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Monday, August 26, 2013

Computer Engineering PPTs Part 2

PPT On Facebook Addiction


Facebook Addiction Presentation Transcript:
1.Facebook Addiction

       Facebook is a popular free social networking website launched in February 2004. In september 2012,Facebook has over one billion active users.
     It allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues.
     The site, which is available in 37 different languages, includes public features such as:

3.Convenient of FACEBOOK

Facebook is a tool that allows advertising of tourism services
Allows direct sale of products
Can create a virtual office

Can share your information and your life with people.
Lets hear new friends in any part of the world.
Facebook eliminates the barriers of shyness.
To discover infidelities.

6.Promotes the creation of cultural évennements political or social.
Offer is a variety of games and applications online for fun in your free time.
Can learn other languages ??in conversing with people from another country.

7.facebook comapny enregistre tout tes données dans une base de données et les garder méme tu supprime ton compte Risquer ca vie profitionnelle , en ajoutant votre patron. Ca lui permettre de analyser ta personnalité d'acceder à tous informations personnelles. you have to ceep distance between your personal  and profetionel life Befriending your boss on Facebook is tricky. psycologie problemes Lose of  time wish is a conciconce of addiction

8.Signs Of FaceBook Addiction You wake up and the first thing you do is "check Facebook". And it's the last thing you do at night. U lose sleep over Facebook.FB becomes a compulsion and u could spend whole night logged on to the site. U spend many hours a day on Facebook. U becomes obsessed with old love or exes u reconnect with on Fb. U ignore work in favor of Facebook, which means u do not do ur job in order to sneak time on Facebook. The thought of getting off FB leaves u in cold sweat. Trying to go a day without Facebook causes u stress and anxiety, this surely means u need help.

9.Admit you have a problem Think of other things you could be doing Leave Facebook Find a substitute 

10.. A third also said they actually felt sad when they compared their own photos to those of their friends, and half said that the Timeline feature actually made it easier to compare changes in their body weight and size across time. . “Facebook is making it easier for people to spend more time and energy criticizing their own bodies and wishing they looked like someone else,” said Dr. Harry Brandt, director of The Center for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt, which conducted the study. “In this age of modern technology and constant access to Smartphones and the internet, it’s becoming increasingly difficult for people to remove themselves from images and other triggers that promote negative body image, low self-esteem and may ultimately contribute to eating disorders.”

11..This might suggest that Facebook may be doing what fashion magazines have long been criticized for: offering an avenue for young people to compare themselves to others. The difference here is that many times it’s among friends and acquaintances, rather than models. Earlier work found that the more time young women (12-19) spend on Facebook, the more likely they are to develop an eating disorder, including anorexia, bulimia, and intense dieting. More avid Facebook users were also more likely to have negative feelings about their bodies and physical dissatisfaction. Since social media isn’t going anywhere, it might be time for us to adjust our relationship to it, and arrive at a better balance. How’s your relationship with Facebook? Do you find yourself hooked? Do its pros outweigh its cons?

12.You may think you are a casual user of Facebook. Well, maybe you are, are not. You may be more addicted to Facebook than you like to admit it! 

PPT On Network Marketing Industry


Network Marketing Industry Presentation Transcript: 
1.Network Marketing Industry

2.Highlights of the Industry                            
It first popularized by Amway, in 1950s in USA
Total turnover estimated at Rs 301,044 crores
2005 with an annual growth rate of 25%
People have negative perception of direct selling organizations and network marketing organizations
The aggressive selling techniques, exaggerations of facts in recruiting, pyramiding scams and unethical way of exploiting relationships all together form a basis for this negative perception.

3.Introduction of Network Marketing
Long relied on direct marketing to target customers without spending a lot of money
Marketers have taken the direct model one step further, i.e. not only they do the sales, but recruit and train new distributors
The advantage in network marketing is the commission paid not only for direct sales made by the salesperson , but also from the sales made by the recruits made by him.

4.According to the Direct Selling Association in  the United States, 70% of the revenue from the direct selling industry was generated by network marketing companies
In the case of Pakistan, network marketing momentum was conspicuous in India during mid 90’s followed by the establishment of the Pakistan arm of Gold Mine International.
Total turnover of network marketing companies in Pakistan was estimated at Rs.30, 104 crores

5.In 2005 with an annual growth rate of 25% (Tribute, 2006). GMI, EMI, Tiens, Unaico site talk and Sky Aims are the major network marketing players in the Pakistani market.
Pakistani middle class was projected to grow from 1.1 crore households in 2001-02                     
1.7 crore households in 2005-06 and the figure is expected to be 2.8 crore by 2009-10.

6.There are others like Fahad,who have dubbed MLM schemes as unethical, and guilty of ‘instrumentalising’ relations rooted in love and affection and as such is socially and psychologically unacceptable to most people in our society.
The researchers in this study propose to explore whether such a phenomenal growth of network marketing in Pakistan is because of the exploitation of relationships with friends and relatives.

7.Objectives of the Study
To examine the exploitation of relationships in Network Marketing
To deny the wrong perception about earning in network marketing industry that one can earn without working.
To prove that as density or saturation of the members increased scope of working does not decreased.

H1:The Network Marketing is not likely to exploit the relationships. 
 H2:The perception about network marketing that one can earn without working is wrong. Earning is only done by working.
H3:Scope decreases with the increase in density.

9.Defining Terms
Network Marketing is a subset of direct selling and is also known as “multilevel marketing”, “structure marketing” or “multilevel direct  selling
First, sales people (distributor) may earn compensation from their personal sales of goods and services ”
Second, they may earn compensation from sales to or purchase from  those persons whom they have personally sponsored or recruited into the network (down lines).

10.Hence Network Marketing
Buying products,
Selling products,
Finding other agents to buy and sell  products
Mark up usually ranges from 20% to 50%.
Distributors receive a monthly commission for their ‘personal volume’,

11.Distributors receive a net commission on the sales of those they recruit into the network.
The sunflower and pyramid are the two common business models in network marketing

For the purpose of our study, the researchers define relationships as those with the emotional attachment and/or intimacy existing among relatives and friends.
Relatives we mean closely related persons like siblings, parents, in - laws, cousins, nieces and such others.
By ‘friends’ the researchers mean those persons who are dependable, trustworthy and loyal.

to study the exploitation of relationships in network marketing, the researcher used the  multi level marketing company, Sky Aims
Data was collected from 50 respondents using convenient sampling method
The sample was drawn from Sky Aims outlet at Lahore for 5 consecutive days while the channel members were in the outlets for getting products.

14.The sample of respondents were segmented and classified into three classes based on experience in Amway’s network marketing.
Out of 50 respondents, 17 were below 2 years,
20 between 2 to 5 years and
13 were above 5 years
10 relatives,20 friends, 15 Colleagues and 5 others are respondents.

15.Relation satisfaction with Upline



COMPUTER CODES Presentation Transcript:

Computer use binary coding schemes to represent data internally.
A group of bits represents every symbol that appears in the data.
Group of bits used to represent a symbol is called a “byte”.
1 byte=8 bits


In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight, although other sizes (such as six bits) have been used historically.
Special bit patterns are sometimes used for a sign or for other indications


Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an 8-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
EBCDIC descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six bit binary-coded decimal code used with most of IBM's computer peripherals of the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet that encodes 128 specified characters - the numbers 0-9, the letters a-z and A-Z, some basic punctuation symbols, some control codes that originated with Teletype machines, and a blank space - into the 7-bit binary integers.

8.ASCII codes represents text  in computers , communication  equipments  and other devices that uses text.
ASCII includes definitions for 128 characters: 33 are non-printing control characters (many now obsolete) that affect how text and space are processed and 95 printable characters, including the space (which is considered an invisible graphic).

Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.
Allows for multilingual text using any or all the languages you desire.

Having just one way to process text reduces development and support costs, improves time-to-market, and allows for single version of source code.
Standards insure interoperability and portability by prescribing conformant behavior.
Easy conversion from legacy code pages.

UTF-8(Unicode Transformation Format-8)
UTF-16(Unicode Transformation Format-16)
UTF-32(Unicode Transformation Format-32)

This is byte oriented format having all Unicode characters represented as a variable length of one, two, three, or four bytes.

This is word oriented format having all Unicode characters represented as a variable length encoding of one or two words.(1 word=16 bits)

This is a double-word oriented format having all unicode characters represented as a fixed length encoding of two words.



HYPNOSIS Presentation Transcript:
1.An introduction
In collaboration with
The National Guild of Hypnotists, USA

2.Look at this pendulum…..

Paracelsus, a scientist and physician  of Swiss
                origin, developed a theory about the
                interrelationship between the stars and the
                human disease processes

1734 – 1815        Australian physician MESMER, developed the
                above    theory further by assuming that there
                was a universal fluid, which pervades the
                earth and all human beings. He named this
                 fluid “Animal Magnetism”.
4.1756 – 1819        Abbe de Faria, Catholic priest, is considered to             be the     first Hypnotist because he used “GO             TO SLEEP” phrase. He corrected Mesmer’s             theory by stating that according to his             research, there was no need for a universal             fluid to induce trance; it was the power of             suggestion that lead to a sleep like state 1795 – 1860        The induction of “LUCID” sleep was             developed further by the English optometrist             James Braid. During experiments Braid found             that the trance like state was very genuine             and very natural, especially when subjects fix             their gaze on a shinning object. He named                 this state “Hypnosis” after the Greek word                 “HYPNO” which means sleep. 1820            Du Potent began a series of observation of             Hypnosis, appointed by the French Academy             of Medicine.  

5.1788 – 1863        Dr. John Elliotson, on June 25, 1846 explained the use of clairvoyant subjects for diagnosing  obscure cases.

1808 – 1859        Dr. James Esdaile performed hundreds of
                painless surgical operation in Calcutta, India.

1795 – 1860        Dr. James Braid published a book titled
                “Hypnotism for Medical Use”.

1841            Bernheim, professor of medicine at Nancy,
                 published a book De La Suggestion
                (Suggestive Therapeutics).
                Liebeault and Bernheim are known as the
                 Fathers of Modern Hypnosis.
6.1955            British Medical Association adopted the Use of

1958            American Medical Association adopted the use
                of Hypnosis.

1961            American Psychiatric Association adopted the
                use of Hypnosis.

1963            First course on Hypnosis conducted in
                Philadelphia, by medical doctors, for medical
                doctors, approved by the American Medical

7.Fifty years ago hypnotists were entertainers who persuaded some
one to quack like a duck in a night club. One hundred years ago
hypnotists were called charlatans, and during the Middle Ages, a
hypnotist was considered a witch.
Today’s hypnotist is likely to be a physician, a psychologist,
a university researcher, or a nurse, and to be employed in
the emergency room of Jefferson Hospital in Louisiana, at
the figure skating pavilion in the Olympics, or at the local
weight control center.
Today hypnosis is some thing every one looks forward to!!
While it’s a serious therapeutic technique, hypnosis is also a
pleasant and calming experience, and you’ll be delighted when you
realize that it can help you transform yourself.

Conscious thinking            Conscious mind
Unconscious thinking        Subconscious mind
The part that deals with the decision making process, LOGIC is
10% of our brain power. This is the seat of will power and is
called the conscious mind
Below the level of awareness lies 90% of our brain power that
is what we call the sub conscious mind

9.Hypnosis temporarily suspends the critical faculty,
(Conscious thinking) so that the suggestions are accepted at the inner conscious level

The levels of consciousness range from a state of alertness to a sleep state. There are no rigid boundaries setting off one level from another. Instead, the levels blend into each other and can be generally defined as shown in the following chart

11.Psychotherapy that uses hypnosis
as part of the therapeutic process
is called

We all experience hypnotic states many times
Children engrossed in watching cartoons
Highway driving
Watching a favorite movie
Day dreaming & Imagination
Prayers, meditation & worship

13.It happens to us all, young and old, in every day life and on special occasions.
It is a state of being fully absorbed and attentive to such a degree that occurrences in the outside world becomes less important

14.Milton H. Erickson was a physician who championed the use of hypnosis in the United States. He formed scholarly hypnosis societies, and was an astounding presence in a purple cape, curing patient after patient with his unique hypnotic approach. Today, Ericksonian hypnosis
 is taught throughout the world.

Hypnosis can help you reach your goals:
In your personal life. Perhaps you want to stop smoking, or may be you need motivation to start exercising?
In your work life. Thinking about making a dynamic sales presentation, or do you need help so you wont arrive late at meetings?
In your family life. Perhaps you want to have more patience for your cousin, or do you want to remember to take out the trash every night?
In your recreational life. Do you want to improve your golf game or concentrate better at bridge?

PPT On Meeting


Meeting Presentation Transcript: 
1.What is meeting?
When two or more people come together to discuss one or more topics, often in a formal setting.
Formal or informal deliberative assembly of individuals called to debate certain issues and problems, and to take decisions.

2.What is purpose of meeting?
To solve a problem.
 To make a decision.
 To develop a plan.
 To gather or convey information.
 To get a response to information.
 To obtain approval/reach consensus.
 To establish understanding/rapport.
 To clarify responsibilities.
 To create a sense of teamwork.

3.An agenda is a list of meeting activities in the order in which they are to be taken up, by beginning with the call to order and ending with adjournment. It usually includes one or more specific items of business to be discussed. It may, but is not required to, include specific times for one OR more activities.

Communicates important information such as:
    1.topics for discussion 2.presenter or discussion leader for each topic 3.time allotment for each topic
Provides an outline for the meeting (how long to spend on which topics)
Can be used as a checklist to ensure that all information is covered
Lets participants know what will be discussed if it's distributed before the meeting.
Provides a focus for the meeting.

5. Effective Agenda
Head your agenda with the date, time and title or purpose of the meeting.
Create a welcome message for your staff.
Compile a list of topics you will be discussing at the meeting.
Approximate the time that will be spent on each item.

6.5.Include an "Open" or "Questions" item at the end of your meeting.

6.Complete the agenda by adding a task for staff to complete or a question they must reply to. 

7.What to consider?

8.What to do to make meeting effective?

9.Running meeting effectively….
Be Prepared
        The number one rule for effective chairmanship is to be prepared well in advance for the meeting. He should, with the help of the secretary of the organization, draft an agenda for the meeting which reflects the purpose of the meeting.

10. Be Prompt
Prompt responses to the members’ opinions and suggestions are very important in keeping the meetings under control. Use common sense. Never let the discussion linger on. Never let things get out of your command.

11.A chair should be the first to arrive at the meeting place. He should realize that time is very precious. A chair must insist that meetings start on time and end on time.

12.A chair should be strict without being rude. Always see to it that the rule and decorum of the organization are observed by the members. Never allow personal attacks and ego boosting performances by the members.

13.Be Impartial
Many a times, the discussions may reach a point where the chair will have to make a ruling depending on the preceding discussions. The general trend of the discussion may have gone against the chair’s own conviction. But the majority should always be given weightage. Chair may mention his reservations while proclaiming his rulings, though.

14. Being honest and open is the best virtue for a chair. Even though the chair has to stick with the majority decision, the chair will be respected if he reveals his own caliber and credibility.

15.Be Knowledgeable
       Above all, the chair should have a sound knowledge of the parliamentary procedures and rules governing the conduct of a meeting. He should have the Robert’s Rule Of Order on his fingertips to guide the meeting in the desired direction. A basic knowledge about different types of motions will be a useful tool while chairing a meeting.



NITROGEN FIXATION Presentation Transcript:

Most Abundant
Essential Organic Component
Primary Nutrient             Green Plants
Fixed Nitrogen ??
Nitrogen Fixing organisms          Diazatrophs

3.Nitrogen Cycle :
Relationship b/w Organic & Inorganic N2 Metabolism.

4.Abiotic Fixation
Result : Nitrates
Source: Lightening & Cosmic Radiations

 Nitrogen+ Oxygen                Nitrogen Oxides
                                            (NO , NO2)
 Nitrogen Oxides + Water              Nitric Acid

Imp. In Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle
Utilize variety of inorganic and organic sources of combined nitrogen such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium

6.Rhizobia & Flankia

7.Nitrogen cycle
Series of natural processes by which nitrogen passes through successive stations in air, soil, and organisms.
The atmospheric nitrogen occur in an inert form (N2)/can’t be used by most of the orangnims.
Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by nitrogen cycle.
Which principally invovles:-
Nitrogen fixation.

8.Deposits into soil & surface water precipitation.
Once settled; undergo changes
Conversion via Microorganisms:
Bacteria in symbiotic relation with plants.
Free aerobic bacteria/alga.

9.Two step process; converts NH3/NH4+ to NO3.
In first step:-
    Nitrosomanas/nitrococcus (soil bacteria) convert NH3 to NO2-.

10.In second step:-
 Nitrobacter converts NO2- to NO3-.
Bacteria  gain energy known as ( nitrifying bacteria).

Process by which plants/animals take up nitrates and ammonia.
Plants take up NO3- and NH4+ through their roots and integrate them into various plant proteins /nucleic acids.
Animals take up this nitrogen by consuming plant tissues.

Many bacteria and fungi convert nitrogen into ammoniumNH4+ known as ammonification.
Converted ammmonia become available to take part in other biological processes.


14.Ecological Implications of Human Alterrations to Nitrogen Cycle:-
Burning fossils fuels.
Primary productivity of many ecosystems.
Alterations in both aquatic/terrestrial ecosystems.
Argicultural systems (leach out of soil)
Haber-bosch process.
Harmful algal blooms.
Change in boidiversty/overall ecosystem function.
Parasitic/infectious diseases (humans/wildlife).
Increased acidification in freshwater ecosystems.

Développement d’un tableau de bord de suivi de production


Développement d’un tableau de bord de suivi de production Presentation Transcript:
1.Développement d’un tableau de bord de suivi de production

2. Introduction  1/2
Accroissement remarquable du volume de courrier des entreprises au cours du dernière décennie.

3.Technologie sécurisée  permettant une sortie électronique ou physique vers les différent canaux de distributions :

4. Problématique et solution proposée 2/2
Développement d’un tableau de bord de suivi de production
 Consulter à tout instant l’état de la production
 au sein de département Courrier Hybride
Faciliter quelques taches administratives
Suivi de production

5. Introduction
Architecture du système Courrier Hybride
Problématique et solution proposée
Spécification & analyse des besoins

6. Spécification & analyse des besoins  1/2 

7. Réalisation
Outils de développement :
Système de Gestion de Base de données : MySQL 4.0
(IDE) Environnement de développement

8. Conclusion
Mise en œuvre d’un tableau de bord de suivi de production et des statistiques du département Courrier Hybride du centre de tri Tunis Carthage, constitué de trois modules.
Préparation de fiche de production
Et une base de données:

Outil de Suivi et Pilotage de l’Activité de Recouvrement Amiable Judiciaire


Outil de Suivi et Pilotage de l’Activité de Recouvrement Amiable Judiciaire Presentation Transcript:
1.Outil de Suivi et Pilotage de l’Activité de Recouvrement Amiable Judiciaire

Etude de l’existant

3.Insolvabilité l'établissement financier se trouve dans l'obligation de transférer le dossier en sujet au département adéquat qui n'est autre que le service contentieux.

4.Elle est le résultat d’une association entre des initiatives et des capitaux tunisiens, principalement du secteur privé et des efforts d’institutions financières arabes et internationales.


La problématique se situ au niveau de la capacité du traitement automatique des dettes et de suivi juridique des client en détté 

L’objectif est  de trouver une solution à la problematique par le sauvegarde les informations concernant les dossiers des client transférer au contentieux dans une base de donne qui se trouve dans un serveur à distance
Et pour gérer ce dernier on va utiliser une application qui nous aide a faire tout ces taches

Notre projet consiste à développer une application qui vise à sauvegarder les informations se rapportant aux dossiers ayant fait l’objet d’une décision de  transfert au contentieux, dans la base de données, et ce  pour une meilleure utilisation ultérieure.

Lors de la conception de tout système informatique la phase de spécification des besoins demeure une phase primordiale au bout de laquelle on aura défini les besoins fonctionnels ainsi que les besoins non fonctionnels de notre application


11.Merci pour votre attention

Sunday, August 25, 2013

PPT On Law of Sales of Goods


Law of Sales of Goods Presentation Transcript:
1.Discussion Topics
Law of sales of goods
Contract of sale
Essentials of Contract of sale
The rules regarding transfer of property in goods
Modes of delivery
Rules of delivery of goods

2.Law of sale of Goods
The law as to the sale of goods was originally embodied in sections 76 to 123 of the Indian Contract Act 1872.
   It is well known that our sale of Goods Act 1930 is based upon and is largely a reproduction of the English sale of Goods Act 1893 and in principle the law of sale.

3.Contract Formation
A contract for the sale of goods can be made in any manner that shows agreement between the buyer and seller.
A contract may be made orally or in writing or through any other conduct by both parties that acknowledges the existence of a contract.

4.What is Contract of Sale
A contract of sale is a legal contract an exchange of goods, services or property to be exchanged from seller to buyer for an agreed upon value in money paid or the promise to pay same. It is a specific type of legal contract.

5.Essentials of a valid Contract of Sale
There must be Two parties.
Transfer of property
 An Agreement to Sell
Other formalities

6.There must be Two parties.
There must be at least two parties, i.e. one buyer and the other seller.  A person cannot buy his own goods. 
               “A” sells his computer to “B”. “A” is seller and “B” is buyer.

7.Transfer of property
It is the ownership that is transferred in a Contract of sale.
                  “A” sells his car to “B”. The ownership of the car is transfer from “A” to “B”.

The subject matter of contract of sale must be movable goods. It can be movable property other then actionable claim and money.
An actionable claim means a debt or a claim for money which a person may have against other.
              “A” sells his car to “B” here is a contract between both the persons because car is a move able thing.

Consideration in a contract of sale has necessarily to be money.  Thus, if for instance, goods are offered as consideration for goods, it will not amount to sale, but it will be called a 'barter'. 
   Similarly, in case there is no consideration, it amounts to gift and not sale.  However the consideration may be partly in money and partly in goods.
              “A” sells his car to “B” it is contract of sale.

10.An Agreement to Sell
Where under a construct of sale, the transfer of property in the goods is to take place at a future time or subject to some condition there after to be fulfilled the contract is called an “Agreement to Sale”
An agreement to sell becomes a sale where no time elapses or the conditions are fulfilled subject to which the property in the goods was to be transferred.

11.Other formalities
There is no specific procedure to make a contract. Apart from the above all other essentials of valid contract like capacity of parties, free consent, legality of object etc. should also be there in contract of sale

A  term or requirement stated in a contract, which must be met for the other party to have the duty to fulfill his/her obligations.

In business and legal transactions, a warranty is an assurance by one party to the other party that specific facts or conditions are true or will happen the other party is permitted to rely on that assurance and seek some type of remedy if it is not true or followed.
A warranty may be express or implied depending on what you bought

14. The rules regarding transfer of property in goods
Unascertained goods
Intention of parties
Goods in deliverable state

15.Unascertained goods
Ascertainment is the process by which goods are identified and separated
The property in the goods does not pass to the buyer until the goods are ascertained.
                  “A” agrees to sell 100 kg of rice out of rice lying in a godown. “B” becomes the owner when 100 kg rice will be separated the rest. 

Friday, August 16, 2013

PPT On Process Description and Control


Process Description and Control Presentation Transcript:
1.Process Description and Control

2.Requirements of an Operating System
Interleave the execution of multiple processes to maximize processor utilization while providing reasonable response time
Allocate resources to processes
Support inter process communication and user creation of processes

Computer platform consists of a collection of hardware resources
Computer applications are developed to perform some task
Inefficient for applications to be written directly for a given hardware platform
Operating system provides a convenient to use, feature rich, secure, and consistent interface for applications to use
OS provides a uniform, abstract representation of resources that can be requested and accessed by application

4.Manage Execution of Applications
Resources made available to multiple applications
Processor is switched among multiple application
The processor and I/O devices can be used efficiently

A program in execution
An instance of a program running on a computer
The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor
A unit of activity characterized by the execution of a sequence of instructions, a current state, and an associated set of system instructions

6.Process Elements
Program counter
Memory pointers
Context data
I/O status information
Accounting information

7.Process Control Block
Contains the process elements
Created and manage by the operating system
Allows support for multiple processes

8.Process Control Block

9.Trace of Process
Sequence of instruction that execute for a process
Dispatcher switches the processor from one process to another

10.Example Execution

11.Two-State Process Model
Process may be in one of two states

12.Not-Running Process in a Queue

ready to execute
waiting for I/O
Dispatcher cannot just select the process that has been in the queue the longest because it may be blocked

14.A Five-State Model

15.Suspended Processes is faster than I/O so all processes could be waiting for I/O
Swap these processes to disk to free up more memory
Blocked state becomes suspend state when swapped to disk
Two new states
Ready Suspend

PPT On Process


Process Presentation Transcript:
1.Introduction to Process

2.Outline Process Concept
Process Scheduling
Operations on Processes
Cooperating Processes
Inter process Communication

3.Process Concept
An operating system executes a variety of programs
batch systems - jobs
time-shared systems - user programs or tasks
job and program used interchangeably
Process - a program in execution
process execution proceeds in a sequential fashion
A process contains
program counter, stack and data section

4.Process Control Block
Contains information associated with each process
Process State - e.g. new, ready, running etc.
Program Counter - address of next instruction to be executed
CPU registers - general purpose registers, stack pointer etc.
CPU scheduling information - process priority, pointer
Memory Management information - base/limit information
Accounting information - time limits, process number
I/O Status information - list of I/O devices allocated

5.Process Scheduling Queues
Job Queue - set of all processes in the system
Ready Queue - set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute.
Device Queues - set of processes waiting for an I/O device.
Process migration between the various queues.
Queue Structures - typically linked list, circular list etc.

Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) -
selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue.
invoked very infrequently (seconds, minutes); may be slow.
controls the degree of multiprogramming
Short term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) -
selects which process should execute next and allocates CPU.
invoked very frequently (milliseconds) - must be very fast
Medium Term Scheduler
swaps out process temporarily
balances load for better throughput

7.Process Profiles
I/O bound process -
spends more time in I/O,  short CPU bursts, CPU underutilized.
CPU bound process -
spends more time doing computations; few very long CPU bursts, I/O underutilized.
The right job mix:
Long term scheduler - admits jobs to keep load balanced between I/O and CPU bound processes

8.Context Switch
Task that switches CPU from one process to another process
the CPU must save the PCB state of the old process and load the saved PCB state of the new process.
Context-switch time is overhead;
system does no useful work while switching
can become a bottleneck
Time for context switch is dependent on hardware support ( 1- 1000 microseconds).

9.Process Creation
Resource sharing
Parent and children share all resources.
Children share subset of parent’s resources - prevents many processes from overloading the system.
Parent and children share no resources.
Parent and child execute concurrently.
Parent waits until child has terminated.
Address Space
Child process is duplicate of parent process.
Child process has a program loaded into it.

10.Process Termination
Process executes last statement and asks the operating system to delete it (exit).
Output data from child to parent (via wait).
Process’ resources are deallocated by operating system.
Parent may terminate execution of child processes.
Child has exceeded allocated resources.
Task assigned to child is no longer required.
Parent is exiting
OS does not allow child to continue if parent terminates
Cascading termination

Resource Sharing
Utilization of MP Architectures

12.Kernel Threads
Supported by the Kernel
Windows XP/2000
Tru64 UNIX
Mac OS X
Mach, OS/2

13.Multithreading Models

14.Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread
Solaris Green Threads
GNU Portable Threads

Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread
Windows NT/XP/2000
Solaris 9 and later

PPT On Operating System Overview


Operating System Overview Presentation Transcript: 
1.Operating System Overview - 2

2.Operating System
A program that controls the execution of application programs
An interface between applications and hardware

Makes the computer more convenient to use
Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner
Ability to evolve
Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service

4.Layers of Computer System

Portion of operating system that is in main memory
Contains most frequently used functions
Also called the nucleus

6.Evolution of an Operating System
Hardware upgrades plus new types of hardware
New services

7.Evolution of Operating Systems
Serial Processing
No operating system
Machines run from a console with display lights, toggle switches, input device, and printer
Schedule time
Setup included loading the compiler, source program, saving compiled program, and loading and linking

8.Simple Batch Systems
Software that controls the sequence of events
Batch jobs together
Program branches back to monitor when finished

9.Special type of programming language
Provides instruction to the monitor
What compiler to use
What data to use

10.Hardware Features
Memory protection
Do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered
Prevents a job from monopolizing the system

11.Privileged instructions
Certain machine level instructions can only be executed by the monitor
Early computer models did not have this capability

12.Memory Protection
User program executes in user mode
Certain instructions may not be executed
Monitor executes in system mode
Kernel mode
Privileged instructions are executed
Protected areas of memory may be accessed

Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding

When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job

15.Time Sharing
Using multiprogramming to handle multiple interactive jobs
Processor’s time is shared among multiple users
Multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals 

PPT On Transaction Processing System


Transaction Processing System Presentation Transcript: 
1.Transaction Processing and Management Reporting System

2.MIS Framework

3.Transaction Processing System
A transaction is any event that takes place either within the business organization or between that organization and the external environment.
This information is not directly involved in the decision-making process but is needed by management.
It must be compiled and classified, perhaps calculations must be made, and finally it must be summarized in a form in which it will be maximally useful to management.
A transaction is an elementary activity conducted during business operations.
Such regular transactions include regular ordering of raw materials, customer billing and bank deposits etc.

4.A transaction is any event that takes place either within the business organization or between that organization and the external environment.
This information is not directly involved in the decision-making process but is needed by management.
It must be compiled and classified, perhaps calculations must be made, and finally it must be summarized in a form in which it will be maximally useful to management.
A transaction is an elementary activity conducted during business operations.
Such regular transactions include regular ordering of raw materials, customer billing and bank deposits etc.

5.The Management Reporting system is a set of reports that provide the information necessary to make business decisions
The Management Reports inform you about the sales and margin, about merchandising issues, about inventory, and about deals.
Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager’s areas of responsibility
 Generally, such reports focus on past and present activities, rather than projecting future performance

6.Decision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities.
A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from
raw data
personal knowledge
business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.
A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a system that uses artificial intelligence techniques in problem-solving processes to support human decision-making, learning, and action.

7.Office Information System
An  automated  office  information  system  (OIS)  attempts  to  perform  the  functions  of the  ordinary office  by  means of a  computer system. 
Automation  in  the  office particularly aids  the office  worker in  document  preparation,  information management  and decision  making.

8.Transaction Processing Functions
Process of keeping full, accurate, up-to-date business records
Proper bookkeeping can help businesses effectively manage cash flow, with knowledge of profits and losses, and develop plans for the future based on financial trends
With no exceptions, every monetary amount that is paid or received must be recorded.
Production of documents such as pay checks, invoices, periodic statements and payment reminders
Necessary for the effective operation of the company
9.Control reporting
Control report are produced as the by product of transaction processing operation
Serve operation control purposes
Normally used to check the accuracy of cash flow
Example: payroll edit report
Error report is used to show invalid transactions that were incomplete and must be reprocessed
Exception report is used to flag the unusual transactions

10.Role of IT in Transaction Processing
Problems with manual systems
Error level
Temporary and permanent loss of data
Labor intensity
Poor level of services
Poor response 
MIS systems
Converting manual systems in automatic systems
Direct translation of manual systems  (direct coding)
Re_thought before converting  

11.Transaction Processing Cycle
Data entry
Transaction processing
File and database processing
Document and report generation
Inquiry processing

12.Data Entry
Collecting, recording, coding and editing transaction data
Source documents are batched and transferred to data entry specialists
After manual audit, data from acceptable source document are converted to machine readable form (key to tape/ key to disk systems)
SDA (source data automation)? capturing data in digital form
enables the computer system from one company to “talk” to the computer system of another company and digitally exchange data.
Because this digital exchange of data is facilitated using computers, most, if not all of the associated business processes can be automated so they occur with little or no manual data entry.
This enables companies to electronically exchange business documents like purchase orders and invoices.
Increase in productivity without increasing staff

13. Transaction Processing and File/ database Updating
Transaction processing is done after collection of data in two ways
Real time processing
In a real time processing, there is a continual input, process and output of data. Data has to be processed in a small stipulated time period (real time), otherwise it will create problems for the system. 
For example: assembly line robots and radar system.
Batch processing
In a batch processing group of transactions collected over a period of time is collected, entered, processed and then the batch results are produced.
Batch processing requires separate programs for input, process and output. It is an efficient way of processing high volume of data.
For example: Payroll system, Examination system and billing system.

14.Documents and Report Generation
Documents produced by TPS are called transaction documents
Information documents
Turn around doc
Action doc
Accounting statements
Control listing
Edit reports

15.Information documents
Verify, confirm or prove that transactions have occurred or were attempted
Sales receipt
Order confirmation
Customer invoices
Customer statements
Turn around doc
Contains perforated tear off portion that should be returned to the sender along with the customer payments
Usually read by magnetic/ optical scanners
Action documents
Initiate actions or transactions on part of recipients
Example: paycheck, purchase order

PPT On Switching And Networks


Switching And Networks Presentation Transcript: 
1.Switching & Networks

A switch network consists of a series of interlink nodes called switches.
These are hardware and software devices capable of creating connections between two or more devices link to the switch.

3.Taxonomy of switched networks
Circuit switching
 Packet switching
Packet switching
In packet-based networks,  the message gets broken into small data packets. 
Each packet may go a different route from the others.
Each packet is sent with a ‘header address’.  This tells it where its final destination is, so it knows  where to go. The header address also describes the sequence for reassembly at the destination computer so that the packets are put back into the correct order.
If a packet fails to arrive, the recipient computer sends a message back to the computer  which  originally sent the data, asking for the missing packet to be resent.

4.Circuit switching
Circuit switching creates a direct physical connection between two devices such as computer or phones.
Advantages of circuit switching
 Once the circuit is set up communication is passed and error free.
 It is highly reliable.
Disadvantages of circuit switching
Takes a relatively long time to set up the circuit
 During a crisis or disaster, the network may become unstable or unavailable.
 Inefficient – the equipment may be unused for a lot of the call, if no data is being sent,  the dedicated line still remains open

5.Circuit Switching Communication
 Circuit establishment
 Data transfer
 Circuit disconnect
Circuit  establishment
Before any signals can be transmitted and end to end circuit must be established.
Data  transfer
Information can know be transmitted that can be analog or digital.

6.Circuit  disconnect
After some period of data transfer the connection is terminated.
EXAMPLES: Public telephone network

7.Telecommunication components
A public telecommunication network consists of the
 Subscriber line

 The devices that attach to the network
 Most subscriber devices in public communication networks are telephones.
Subscriber line:
The link between subscriber and network are called subscriber line.
 The switching centers in the network
 A switching center that directly support subscriber is known as end office.
The branches between exchanges
Trunks carry multiple voice frequency circuit using FDM or TDM.

9.Communications Network
The end devices that wish to communicate maybe referred to as stations.
The switching devices, connected to each other in some topology by transmission links are the nodes.
Each station attaches to a node, and the collection of node is referred to as a communications network.

A station is a device that a user interacts with to access a network and it contains the software applications that allows someone to use the network.
It maybe a microcomputer, a workstation, a cell phone or a mainframe.

A node is a device that allows one or more station to access a physical network and is a point to transfer information through the network.

12.Switching Concepts
Digital switch
Most important in modern systems
Function is to provide transparent signal path between any pair of attached devices
Allows full duplex mode

The network-interface element represent the functions and hardware needed to connect digital devices, such as data processing devices and digital telephones, to the network.

14.Control Unit
The control unit has three general tasks
Establish connection on demand
Maintain the connection
Tear down the connection

Multistage switch-The solution to limitation of the crossbar switch is the multistage switch which combines crossbar switches in several(normally three)stages.
In a single crossbar switch, only one row and one column is active for any connection. So we need n*n cross points. If we can allow multiple paths inside the switch ,we can decrease the no of cross points.
 Each cross points in the middle stage can be accessed by multiple cross points in the first or third stage.
 The multistage switch has one drawback-blocking during periods of heavy traffic. The whole idea of multistage switching is to share the cross points in the middle stage crossbars.

PPT On Sequential Circuit And Tabulation Method


Sequential Circuit And Tabulation Method Presentation Transcript:
 1.Sequential Circuit & Tabulation Method

2.Sequential logic contains the logic gates whose output at any instant of time depends upon the present input and also the previous inputs.
Memory elements are required in sequential circuits.
 It consists of combinational circuits to which memory elements are connected to form a feedback path.

These are the devices capable of restoring binary information within them.
The binary info stored in memory elements at any given time defines the state of sequential circuit.
The sequential circuit receives binary information from external inputs. These inputs together with the present state of memory elements determine the binary value at output terminals.

4.There are too many types of sequential circuits. There classification depends and the timing of their signal.
Synchronous Sequential
Asynchronous sequential circuit is a system whose behavior can be defined from the knowledge of its signal and its discrete signal of its time.

5.Asynchronous Sequential:
The behavior of asynchronous depends upon the order in which its input signal change and can be effected at any instant of time.
An asynchronous sequential circuit may be regarded as a combinational circuit with feed back path.

Synchronization is achieved by timing device called master clock generator which generates a periodic train of clock pulses.

Synchronous sequential circuits that use clock pulses in the inputs of the memory elements are called clock sequential circuit. The memory elements used in clocked sequential circuits are called flip-flops.

These circuits are binary cells capable of storing 1 bit information. A flip-flop circuit has two outputs; one for normal value and one for complement value of the bits stored in it.
A flip-flop circuit can be constructed from two NAND gates or two NOR gates. Each circuit forms a basic flip-flop. The cross coupled connection from the output of one gate to the input of the other gate constitutes a feedback path for this reason the circuits are classified as asynchronous sequential circuits.

8.NAND implementation of Flip Flops

9.Tabulation Method
Also known as Quine McCluskey
It is functionally identical to K-map.
There are 4 steps of this method
Step 1:
Write all the given numbers in form of table

10.Step 2
Write their binary equivalent in next column and make groups according to the number of 1’s in the minterm and mark tick

11.Check the binary equivalents for 1 bit change . if a 1 bit change occurs then write the binary number with (-) in column of step 3.
One bit difference implies adjacent
Repeat until nothing left.

12.Again check the binary equivalent for 1 bit change including (-) and mark tick in front of the values whose 1 bit is changed only.
One bit difference implies adjacent.
These are the prime implicants.
Repeat until nothing left.
Then find the expression

13.For Finding Expression
First check for the unmarked number in Step 3 and write the expression of that unmarked value then write the expression of step 4.

PPT On Spectroscopy


Spectroscopy Presentation Transcript:

2.What is Spectroscopy?
Spectroscopy pertains to the dispersion of an object's light into its component colors (i.e. energies). By performing this dissection and analysis of an object's light, astronomers can infer the physical properties of that object (such as temperature, mass, luminosity and composition).

3.The Nature of Light

4.Notice that radio, TV, and microwave signals are all light waves, they simply lie at wavelengths (energies) that your eye doesn't respond to. On the other end of the scale, beware the high energy UV, x-ray, and gamma-ray photons! Each one carries a lot of energy compared to their visible- and radio-wave brethren. They're the reasons you should wear sunblock, for example.

5.General Types of Spectra
Typically one can observe two distinctive classes of spectra: continous and discrete. For a continuous spectrum, the light is composed of a wide, continuous range of colors (energies). With discrete spectra, one sees only bright or dark lines at very distinct and sharply-defined colors (energies). As we'll discover shortly, discrete spectra with bright lines are called emission spectra, those with dark lines are termed absorption spectra.

6.Continuous spectra arise from dense gases or solid objects which radiate their heat away through the production of light. Such objects emit light over a broad range of wavelengths, thus the apparent spectrum seems smooth and continuous. Stars emit light in a predominantly (but not completely!) continuous spectrum. Other examples of such objects are incandescent light bulbs, electric cooking stove burners, flames, cooling fire embers and... you. Yes, you, right this minute, are emitting a continuous spectrum -- but the light waves you're emitting are not visible -- they lie at infrared wavelengths (i.e. lower energies, and longer wavelengths than even red light). If you had infrared-sensitive eyes, you could see people by the continuous radiation they emit!

7.Discrete Spectra
   Discrete spectra are the observable result of the physics of atoms. There are two types of discrete spectra, emission (bright line spectra) and absorption (dark line spectra). Let's try to understand where these two types of discrete spectra.

8.Emission Line Spectra
In the diagram below, a hydrogen atom drops from the 2nd energy level to the 1st, giving off a wave of light with an energy equal to the difference of energy between levels 2 and 1. This energy corresponds to a specific color, or wavelength of light -- and thus we see a bright line at that exact wavelength! emission spectrum is born, as shown below:

9.A hydrogen atom in the ground state is excited by a photon of exactly the `right' energy needed to send it to level 2, absorbing the photon in the process. This results in a dark absorption line.

Spectroscopy is the use of the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by matter to qualitatively or quantitatively study the matter or to study physical processes. The matter can be atoms, molecules, atomic or molecular ions, or solids. The interaction of radiation with matter can cause redirection of the radiation and/or transitions between the energy levels of the atoms or molecules.

11.The Light of Knowledge is an often used phrase, but it is particularly appropriate in reference to spectroscopy. Most of what we know about the structure of atoms and molecules comes from studying their interaction with light (electromagnetic radiation). Different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide different kinds of information as a result of such interactions. Realizing that light may be considered to have both wave-like and particle-like characteristics, it is useful to consider that a given frequency or wavelength of light is associated with a "light quanta" of energy we now call a photon. As noted in the following equations, frequency and energy change proportionally, but wavelength has an inverse relationship to these quantities.

12.Mass Spectrometry: Sample molecules are ionized by high energy electrons. The mass to charge ratio of these ions is measured very accurately by electrostatic acceleration and magnetic field perturbation, providing a precise molecular weight. Ion fragmentation patterns may be related to the structure of the molecular ion. •   Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy: Absorption of this relatively high-energy light causes electronic excitation. The easily accessible part of this region (wavelengths of 200 to 800 nm) shows absorption only if conjugated pi-electron systems are present. •

13.Infrared Spectroscopy:
 Absorption of this lower energy radiation causes vibrational and rotational excitation of groups of atoms. within the molecule. Because of their characteristic absorptions identification of functional groups is easily accomplished. •
 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Absorption in the low-energy radio-frequency part of the spectrum causes excitation of nuclear spin states. NMR spectrometers are tuned to certain nuclei (e.g. 1H, 13C, 19F & 31P). For a given type of nucleus, high-resolution spectroscopy distinguishes and counts atoms in different locations in the molecule. 

Thursday, August 15, 2013

PPT On Software


Software Presentation Transcript: 
Software History & Significance
System Software
Application Software
Software Issues
Programming Languages
Enterprise Software

2.Software History & Significance
The first applications of computers in business were in the early 1950s.
Software was less important (and less costly) in computer systems then as opposed to now, because early hardware was literally hardwired by hand for each application.
Today, however software comprises a much larger percentage of the cost of the modern computer systems

3.Reasons of New Trends
The price of hardware is dramatically decreased, while performance of hardware is increased exponentially.
Software has become increasingly complex and its price has increased along with its complexity.
Software development is slow, increasingly complex, error prone and expensive. Finally, salaries of software developers are steadily increasing because there is an increased demand for their skills.

4.The Software Crisis
The software crisis is that organizations are not able to develop new software applications fast enough to keep up with rapidly changing business conditions and rapidly evolving technologies.
Computer hardware can be designed and manufactured on automated assembly lines and so can be turned out rather quickly, but software must be engineered by hand.

5.The Software Crisis
The result is that organizations are unable to make full use of hardware due to lack of software to effectively exploit the hardware.
Further, organizations not only must develop new applications quickly, but they must also maintain their existing software.
Often, more than 80% of IT personnel maintain existing software, leaving less than 20% to develop new applications.

6.Large applications today may contain millions of lines of computer code, written by hundreds of people over the course of several years.
Clearly, the potential for errors is huge, and testing and debugging software is expensive and time-consuming.

7.Software Fundamentals
Software consists of computer program, which are sequences of instructions for the computer.
The process of writing (or coding) programs is called programming.
The individuals who perform this task are called programmers.

8.Unlike the hardwired computers of the 1950s, modern software uses the stored program concept.
In this concept, stored programs are accessed and their instructions are executed (followed) in the CPU.
Once the program has finished executing, a new program is loaded into memory and the computer hardware addresses another task.

9.Computer programs include documentation, which is a written description of the functions of the program.
A software enables the user to instruct a computer system to perform specific functions that provide business value.

10.Types of Software
System Software
Application Software



RADAR COMMUNICATIONS Presentation Transcript:

2.RADAR – Radio Detection & Ranging
Radar is an Electromagnetic System for the detection and location of objects
Radar operates in microwave region
100MHz – 36 GHz, max up to 240GHz
3Operation    of Radar
Radar radiates energy into space and detect the echo signal reflected from an object/target.
Location and presence of the object both are detected by comparing the received echo signal with the signal that was transmitted.

3.It can operate in :
Its ability to measure distances with high accuracy and in all weather is one of the major attributes.

4.Basic Principle of Radar Communication
Transmitter generates Electromagnetic signal (such as short pulse sine wave) radiated into space by an antenna.
Portion of the transmitted energy is intercepted by the target and re-radiates in many directions
The re-radiated directed back towards the radar is collected back by the radio antenna, which delivers it to the receiver.

5.If the target is in motion, there is a shift in the frequency of the echo signal due to Doppler effect.
The frequency shift is proportional to the velocity of the target relative to the radar
Doppler Effect:
A change in the observed frequency of a wave, as of sound or light, occurring when the source and observer are in motion relative to each other.
The frequency increases when the source and observer approach each other and decreases when they move apart.

6.Radar Applications
Air Traffic Control
Ship Safety

PPT On Protein Purification and Analysis


Protein Purification and Analysis Presentation Transcript:
1.Protein Purification and Analysis

2.Protein Purification and Analysis
    Numbers of genes:
Humans    ~40,000 genes
Yeast        ~6000 genes
Bacteria    ~3000 genes
    Solubility of proteins important for purification:
60-80% soluble, 20-40% membrane
Some proteins expressed at high levels (collagen, hemoglobin)
Some proteins expressed at low levels (repressors, signaling)
Fibrous proteins - structural (collagen, elastin, keratin)
Globular proteins - structure and/or function (actin, enzymes)

3.Steps of purification and analysis
  (1)  Choose protein to purify
  (2)   Choose source (natural or expressed)
  (3)   Soluble in aqueous solution?? (problem     with       membrane proteins)
  (4)   Stability
  (5)   Purify
  (6)   Study (activity, structure, mechanism of        action, etc.)

4.Protein Purification and Analysis
(1) Choose protein to purify -
(2) Choose source (natural or expressed)
Source of protein for study
Early biochemistry (1970’s)
      utilized proteins that were abundant from natural sources
      (myoglobin, lysozyme, hexokinase)
 Middle biochemistry (1980’s to mid 1990’s)
      isolated small amounts of proteins, get gene, express and  
      purify from bacteria, yeast, insect cells, mammalian cells
Now (2000s)
     get gene from library based on homology
     choose gene and express and study it
Still problems with:
membrane proteins and solubility

5.Protein Purification and Analysis
 (2) Choose source (natural or expressed)
Break open cells by destroying membranes and releasing cytosolic protein mix - crude extract
If nuclear or membrane protein - more work!
(3) Soluble in aqueous solution?? (problem with membrane proteins)
(4) Stability (perform purification/analyses in cold)
(5) Purify
Separate proteins using fractionation based on physical characteristic:
1. solubility
2. electrical charge
3. size + shape 
4. affinity for other molecules 
5. polarity

        Important steps:
   1. Pack column - Column is packed with material (resin)
     that can absorb molecules based on
      some property (charge, size,  
      binding affinity, etc.)
   2. Wash column – Molecules washed
      through the column with buffer
   3. Collect fractions - Fractions are taken, at some point your molecule will elute

7.Ion exchange chromatography
Separate by charge
Elute protein
    Increase salt or pH to
    elute protein of interest

8.Protein Purification and Analysis

9.Protein Purification and Analysis
Additional Chromatography info
HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography)
Column can be:
hydrophobic, (+) or (-) charged, stereospecific, etc.
Resin needs to have incompressible beads
high pressure pumps speed the movement of proteins down the column
HPLC limits protein band spreading - increase resolution

10.Gel Electrophoresis

Separation of proteins, nucleic acids, etc. by size, shape, charge
Proteins migrate based on their charge-to-mass ratio
Proteins visualized (radioactivity or staining)
Use gels made of crosslinked polymer (polyacrylamide) or solidified agarose

12.SDS Gel Electrophoresis
Used to estimate purity and molecular weight, separate proteins by size
Denature protein by adding SDS (then separate by size only)

13.Isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis
determine the isoelectric point (pI) of a protein
separates proteins until they reach the pH that matches their pI (net charge is zero)

14.Separate proteins by size or density
Differential centrifugation - separates large from small particles
Isopycnic (sucrose-density) centrifugation - separates particles of different densities

15.Protein Sequencing
Function of protein depends on its amino acid sequence
Proteins with different functions always have different sequences
Changing just 1 amino acid can make a protein defective
Functionally similar proteins from different species have similar sequences

PPT On Intracellular and extra cellular industrial enzymes


Intracellular and extra cellular industrial enzymes Presentation Transcript: 
1.Intracellular and extra cellular industrial enzymes

2.Enzymes are being used more and more for industrial bioconversion i.e. making a chemical product using purified enzymes rather by pure chemical methods (e.g. citric acid production) or using whole cells (e.g. yeast in brewing).

3.Extracellular enzyme
The enzymes that function in our digestive systems are manufactured in cells - but work
   Spiders and flies are two examples of animals that have taken extracellular digestion.
They secrete an enzyme soup into or on their food. In spiders, this is injected into the prey's body. The enzyme soup digests the prey's body contents (specific enzymes breaking down proteins to AAs, lipids into FAs and glycerol and polysaccharides into monosaccharides) and the spider simply sucks up the resulting already digested food.
Saprophytic fungi also secrete enzymes through their hyphal tips in order to digest their food.

4.Intracellular enzyme
Enzymes that act inside cells are responsible for catalysing the millions of reactions that occur in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis in the mitochondria and in the photosynthetic pathway in the chloroplast.
The lysosome contains many enzymes that are mainly responsible for destroying old cells.

5.Considerations when selecting a strain:
Does it do what is required?
Is it safe?
Is it cost effective?
Enzymes may be intracellular or extracellular. What is the advantage of extracellular production?
Already outside cell
Limited number secreted so easier to isolate
More robust so less likely to be broken down by heat of chemicals

6.Why are intracellular enzymes more difficult to isolate than extracellular ones?
Because they are inside the cell, first the cell has to be broken open then the enzyme separated from the mixture of all the cellular contents
Why is it more efficient to use isolated enzymes than whole cells?
Isolated enzymes are usually more efficient in biotechnology than whole cells because enzyme concentration is higher and no unwanted enzymes are present

7.Enzymes and Sources
Overproducing strains of Bacillus, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, and Mucor.
Aspergillus niger.
Yeast and Aspergillus.
Certain strains of yeast and fungi.
Glucose isomerase
Flavobecterium arborescens or Bacillus coagulans

8.Production of Enzymes
Cultivate the organisms producing the desired enzymes.
Production can be regulated
Fermentation conditions ca be optimized for overproduction.

9.Enzyme production
Surface and submerged techniques:
Surface = enzyme produced on the     surface of a solid medium
Submerged = the mould or bacterium producing the enzyme is grown throughout a liquid medium
Advantages and disadvantages?
Submerged – more yield as growth throughout but aeration necessary

10.The maximum enzyme production is usually in stationary phase of microbe growth, so a batch or fed-batch process are usually used.
The medium must be chosen to stimulate the microbe into synthesizing the correct enzyme.
For example to stimulate a microbe to synthesize amylase enzymes, a medium with starch but no sugars is used.

11.Production of Enzymes
What type of medium would you use to stimulate a microbe to synthesize a protease?
A medium with proteins but no amino acids is used.

12.Microbes are encouraged into the log phase initially with a medium with a lot of protein
This encourages rapid increase in the number of cells, but not much protease is produced.
Cells  are then introduced into the fermentation vessel and allowed to grow for a further 1-8 days.
The medium now has very little protein in it. Why?

13.The microbe must produce a lot of protease because as the enzyme leaves the cell it doesn’t immediately come into contact with protein that it can break down – more protease produced to maximise the amount of amino acids from the small amount of protein.

14.Down stream processing
   The remaining mixture contains enzymes, waste materials, nutrients and cells
   The enzyme is extracted by downstream processing

15.Down stream processing
Cell separated from the media usually by filtration or something by centrfugation.
Depending on intra/extracellular nature of the enzyme, the cell or fermentation broth is further processed.
Recovery of intracellular enzymes is more complicated and involves the disruption of cells and removal of debris and nucleic acids.
Increasing permeability of cell membrane (CaCl2 (salt) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or change in pH
Last resort is cell disruption. 

PPT On Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method


Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method Presentation Transcript: 
1.Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method

2.What is fermentation?
Pasteur’s definition: “life without air”, anaerobe
    redox reactions in organisms.
New definition: a form of metabolism in which the end products could be further oxidized.
   For example: a yeast cell obtains 2 molecules of
   ATP per molecule of glucose when it ferments it
   to ethanol.

3.What is fermentation?
   Microorganisms, typically grown on a large scale, to produce valuable commercial products or to carry out important chemical transformations. This process is commonly referred to as Fermentation.

4.Types of fermentation process
There are two methods of fermentation used to produce enzymes.
submerged fermentation
solid-state fermentation.

5.Submerged fermentation/ Solid-state fermentation
Submerged fermentation involves the production of enzymes by microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, yeast) in a liquid nutrient media (water content of the media: > 95%)
Solid-state fermentation is the cultivation of microorganisms on a solid substrate.
Carbon containing compounds in or on the substrate are broken down by the micro organisms, which produce the enzymes either intra-cellularly or extra-cellularly.

  6.The enzymes are recovered by methods such as centrifugation, for extra cellularly produced enzymes
    and lysing of cells for intracellular enzymes.
Many industries are dependent on enzymes for the production of their goods.
Industries that use enzymes generated by fermentation are the brewing, wine making, baking and cheese making.

7.   Advantages:
Measure of process parameters is easier than with solid-state fermentation.
Bacterial and yeast cells are evenly distributed throughout the medium.
There is a high water content which is ideal for bacteria.
High costs due to the expensive media.

8.Solid State Fermentation
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is another method used for the production of enzymes.
In solid state,  water content is  40~ 80%.
Solid-state fermentation involves the cultivation of microorganisms on a solid substrate, such as rice husk, wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, wheat and corn flour.

9.SSF has many advantages over submerged fermentation. These include:
High volumetric productivity
Relatively high concentration of product
Less effluent generated
Simple fermentation equipment.


11.Aerobic fermentation
Adequate aeration.
Bioreactors- adequate supply of sterile air.
In addition, these fermentors may have a mechanism for stirring and mixing of the medium and cells .
  eg.  Antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins.

12.In anaerobic fermentation, a provision for aeration is usually not needed.
   e.g. Lactic acid, ethanol, wine
When referring to fermentation regarding food, there are no distinctions between
   anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.

13.Fermentation changes the characteristics of the food by the action of the enzymes produced by bacteria, mould and yeasts, which can occur in aerobic or anaerobic conditions

14.The process of fermentation requires a food source (e.g. glucose); enzymes form
   bacteria or yeast and (depending on the product) anaerobic or aerobic conditions.

15.Of all the microbial products manufactured commercially, antibiotics are the most important.
Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms to kill other microorganisms.
They are used in the treatment of infectious diseases.
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