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Tuesday, July 13, 2010

PowerPoint Presentation On Renewable Energy

PPT On Renewable Energy


A Presentation On Renewable Energy


PowerPoint Presentation On Wimax

PPT On Wimax


Wimax Presentation Transcript:
1. What is WiMAX ?
A fourth generation (4G) Wireless Technology WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access A Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technique offering fast broadband connections Founded by Ensemble, CrossSpan, Harris & Nokia

2. WiMAX Architecture & Design
Types of WiMAX Fixed WiMAX Mobile WiMAX Wireless Architectural Deployment Point to Point Point to Multipoint

3. Salient Features
OFDM based PHY layer Adaptive Modulation & coding(AMC) Link Layer Retransmissions Support for TDD & FDD IP based architecture

4. Behind WiMAX
OFDM -type of multicarrier modulation -break high bit data rate to parallel low bit DR -reduced computational complexity -graceful degradation of performance WiMAX MAC -provide interface between transport layers and physical layer -support for ARQ

5. User level Features
High peak rates Quality of Service (QoS) Support Robust Security NLOS Capability Support for any sort of residential or business communication Low equipment and subscription costs Power Saving features Wide Area Coverage

6. Technical Challenges
Challenge Potential Solution Interference Adaptive Antennas, Security Encryption, access control Portability Power Efficient Modulation Mobility Seamless Handover Low Cost IP based protocols

7. WiMAX Quadruple Play
Voice Video Data Mobile voice & data VoIP IPTV Fixed Mobile

8. What WiMAX will offer
WiMAX based Mobile VoIP handsets are likely to be priced at around $30 to $50. Reduced tariffs for voice, data, video etc. Reduced maintenance costs.

9. WiMax Technology
WiMAX is expected to provide fixed , nomadic, portable and, eventually, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight (LOS) with a base station. In a typical cell radius deployment of three to ten kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified™ systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications. Mobile network deployments are expected to provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to three kilometers.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Optical Computing

PPT On Optical Computing


Optical Computing


Related Project Report:

Optical Computing Report

PowerPoint Presentation On Turbo Generators

PPT On Turbo Generators


Turbo Generators Presentation Transcript:
1. So, what is special about the holy city Haridwar:-
The City Of Gateway To GOD Places of interests in Haridwar: Chandi devi Mansa devi Maya devi Har-ki-pauri Daksh mahadev temple Bharat mata mandir Sati kund Sapt rishi ashram

2. BHEL An Overview
In 1950s: At Bhopal with British collaboration 30MW &120MW hydrogen cooled. In 1960s: At Haridwar with Russian collaboration 100MW & 200MW hydrogen cooled. In1970s: At Hyderabad with Germany collaboration 60MW air cooled.

3. Principle of operation:
The a.c generators works on the principle of ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.

4. End Plates (2 no’s per generator)
End Packets Ventilation stampings Insulating stampings ( b/w the core) Insulating studs ( b/w the sheets) Core bas Baskets (3 no’s) Compressing rings Hydraulic press Heating units.

5. Stator Stator frame
It is made up of steel iron with welding process. Stator core Silicon steel laminations are used. Ventilation is used in b/w the packets. In a typical 350 MW generator-116 packets are used (55,47,36 Si sheets in each packets)

6. Copper bar VPI windings are used. Two types of bars are used in stator. 1. Upper 2. lower Upper and lower bars are further divided into 3 categories: a) Normal bar b) Mid-phase bar c) Phase bar

7. With 3 types of bars we get total 6 terminals, which are connected in star to get 3 phases and a neutral point. These bars are connected according to SLOT-PITCH. Finally upper and lower bars are connected through BRAZING.

8. These rotor shaft are brought from the Germany. Slots are made over it. For a typical 500MW generator:- 2 groups of 14 main slots are cut. (diametrically opposite ) Damper slots are then made over it. Finally cross pole slots are made over the shaft.

9. Main slots 38 degrees from centre line, then each slots are at 8 degrees apart. Between two slots, distances are: a) 50.9mm at front. b) 36.7mm at rear. c) 196.5mm depth. Damper slots 22 deg. from centre line. Cross pole slots Breadth 10.5mm, Depth 110mm.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Underground Communication

PPT On Underground Communication


Underground Communication Presentation Transcript:
Wireless Underground Communication Networks (WUCNs) constitute one of the promising application areas of the recently developed wireless networking techniques. The WUCNs consist of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are either (i) Buried completely under dense soil or (ii) Placed within a bounded open underground space such as underground mines and road/subway tunnels.

2. Wi-com through soil using EM waves
EM waves encounter much higher attenuation in soil compared to air. This severely hampers the communication quality. Moreover, the ground surface causes reflection as well as refraction, which requires a comprehensive investigation of the channel model. Therefore, advanced models are necessary to accurately and completely characterize the underground channel and to lay out the foundations for efficient underground communication.

3. Design Considerations
For Channel Signal propagation through soil Pr = Pt + Gr + Gt – Lp Reflection from ground surface Multi-path fading Characteristics of EM waves in soil Modulation scheme Operation frequency and deployment depth Transmit power and volumetric water content

4. Practical Approach
Communications with underground mining vehicles normally are by low frequency FM carrier equipment coupled to the trolley wire of electric locomtives operating on an extensive track system. Low frequency (100 KHz) wireless systems offer good mine coverage by the deliberate coupling of a base Station receiver and transmitter to the mine power system.

5. Paging Systems
It has been observed that it typically takes 30 minutes for a person on the surface to reach a person underground by phone. The primary operational requirement of a communication system is that an individual must be able to initiate and receive communications as necessary regardless of where that person is within the mine. The primary operational requirement cannot be satisfied by adding on to existing mine pager-phone systems, but intermediate paging equipment has been developed that can be added on to existing systems.

 6. Discussion Of System Dual Paging Capability:-
A system center, usually located on the surface, controls and monitors all of the devices associated with the entire HT-220 C giant system system. The center consists of a minicomputer, interface circuitry ,a teletypewriter, and monitor readout devices.

7. Critical Requirements Stability:
Power system stability basically refers to the ability of operating an AC network with all generators in synchronism, retaining synchronism even after a large disturbance

8. Hierarchical Robust
Power System Controller Execution Level Signal pre-processor Actuator / Distributor Operation Level System modal identifier Damping loop Management Level Fuzzy logic based parameter tuner

9. Security
Security refers to the ability of the system to respond only to intended operator commands, blocking all unintended operations.

10. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Cryptography

 PPT On Cryptography


How Cryptography Works PPT

PowerPoint Presentation On Advance Processor

PPT On Advance Processor


Advance Processor Presentation Transcript:
•ARM is short for Advanced Risc Machines Ltd. •Worlds leading semiconductor IP suplier •Income forms of royalties, development tools (HW & SW) and Services •Founded 1990, owned by Acorn, Apple and VLSI Technologies –1993 Nippon Investment and Finance became ARM’sfourth investor •over 15 billion arm based chips shipped to date Headquarter at Cambridge U.K, design centers in U.S, France, India

2. About ARM
•ARM is one of the most licensed and thus widespread processor cores in the world –ARM chips sold three times more chips than PowerPC consortium •Used especially in portable devices due to low power consumptionand reasonable performance (MIPS / watt) •Available as a macrocell(fixed, ready made layout) or as synthesisable(-S) version SUN and ARM announced long-term collaboration agreement for Direct hardware implementation of Java VM

3. ARM processors
are used extensively in consumer electronics , including PDA, mobile phones, digital media and music players, hand-held game consoles, calculators and computer peripherals such as hard drives and routers. ARM licensees include Alcatel-Lucent, Apple Inc., Atmel, Broadcom, Cirrus Logic, Digital Equipment Corporation, Freescale, Intel(through DEC), LG, Marvell Technology Group, NEC, NVIDIA, NXP (previously Philips), Oki, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sharp, ST Microelectronics, Symbios Logic, Texas Instruments, VLSI Technology, Yamaha and ZiiLABS.

4. •32-bit RISC-processor core (32-bit instructions) •37 pieces of 32-bit integer registers (16 available) •Pipelined (3 stages) •Von Neuman-type bus structure (ARM7) •8 / 16 / 32 -bit data types 7 modes of operation •Simple structure -> good speed / power consumption ratio

 5. modes of operation: –
User (usr):Normal program execution state –FIQ (fiq):Data transfer state (fast irq, DMA-type transfer) –IRQ (iqr):Used for general interrupt services –Supervisor (svc):Protected mode for operating system support –Abort mode (abt):Selected when data or instruction fetch is aborted –System (sys):Operating system ‘privilege’-mode for user –Undefined (und):Selected when undefined instruction is fetched

6. •Register structure depends on mode of operation •16 pieces of 32-bit integer registers R0 -R15 are available in ARM-mode (usr, user) •R0 -R12 are general purpose registers •R13 is Stack Pointer (SP) •R14 is subroutine Link Register –Holds the value of R15 when BL-instruction is executed •R15 is Program Counter (PC) –Bits 1 and 0 are zeroes in ARM-state (32-bit addressing) •R16 is state register (CPSR, Current Program Status Register)

7. •Fully 32-bit instruction set in native operating mode –32-bit long instruction word •All instructions are conditional –Normal execution with condition AL (always) •For a RISC-processor, the instruction set is quite diverse with different addressing modes •Instruction word length 32-bits •36 instruction formats •In conditional operations one of the 14 available conditions is selected •For example, instruction known usually as BNZ in ARM is NE (Z-flag clear) conditioned branch-instruction

8. •The most used ARM-version •TDMI = (?) –Thumb instruction set –Debug-interface –Multiplier (hardware) –Interrupt (fast interrupts)

9. •T (Thumb)-extension shrinks the ARM instruction set to 16-bit word length -> 35-40% saving in amount of memory compared to 32-bit instruction set •Extension enables simpler and significantly cheaper realization of processor system. Instructions take only half of memory than with 32-bit instruction set without significant decrease in performance or increase in code size. •Extension is made to instruction decoder at the processor pipeline •Registers are preserved as 32-bit but only half of them are available

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PowerPoint Presentation On Laser Security

PPT On Laser Security


Laser Security Presentation Transcript:
Low power requirement. Low circuit costs Simple circuitry Higher security It is portable Few international regulatory constraints High noise immunity.

Line of sight is required. Performance drops off with longer range. Rain, fog, dust, pollution can affect transmission

Toll Tax System

We are focusing on Entrance identification with laser security with this project assuming as our minor work. Future we are trying to complete the whole project within the time bound and for successful execution of entire circuit. In this project whole person can enter in to the organization we are given particular identity which is in the form of radio frequency tag can future be increased for industrial purpose.

5. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Biophotonics

PPT On Biophotonics


Biophotonics Presentation Transcript:
The term biophotonics denotes a combination of biology and photonics with photonics being the science and technology of generation, manipulation, and detection of photons, quantum units of light. Photonics is related to electronics in that it is believed that photons will play a similar central role in future information technology as electrons do today.

 Photonics is the technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. Biophotonics applies photonics to the fields of medicine, biology and biotechnology.

3. Light Sources for Biophotonics
Most dominantly used light source are lasers. LED´s, Lamps play an important role. Typical wavelengths, which are used in biophotonics are between 200 nm (UV) and 3000 nm (near IR).

4. Electrons and Photon
An electron is a subatomic particle. Carrying a negative charge an electron orbits an atom’s nucleus and is bound to it by electromagnetic forces. An electron has a mass that is minuscule in comparison with even the smallest of atoms, coming in at about one thousandth the size of the tiniest atom. The electron is a basic unit of nature, meaning it cannot be broken down into smaller units.

5. Einstein proposed that light is made up of packets of energy called photons. Photons have no mass, but they have momentum and they have an energy given by…..

6. Silicon-Photonic Circuit
 Light is confined to the silicon material by a top and bottom cladding of silicon dioxide. The high index contrast between silicon at 3.47 and silicon dioxide at 1.6, does not allow light, at 1550 nm, to extend into the oxide beyond a tenth or so of a micron. A rib structure on the top surface of a silicon chip guides the optical power in the plane of the silicon.

A great advantage of silicon photonics is its electronic properties, adding the potential of optoelectronic and electrooptic interactions of photons and electrons. This makes possible electrical excitation and manipulation of light as well as optical conversion to electrical signals and even light control of light.

Attenuation in the VOA is realized by the free-carrier absorption mechanism. Free-carriers in this case, comprise a “gas” of electrons and holes in the conduction and valence bands of the matrix of silicon ions.

 9. Laser – provides powerful, controllable photons to manipulate, alter and probe bio samples Fiber optics – Control the path of light to bring it anywhere Microscope – Let’s us see living things at a very small scale Eye – The foremost Biophotonics tool CCD – Gathers light and therefore information Spectrophotometer – Gives specific energy and intensity information

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