cross-section components
Lateral and vertical clearances
Intersection treatment
Control of access

5. Elements involved in Geometric Design of Highways
Cross sectional elements
Width of pavement, formation and land, the surface characteristics and cross slope of pavement
Sight distance considerations
Horizontal curves, vertical curves, intersections governs the safety of highways
Horizontal alignment details
Change in road direction, type of horizontal curve, superelevation, extra pavement width, transition curves

6. Elements involved in Geometric Design of Highways …
Vertical alignment details
The gradients and vertical curves
Design of road intersections needs adequate knowledge of traffic engineering
Highway geometrics are greatly influenced by the topography, locality, traffic characteristics and the requirements of design speed
The factors which control the geometric design requirements are speed, road user and vehicular characteristics, design traffic, traffic capacity and benefit-cost considerations

7. Design Controls and Criteria
Design speed
Traffic factors
Design hourly volume and capacity
Environmental and other factors

8. Design speed

Important for economic operation and safety
Considerable variation in speed depending on drivers and kind of vehicle.
Value selected should accommodate nearly all demands and should not fail under severe or extreme cases
Design speed is determined for design and correlation of physical features of highway that influence vehicle operation
Maximum safe speed that can be maintained when conditions are so favorable that design features of highway govern.
Design speed must be correlated with terrain conditions and highway class.

9. Suggested design speeds in kmph for urban streets in India

Arterial………………………. 80
Sub-arterial ………………… 60
Collector street ……………. 50
Local street ………………… 30

10. For more info please refer our ppt

Thursday, March 22, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Know Yourself



Presentation Transcript:

2. Take your time with this test and you will be amazed.

3. The Dalai Lama suggests you read it to see if it works for you.

4. Just 4 questions and the answers will surprise you.

5. Warning ! !
Be honest and do not cheat by looking up the answers.

The mind is like a parachute, it works best when it is opened.

This is fun to do, but you have to follow the instructions very closely.

Do not cheat.

Before Beginning The Test!

7. A warning!
Answer the questions as you go along.
There are only 4 questions and if you see them all before finishing, you will not have honest results.

8. Go down slowly, and complete each exercise as you scroll down.

9. Don't look ahead.
Get pencil and paper to write our answers as you go along.

10. Before you Start

You will need it at the end. This is an honest questionnaire which will tell you a lot about your true self.
Give an answer for each item.
The first thing that comes to mind is usually your best answer.
Remember – no one sees this but you.

11. (Question: 1)
Put the following 5 animals in the order of your preference:
Cow, Tiger, Sheep, Horse, Pig

12. (Question: 2)
Write one word that describes each one of the following:
Dog, Cat, Rat, Coffee, Sea.

13. (Question: 3) Think of someone, who also knows you and is important to you, which you can relate them to the following colors.
Do not repeat your answer twice.
Name just one person for each color:

Yellow, Orange, Red, White, Green.

14. (Question: 4)
Finally, write down your favourite number, and your favourite day of the week.

15. Please be sure that your answers are what you

16. Look at the interpretations below:
But first before continuing,
REPEAT your wish.

(Answer: 1)
This will define your priorities in your life.

Cow Signifies CAREER

Tiger Signifies PRIDE

Sheep Signifies LOVE

Horse Signifies FAMILY

Pig Signifies MONEY

18. For More Please Refer Our PPT.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On 8085 INTRODUCTION



Presentation Transcript:
The features of INTEL 8085 are :
It is an 8 bit processor.
It is a single chip N-MOS device with 40 pins.
It has multiplexed address and data bus.(AD0-AD7).
It works on 5 Volt dc power supply.
The maximum clock frequency is 3 MHz while minimum frequency is 500kHz.
It provides 74 instructions with 5 different addressing modes.

2. It provides 16 address lines so it can access 2^16 =64K bytes of memory.
It generates 8 bit I/O address so it can access 2^8=256 input ports.
It provides 5 hardware interrupts:TRAP, RST 5.5, RST 6.5, RST 7.5,INTR.
It provides Acc ,one flag register ,6 general purpose registers and two special purpose registers(SP,PC).
It provides serial lines SID ,SOD.So serial peripherals can be interfaced with 8085 directly.

Some important pins are :
AD0-AD7: Multiplexed Address and data lines.
A8-A15: Tri-stated higher order address lines.
ALE: Address latch enable is an output signal.It goes high when operation is started by processor .
S0,S1: These are the status signals used to indicate type of operation.
RD¯: Read is active low input signal used to read data from I/O device or memory.
WR¯:Write is an active low output signal used write data on memory or an I/O device.

READY:This an output signal used to check the status of output device.If it is low, µP will WAIT until it is high.
TRAP:It is an Edge triggered highest priority , non mask able interrupt. After TRAP, restart occurs and execution starts from address 0024H.
RST5.5,6.5,7.5:These are maskable interrupts and have low priority than TRAP.
INTR¯&INTA:INTR is a interrupt request signal after which µP generates INTA or interrupt acknowledge signal.
IO/M¯:This is output pin or signal used to indicate whether 8085 is working in I/O mode(IO/M¯=1) or Memory mode(IO/M¯=0 ).

5. HOLD&HLDA:HOLD is an input signal .When µP receives HOLD signal it completes current machine cycle and stops executing next instruction.In response to HOLD µP generates HLDA that is HOLD Acknowledge signal.
RESET IN¯:This is input signal.When RESET IN¯ is low µp restarts and starts executing from location 0000H.
SID: Serial input data is input pin used to accept serial 1 bit data .
X1X2 :These are clock input signals and are connected to external LC,or RC circuit.These are divide by two so if 6 MHz is connected to X1X2, the operating frequency becomes 3 MHz.
VCC&VSS:Power supply VCC=+ -5Volt& VSS=-GND reference.

6. Arithmetic and Logical group
Accumulator: It is 8 bit general purpose register.
It is connected to ALU.
So most of the operations are done in Acc.
Temporary register: It is not available for user
All the arithmetic and logical operations are done in the temporary register but user can’t access it.
Flag: It is a group of 5 flip flops used to know status of various operations done.
The Flag Register along with Accumulator is called PSW
or Program Status Word.

7. Register Group
Temporary registers (W,Z):These are not available for user. These are loaded only when there is an operation being performed.
General purpose:There are six general purpose registers in 8085 namely B,C,D,E,H,L.These are used for various data manipulations.
Special purpose :There are two special purpose registers in 8085:
SP :Stack Pointer.
PC:Program Counter.

8. Register Group
Stack Pointer: This is a temporary storage memory 16 bit register. Since there are only 6 general purpose registers, there is a need to reuse them .
Whenever stack is to be used previous values are PUSHED on stack and then after the program is over these values are POPED back.
Program Counter: It is 16 bit register used to point the location from which the next instruction is to be fetched.
When a single byte instruction is executed PC is automatically incremented by 1.
Upon reset PC contents are set to 0000H and next instruction is fetched onwards.

9. Memory interfacing
There needs to be a lot of interaction between the microprocessor and the memory for the exchange of information during program execution.
Memory has its requirements on control signals and their timing.
The microprocessor has its requirements as well.

The interfacing operation is simply the matching of these requirements.

10. For more info please refer our PPT.
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Monday, March 12, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Analog to Digital Converters

PPT On Analog to Digital Converters


Presentation Transcript:
1. Digital-to-Analog, Analog-to-Digital

2. Data Handling Systems
Both data about the physical world and control signals sent to interact with the physical world are typically "analog" or continuously varying quantities.
In order to use the power of digital electronics, one must convert from analog to digital form on the experimental measurement end and convert from digital to analog form on the control or output end of a laboratory system.

3. Digital-to-Analog Conversion
When data is in binary form, the 0's and 1's may be of several forms such as the TTL form where the logic zero may be a value up to 0.8 volts and the 1 may be a voltage from 2 to 5 volts.
The data can be converted to clean digital form using gates which are designed to be on or off depending on the value of the incoming signal.

4. Digital-to-Analog Conversion
Data in clean binary digital form can be converted to an analog form by using a summing amplifier.
For example, a simple 4-bit D/A converter can be made with a four-input summing amplifier.

5. Digital-to-Analog Conversion
2 Basic Approaches

Weighted Summing Amplifier
R-2R Network Approach

6. Weighted Sum DAC
One way to achieve D/A conversion is to use a summing amplifier.
This approach is not satisfactory for a large number of bits because it requires too much precision in the summing resistors.
This problem is overcome in the R-2R network DAC.

7. R-2R Ladder DAC
The summing amplifier with the R-2R ladder of resistances shown produces the output where the D's take the value 0 or 1.
The digital inputs could be TTL voltages which close the switches on a logical 1 and leave it grounded for a logical 0.
This is illustrated for 4 bits, but can be extended to any number with just the resistance values R and 2R.

8. Analog to Digital Conversion [ADC]

9. ADC Basic Principle
The basic principle of operation is to use the comparator principle to determine whether or not to turn on a particular bit of the binary number output.
It is typical for an ADC to use a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to determine one of the inputs to the comparator.

10. ADC Various Approaches
3 Basic Types
Digital-Ramp ADC
Successive Approximation ADC
Flash ADC

11. Digital-Ramp ADC
Conversion from analog to digital form inherently involves comparator action where the value of the analog voltage at some point in time is compared with some standard.
A common way to do that is to apply the analog voltage to one terminal of a comparator and trigger a binary counter which drives a DAC.

12. For more Info please refer our PPT.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Auto Turn Off Battery Charger

PPT Auto Turn Off Battery Charger


Presentation Transcript:
1. Auto turn off battery charger.

An Auto turn off battery charger is a good option for people who don’t like having to mess with the battery charging process too much
Simply hook our battery up to an Auto turn off battery charger and we will find that it proceeds to charger our battery automatically.
When the battery is charged it will shut off. Hooking a battery up to an Auto turn off battery charger is really easy too.
Simply hook the alligator clips up to the battery posts and leave the Auto turn off battery charger plugged in. A battery will never get overcharged with an Auto turn off battery charger.
Many people choose an Auto turn off battery charger over a manual battery charger can fry our batteries by not shutting off when the battery is charger up.
This can cause a lot of headaches and prevent us from getting the life expectancy out of the batteries we purchase.

3. Operation
In the AC-to-DC converter section, transformer X1 steps down mains 230V AC to 9V AC at 750 mA,
which is rectified by a full-wave rectifier comprising diodes D1 through D4 and filtered by capacitor C1.

Regulator IC LM317 (IC1) provides the required 12V DC charging voltage.
When you press switch S1 momentarily, the charger starts operating and the power-on LED1 glows to indicate that the charger is ‘on.’

4. The relay driver section uses PnP transistors T1, T2 and T3 (each BC558) to Energies electromagnetic relay RL1 is connected to the collector of transistorT1.
Transistor T1 is driven by PnP transistor T2, which, in turn, is driven by PnP transistors T3.
Resistor R4 (10-ohm, 0.5W) is connected between the emitter and base of transistors T3.
When a current of over 65 ma flows through the 12V line, it cause a voltage drop of about 650V across resistor R4 to drive transistors T3 and cut off transistors T2. This, in turn, turns transistors T1 ‘on’ to energies relay RL1.
Now even if the pushbutton is released, mains is still available to the primary of the transformer through its normally open (N/O) contacts.

5. About I.C used in this experiment
The LM 317 is a popular variable ‘Voltage Regulator’.
It is an adjustable 3- terminal positive voltage regulator capable of supplying 100mA over a 1.2 to 3.7 output range.
It is easy to use
This offers full over load protection included on the chip are Current Limit, Thermal Overload Protection and Safe Area Protection.
All over load protection circuitry remains fully functional even if the adjustment terminal is disconnected
it makes an especially simple adjustable switching regulator, a programmable output regulator, or by connecting a fixed resistor between the adjustment and output, the LM317L can be used as a precision current regulator. Supplies with electronic shutdown can be achieved by clamping the adjustment terminal to ground which programs the output to 1.2V where most loads draw little current.

6. Specifications
Vout range 1.25V - 37V
Vin – Vout difference 3V - 40V
Operation ambient temperature 0 - 125°C
Output Imax <1.5A (assuming factory-suggested heat sinking) Minimum Load Currentmax 10mA

7. About relay This is an electrically operated switch . The coil current can be ON or OFF so relays have two switch positions and most have double throw Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. These allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from first. These are designed fort PCB mounting but we can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay .

8. Advantages A manual battery charger can fry our batteries by not shutting off when the battery is charged up where as this battery charger will never get overcharged with an auto turn off battery charger. This charger provides the full life expectancy out of the batteries we purchase. Easy to use. Simple circuit. Components are easily available and low cost. User friendly product.

9. Applications This battery charger is intended to charger any battery ranging from 0 to 15V. Some of the applications are Rechargeable Cells Motorcycle Batteries Car Batteries Mobile phone charger

10. Conclusion In this report we explained the methodology to charge any battery ranging from 0 to 15V. Using this system when the battery is charged fully it will shut off automatically. The circuit consists of very less components and simple in design. Think of the many ways that we can use an auto turn-off battery charger in our life. Whether we have marine batteries, motorcycle batteries, car batteries or other sources of electricity that need to be charged up, we can count on quality auto turn-off battery charges to add many years of life through the cycling cycles.

11. Thanks.

Monday, March 5, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On 8085 Microprocessor Architecture

PPT On 8085 Microprocessor Architecture


Presentation Transcript:
1. The 8085 Microprocessor Architecture

2. The 8085 and Its Busses
The 8085 is an 8-bit general purpose microprocessor that can address 64K Byte of memory.
It has 40 pins and uses +5V for power. It can run at a maximum frequency of 3 MHz.
The pins on the chip can be grouped into 4 groups:
Address Bus.
Data Bus.
Control and Status Signals.
Power supply and frequency.

3. The Address and Data Busses
The address bus has 8 signal lines A8 – A15 which are unidirectional.
The other 8 address bits are multiplexed (time shared) with the 8 data bits.
So, the bits AD0 – AD7 are bi-directional and serve as A0 – A7 and D0 – D7 at the same time.
During the execution of the instruction, these lines carry the address bits during the early part, then during the late parts of the execution, they carry the 8 data bits.
In order to separate the address from the data, we can use a latch to save the value before the function of the bits changes.

4. The Control and Status Signals
There are 4 main control and status signals. These are:
ALE: Address Latch Enable. This signal is a pulse that become 1 when the AD0 – AD7 lines have an address on them. It becomes 0 after that. This signal can be used to enable a latch to save the address bits from the AD lines.
RD: Read. Active low.
WR: Write. Active low.
IO/M: This signal specifies whether the operation is a memory operation (IO/M=0) or an I/O operation (IO/M=1).
S1 and S0 : Status signals to specify the kind of operation being performed .Usually un-used in small systems.

5. Cycles and States
From the above discussion, we can define terms that will become handy later on:
T- State: One subdivision of an operation. A T-state lasts for one clock period.
An instruction’s execution length is usually measured in a number of T-states. (clock cycles).
Machine Cycle: The time required to complete one operation of accessing memory, I/O, or acknowledging an external request.
This cycle may consist of 3 to 6 T-states.
Instruction Cycle: The time required to complete the execution of an instruction.
In the 8085, an instruction cycle may consist of 1 to 6 machine cycles.

6. A closer look at the 8085 Architecture
Previously we discussed the 8085 from a programmer’s perspective.

Now, lets look at some of its features with more detail.

7. The ALU
In addition to the arithmetic & logic circuits, the ALU includes the accumulator, which is part of every arithmetic & logic operation.

Also, the ALU includes a temporary register used for holding data temporarily during the execution of the operation. This temporary register is not accessible by the programmer.

8. The Flags register
There is also the flags register whose bits are affected by the arithmetic & logic operations.
S-sign flag
The sign flag is set if bit D7 of the accumulator is set after an arithmetic or logic operation.
Z-zero flag
Set if the result of the ALU operation is 0. Otherwise is reset. This flag is affected by operations on the accumulator as well as other registers. (DCR B).
AC-Auxiliary Carry
This flag is set when a carry is generated from bit D3 and passed to D4 . This flag is used only internally for BCD operations. (Section 10.5 describes BCD addition including the DAA instruction).
P-Parity flag
After an ALU operation if the result has an even # of 1’s the p-flag is set. Otherwise it is cleared. So, the flag can be used to indicate even parity.
CY-carry flag
Discussed earlier

9. Memory interfacing
There needs to be a lot of interaction between the microprocessor and the memory for the exchange of information during program execution.
Memory has its requirements on control signals and their timing.
The microprocessor has its requirements as well.
The interfacing operation is simply the matching of these requirements.

10. For more info. please refer our PPT.

Thursday, March 1, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Combinational Logic Design

PPT On Combinational Logic Design


Presentation Transcript:
1. Combinational Logic Design

2. Combinational Logic Design
A process with 5 steps
Technology mapping

3. BCD-to-Excess-3 Code converter
BCD is a code for the decimal digits 0-9
Excess-3 is also a code for the decimal digits

4. Specification of BCD-to-Excess3
Inputs: a BCD input, A,B,C,D with A as the most significant bit and D as the least significant bit.
Outputs: an Excess-3 output W,X,Y,Z that corresponds to the BCD input.

5. Formulation of BCD-to-Excess-3
Excess-3 code is easily formed by adding a binary 3 to the binary or BCD for the digit.
There are 16 possible inputs for both BCD and Excess-3.

6. Thank You.
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