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Tuesday, September 10, 2013

PPT On Child Sexual Abuse


Child Sexual Abuse Presentation Transcript:
1.  Beware  The “Predator” inside the mind of a child rapist.
How    Safe   Is   Your   “CHILD” ….???
There is something terribly wrong with a society that unable to he guarantee  safety of its children . It is well known that India is not the safe place in the world for women….

2. Child Sexual Abuse..
Child sexual abuse isn’t just a matter of twisted psychology. Sociology also matters. Indian society is increasingly exposed to titillation but there are few legitimate outlets for it . The advent of the cheap mobile phone has made it much easier for people without a lot of financial resources to access pornography. The complete lack of sex education in schools and in homes means that too many people are acquiring a perverted notion of sex through porn. The government is already considering proposals to curb access to pornography. I don’t know how feasible that it in the untrammeled of the Internet. Also, ideas from watching porn usually combine with drug use and alcohol consumption to fuel sexual violence.

It is 2.15 a.m. After a long night of study, two girls step out of their rented suburban home for a bite at a busy crossing. Four men  drive past in a car and try to pick them up. One of them escapes, throws a stone at the car, alerts a nearby dhaba owner, who stops a motorcyclist.

May 30, 2005

Rapists are described as “cold – blooded,heinous men” with a lunatic urge to control women by hurting them. In sharp contrast is NARENDRA, 37. In Delhi’s Tihar jail, who could be your neighbour. “Rapist don’t have filmi, violent looks,” says jail superintendent O.P.Mishra.

Sept 9, 2002

A five years old is fighting for life at the AIIMS in Delhi. Grievously injured, she lives to see another day. A thousand kilometers away in Nagpur, an another four year old is lying in coma in a hospital ICU. She lies tethered to a ventilator, with a broken body and serious and 17, respectively, their little lives have rocked the nation and raised a painful question:
Is this no country for children??
Beware the dark underbelly of a nation in transition. Coming out of the woodwork is a shadowy figure, A PREDATOR who weaves perverse sexual fantasies on each prey, children. He is not just the criminal. Nor is he yet another rapist. he is more of a next door neighbor, a relative or a family friend, who looks perfectly normal until the day he decided to strike.

5. Little girls are most at risk..
Girls are gold not to be sold..
Abuse a child go to prison..

6.                                               50%

UP TO                                     36%
OF GIRLS AND                     29%

Child rape is not a problem unique to India but a global emergency
INDIA : Reported child rape incidents have risen 336% in the 10 years from 2001 to 2011.
SOUTH AFRICA: is the world’s child rape capital; three children are raped per minute,50% are abused before age 18.
UK: one in six children aged 11-17 (16.5%) experiences sexual abuse; decline in child sexual abuse rate reported.
CANADA: 54% of girls under 16 have experienced unwanted sexual attention and 24% of those sexual assault.
INDONESIA: out of 2,637 cases of violence on children in 2012, 62% were of sexual abuse.

336% JUMP in child rape cases from 2001 to 2011, with 48,338 such cases reported (22.5% of the total)
 1 IN 4 of reported rapes are of girls younger than 16.
 90% OF THE VICTIMS under 12 are raped by relatives or friends of family.
 32% OF CHILDREN surveyed in India were abused by people close to them between age 2 to 10.
 87% OF THOSE ABUSED were subjected to it repeatedly, 19% lived with an abuser.

Madhya Pradesh = 9,465 rape cases
Maharashtra = 6,868 rape cases
Uttar Pradesh = 5,949 rape cases
Andhra Pradesh = 3,977 rape cases
Delhi= 2,909 rape cases

9. How To Protect Your Child
Listen  to your child . Children hint at fears about a person or a place.
Teach your child about rape as early as you teach her about the parts of the body.
Teach them the difference between good and the bad touch and to say no bad touch firmly.
Monitor access to porn and activate parental controls on the stranger friend requests on social media.
Discuss age appropriate sexual milestones so they are aware of the correct sexuality for their age.
Create an atmosphere of belief; 70% children don’t complain thinking they won’t be believed.
Schools need to have well- lit areas ad monitor isolated spots.
Be vigilant for when a child is making a departure from the known schedule and with whom.
Teach children not to accept sweets, treats , rides, lifts from anyone other than those specified safe.

10. Instead of saying daughters to not to step out at night, PARENTS should taught their Sons to behave well….
LISTEN BOYS…!!!!!!!!!!!!
Girls aren’t toys to play with…
We too have equal right to live as yours…
You are nothing without us…

11. Presented by…
Komal  Bachchani
Gargi  Buteri
Sonal  Gupta
Lochan Gupta

PPT On Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching


Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching Presentation Transcript:
1.Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching

The laboratory method serve as the foundation for building in those combination of teaching method best suited for establishing a structural framework to bridge the gap between the theoretical study of nursing & the study of patient.
The learning experience are planned so that the theory & laboratory experience can complement each other.

Laboratory method as used in nursing education may be defined as:
  planned learning activity dealing with original data in solution of problem.
    original data includes
            material obtained experimentally & any other material resulting from laboratory procedure.

4.Purposes of Laboratory Method
To provide first hand experience with material or facts in the solution of problem, e.g. science laboratory.
To provide experience with actual situation such as nursing laboratory & hospital wards.
To make student to become skillful in manipulation apparatus, practicing laboratory technique.
It helps students to acquire scientific attitude & scientific approach in problem solving.

5.Types of laboratory
Science laboratory - used to teach the science subject, widely used in physiology, physical science, chemistry, microbiology for teaching these subjects.
Nutrition laboratory – used to teach the basic knowledge about food & for practice of cooking food for normal as well as invalids.
Nursing art laboratory of demonstration room – it is used for demonstration of some techniques in nursing. Student may practice to become familiar with nursing procedure.

6.Technique of laboratory method

It requires establishment of objective & plan of work.
It motivate the student by presenting problem together with effective method for its solution.
Teacher prepare the plan with the cooperation of the students considering objective not wasting time.
Teacher allow time for the maximum use of laboratory work.

8.Work period
It refers to that period when demonstration, experimentation or practice for a skill in nursing procedure.
To ensure an effective work period there must be adequate equipments & facilities including basic tools.
There must be adequate supply of specimens & material.
There should be sufficient space, light & ventilation.

Group discussion, individual reports of finding, written report of principles learned is evaluation tool, which gives more opportunity to the student In mastering knowledge & to put into practice.

Students learn by doing and come in contact with raw data or material objects in the teaching-learning process.
 Develops the power of observation and reasoning.
Develops the scientific attitude.
Gives an understanding of what research is and how to apply the scientific method of research
Gives training in organizing data gathered from real material objects and how these objects are manipulated to attain the objectives.
Since students come in contact with real life situations, it can be a preparation for solving real life problems.

11.Limitations of laboratory work
Poor planning & lack of direction of teacher may result in wasting of time & can create complication.
Lack of budget can create insecurity in teacher regarding laboratory equipments.

It is the part of study in education which helps to give proof to the study which is based upon the scientific principle. It helps for clear & comprehensive study which helps in acquiring study in particular study. It is a type of instruction in which student learn by actual doing the things by himself & its success depends upon  good planning. Wit its help students made to understand the use of laboratory finding.



NURSING RESEARCH Presentation Transcript:

RESEARCH  word is originated from the word “Researche”.
Research = ‘Re’+ search’.
 Re means once again ,anew, or a fresh.
Search means to look for something or examine closely & carefully , to look for information, to test and try or to prove.

3.Meaning of Research
Research   means
          “to search again” or
                    “to examine  carefully”,
It is systemic inquiry or study that validate & refine existing knowledge & develop new knowledge.
    Research  is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.

Research is the systematic method of exploring , describing , explaining , relating or establishing the existence of phenomenon ,factors that causes changes in the phenomenon and how the phenomenon influences other phenomena.
Research is scientific , systematic , controlled, orderly, and
objective investigation to develop, refine and expand the body of

5.“ Scientific research is systematic, controlled, empirical & critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about presumed relations among natural phenomenon.”            
                                                                   (Kerlinger  )

Research is essentially a problem solving process , a systematic , intensive study directed towards full scientific knowledge of subject studies.”         
                                                               (Ruth M french )

Research may be defined as the systematic & objective analysis and recording of controlled observation that may lead to the development of generalization , principles , theories resulting in prediction & possible ultimate control of events.”
                                                                        ( J.W.Best)

Nursing research refers to the use of systematic , controlled , empirical ,and critical investigation in attempting to discover or confirm facts that relates to the specific problem or question about the practice of nursing .     (Walls & Bauzell)

7.Nursing research develops knowledge about health & promotion of health over the full lifespan , care of person with health problems & disabilities to respond effectively to actual or potential health problems.    
                              ( American Nurses Association)
   “Nursing research is scientific , systematic and orderly process to find out solution for problems concern to nursing or generating and refining the nursing knowledge to improve quality of nursing care , nursing education , nursing administration”.
                                                                ( S.K.Sharma)

Develop, refine, & extend the body of knowledge  which is required for quality nursing care, education & administration.
Link through nursing research ,nursing process, nursing education , nursing theories.
Find the valid answer to the questions concerned to nursing care & practice.

9.Generate new body of Scientific knowledge in nursing & increase that knowledge in depth & breadth
Discover the new facts in nursing so that can develop sound basis for nursing practice.
Enhance  professional identity as research is essential component of any profession .

10.Identify nursing care practices that make a difference in the health status of individuals and are cost effective.
Analyze and solve the patient care problem of nursing relevance for betterment of nursing care
Facilitate the ongoing development of nursing knowledge for  use in nursing practice.

11.Test the existing nursing theories so as to refine them.
Provide foundation for evidence – based nursing  practices.
Obtain valid & reliable information on various aspects of nursing.
Exploration –To discover the problem area
Speculation -To form a theory


13.Characteristics of Good Research
1) Orderly and systematic process
2) Based on current professional issues
3) Begin with clearly defined purposes
4) Emphasize to develop , refine , and expand professional knowledge
5) Directed towards development or testing of theories
6) Finding solution of problem
7) Dedicated to develop empirical evidence

8.   Strive to collect first hand information / data.
9.   Objective and logical process.
10. Generate findings to refine and improve professional practices.
11.  It must be for the general welfare of the  society.

15.12. Carefully recorded and reported
13. Adequately & appropriately analyzed research
14. Patiently carried out activity
15.Confidence & integrity should be there.
16. Conclusion should be with their limitation.
17.Research should be genaralised.
18.It should follow ethical norms.

PPT On Audio Visual Aids


Audio Visual Aids Presentation Transcript:

2.INTRODUCTION:- Audio Visual Aids are sensitive tools used in teaching learning process. These are planned educational materials that appeal to the senses of the people. It quickens learning and facilitates for clear understanding.
A chine proverb, if I hear, I forget, If I see I remember, If I do I understand says the importance of sensory perception in teaching learning situation.

3.COMMON A.V. Aids used for teaching of Nursing Students:-
Classification as Projected & Non Projected A.V. Aids:-
Projected A.V. Aids:- Overhead Projector, Osiloscope, Film Projector, Slide Projectors, Power Projectors etc.
Non-Projected A.V. Aids:-
Graphic Aids:- Graphs, Charts, Posters, Diagrams, Flash cards, Flip Charts, Fiannel & Khaddi graph, maps, pictures etc.

4.Three Dimensional Aids:- Objects, Specimen, models, puppets etc.
Display Boards:- Black Boards, White Boards, Bulletin Board, Magnetic Board etc.
Print Material:- Pamphlets, Booklet, Leaflets etc.
Audio Aids:- Dramatics, Demonstrations, Field Trips, Computer Assisted Instructions etc.
Non Projected A.V. Aids:- Flip Chart, Flash Cards, Charts, Poster

5.FLIP CHART:- These are the type of chart:-
A teacher has to prepare by incorporating his own ideas and lines of approach of the specific topic are more useful.
The flip charts are a set of charts related to specific topic.
These are tagged together and hang on a supporting stand.
The individual charts will carry a series of related messages in sequences
The salient points of specific topic will be presented.

6.POSTER:- A poster is an informational or educational tool with which we can reach many people in many locations. It is a visual combination of an illustration of message conveyed to people.
The purposes of posters are:
To provide general intervention.
To create an aesthetic or atmospheric effect.
To communicate a more general idea.
To thrust the message for leading to action
Used for teaching in the classroom and in the community

7.Advantages of using Poster
The advantages of using posters are:
It attracts attention
It conveys the message very quickly
It does not require a detailed study
Good poster leads to action with good motivation
It can stand alone and is self explanatory
Disadvantages of using Posters:
The disadvantages of their use are:
Poster does not always give enough information
When a poster is seen too often, it becomes a part of the environment and then no longer attracts attention

8.Features of a Good Poster

Chart is defined as a visual symbol summarizing, comparing, contrasting or performing other helpful services in explaining the subject matter. It is meant to depict pictorial and written information in a systematic way by effective arrangement of the key facts.
Its purposes are:
To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words
To highlight important points
To provide outline of materials covered in presentation

Its advantages are:
It is an effective tool for learning
It arouses interest
It involves a low cost
Is portable
Is easy to make
Is available for use and reuse
It is used to explain, clarify, simplify the complicated materials
It can be used to compare and show relationships.
It attracts attention, reduces the amount of verbal explanation and encourages action
Its disadvantages are:
Charts cannot be used for large groups
It cannot be used for illiterate group

Some of the types that are available are:
Table chart
Wall Chart
Flow Chart
Flip Chart
Pull Chart
All the charts are made of locally available chart paper (Size 20”x30” or 30”x40”)

12.Features of a Good Chart
Should be sufficiently large to be seen easily
Should be clear, simple and not overcrowded with facts
Should be attractive and should tell about the theme in detail
Should highlight the main points
Should be in symbols and words and have few comparisons
Should be strong enough to stand the rough use.

Flash cards are a set of pictured compact paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence. Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper, plain paper using colors or ink on them for drawings.

Flash cards are commonly used to
Teach the students
Give health education
Hold or lead a discussion
Narrate a story
Teach a process

Attracts attention
Conveys messages quickly
It is dynamic and flexible, maintains continuity
Easy to prepare, portable, economic
Can be used for illiterate group
Cannot be used for a large group
Prone to get spoiled soon
It is time consuming during preparation 



DISPLAY BOARDS Presentation Transcript:

A visual teaching aid in form of  a flat surface on which the information to be communicated can be arranged in an attractive fashion.
E.g.: Chalkboard, Blackboard, Bulletin board, flannel board, magnetic board.


Abrasive  writing surface made of wood, ply, hardboard, cement, ground glass, slate, plastic etc. with black, green or bluish-green paint on it.
White/ Color chalk sticks
   are generally used for

Is installed facing the class which is either built into the wall or fixed and framed on the wall with a ledge to keep chalk & duster.
Can be portable.

Ground glass/ plastic/Iron.
Size- 5m×6m.
Surface- Rough, Dull
Height- Appropriate


  -Write sufficiently large
  letters, bold letters(6×8cm.)
   - Use clean one for new
-Illuminate the board with a tube light above it.
-Use the board systematically.
-Do not talk while writing on the board.
-Rub vertically first then horizontally.

Readily available in most of the lecture rooms.
 Electricity is not necessary for its usage.
Sequential development of a concept can be done effectively.
 Initial and recurring expenditure is minimal.
Easy to use, economical .
Effective for group.

Eye to eye contact is lost while writing.
 The written material cannot be stored and reused.
 Advance preparation of material is not possible.
Chalk can be inhaled.
Complex diagrams and illustrations may take considerable time to draw on it.

11.Bulletin Board
It is a simple type of display board placed either indoor or outdoor, to display all kinds of creative work of students.
A soft board , which will hold pins or tags.
Items used are:
         - Photographs
         -Cutout Illustrations
         -Pasting of achievements, announcements.

12.Principles in use of bulletin board
A board for posting notice should be kept separate from those of current study and events.
Suggested plan for placement is near educational administrator’s office, library or study room or main wards.
Material should be dated .
Board should be divided into sections.
It should be kept a little above the eye level.

13.TYPES Of Bulletin board
Flannel board
Magnetic board
Fixed type
Movable type
Folded type

14. Flannel board
The rigid material(plywood/ wooden) covered with flannel cloth/wool/ paper.
The items to be displayed should have flannel or sand paper pasted on reverse side.
Can be used throughout discussion whenever needed.

Act as a aid in classroom teaching.
Can be used to display the unit plan.
Can be used in library.
Can be used in corridor for recreational purposes.
Can be used for notices.
Can be used in clinical settings such as OPDs for patient education.



RESEARCH PROBLEM Presentation Transcript:
1.Definition of Research Problem
A situation for which we have no ready and successful response by instinct or by previous acquired habit. We must find out what to do i.e , the solution can be found out only after an investigation. In other words a research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge based needed for professional practices.
The research problem should be clearly stated .

2.A research problem , in general , refers to
some difficulty which a researcher experiences in
the contest of  either a theatrical or practical
situation & wants to obtain a solution for the same.             Kothari , 2004
 A research problem is a situation involving
an enigmatic,   perplexing or troubling condition &
the purpose of it is to solve the problem
                                                             Polit , 1999

3.Characteristics of a good research problem
1. research problem is clearly , precisely and  concisely articulated.
2. it clearly stated the variables, population & research setting under study .
  3.variable  are expressed in measureable term .
4. The type of study also may be included in the statement of the research problem.

4.E.g.  -A descriptive study on the prevalance
Of pin site infection among patient with external skeleton fixation admitted in orthopaedic ward of  P.G.I.M.S. Rohtak .

Specific research question
Different ways to obtain objective
Site &setting
Key variables in research

6.E.g. There is a critical need for modifying patient care strategies in a hospital having acute shortage of qualified nursing personnel
causing  severe inadequacy in patient care.
In the above e.g. The area of concern is inadequate patient care in a hospital.

7.Sources of research problem

8.1. personal experiences: personal experiences is a good source of idea to formulate a research problem. E.g. A researcher observed domestic violence suffered by wives of alcoholic husbands. This experience may provide ideas to identify several research problems related to domestic violence against women.
2. practical experience: we gets plenty of ideas to formulate research problems from our clinical experiences.e.g. We find that unrestricted visiting hours in surgical wards reduced the analgesic demand among postoperative patients.

9.3.critical appraisal of literature: when we read books and articles al related to our interested subject many question may arise in our mind by stating what additional research is needed.e.g.when we read a n article on the prevalence of the pin site infection among patients with external fixators.while reading this article we find that there is lack of consensus about pin site care.this information may serve as a basis to formulate a research problem.
4. previous research: a body of knowledge should be developed on a sound foundation of research findings. After reading  the previous research  several ideas come in our mind what should be investigated more  we can modifide the research study.

10.5.existing theories: research is a process of theory development and theory testing. we use many theories from other disciplines in our practices. If an existing theory is used in developing a researchable problem , a specific statement  from the theory must be isolated . Generally, a part or parts of the theory are subjected to testing in the clinical situation . The testing of an existing theory is definitely needed in nursing; therefore, they serve as good sources of research problems .

11.6.Social issues :- sometimes , topics are suggested by more global contemporary social or political issues to the health care community . For eg , HIV/AIDS , female foeticide , sexual harassment, domestic violence , and gender equality in  the health care & research are some  of the current social and political issues of concern for health care professionals. An idea for a study may stem from a familiarity with social concerns or controversial issues .

12.7.Brainstorming :- these sessions are good techniques to find new question , where an intensified discussion among interested people of profession is conducted to find more ideas to formulate a good research problem, for eg ideas from studies may emerge from reviewing research priorities by having this sessions with other nurses , researchers , or nursing faculty .

13.8.Intuition :- traditionally intuitions are considered good sources of knowledge as well as sources to find new research problems. It is believed that reflective mind are good sources of ideas , which may be used to formulate a good research problem .
9.Folklores :- common beliefs could be right or wrong . For eg it is generally believed that just studying before the tests decreases the score . We believe we should not study just before test to relax our mind . Researchers can conduct a study on whether one should study before the test or not .

14.10.Consultations with experts :- experts are believed to have sound experience of the respective field, which may suggest a significant problem to be studied . In addition , experts may help in finding a current problem of discipline to be solved , which may serve as basis of formulation of research  problem .

15.Factors responsible for selecting a good research problem
1. significance to nursing profession: a problem which a researcher is selecting should have significance to nursing profession.a research problem is significant for nursing profession when it is directed to develop or refine the body of professional knowledge. A research problem could be considered significant for nursing profession if it fulfils the following criteria:
-nursing profession and patientsv,nurses and health care fraternity will benefit from the study.
-promotes nursing theory development or testing.
-provides solutions of current nursing practice needs..
-generate information to get practical implications for nursing profession.

PPT On The Next Thirty Years of Distance Education


The Next Thirty Years of Distance Education Presentation Transcript:
1.The Next Thirty Years of Distance Education: Worldwide Leading Trends

2.“To Open a Shop is easy,
To keep it open is an art”

3.Globalization of Higher Education
Transnational education
International trade of HE
Competition and collaboration
League tables
Growing importance of the English language
International quality  mechanisms

4.Major Challenges of Globalization
Monitoring quality
Harmonizing cultural diversity
Bridging  over the digital divide

5.Diverse  Distance Teaching Institutional  Models

6.Other classifications
Size - mega/large/small
Generations – correspondence/ industrial/online
Public – Private (for-profit, no-profit)
Technological infrastructure

7.Public- Private DE
Many new private DE providers
Danger of ‘diploma mills’ - affecting status and reputation
Private operation within public institutions
Essential need to establish quality assurance mechanisms

8.Diverse Clienteles
Second-chance students
First-chance students
School age students
Transnational students
Professional upgrade (short cycle studies)
Fun and recreation

9.New Teaching Roles
Distributed teaching responsibility
Team work
Control of the digital technologies capabilities
Ongoing interaction with students

10.Teachers’ Reluctance to Harness the New Technologies
Time consumption
Lack of ongoing support
Lack of incentives
Need to redefine the roles distribution of the industrial mode

11.Merits of the Industrial Model
Absorbing large numbers of students
High quality (materials & study process)

12.Sameness and Uniformity
Same curricula for all students
Same timetable for assignments
Uniform evaluation
All or none - Policy of “shared misery” and “mutual deprivation”

Flexible curricula
Being attentive to needs of diverse student clienteles
Being attentive to emerging needs of the labor market
Harmonization of accreditation schemes
Enhancing mobility of curricula, students and faculty

14.Open Source Movement
Enhancing institutional collaboration
Strengthening best practice teaching
Cutting down course production
Opening up of knowledge resources to the large public
Assisting to bridge over the digital divide

15.Open Source Challenges
Adapting to local needs
Language obstacle
Cutting revenues of academic publishing houses
Monitoring quality

PPT On Futuristic Nursing


Futuristic Nursing Presentation Transcript:
1.Futuristic Nursing

2.‘Lady with the Lamp’
Selflessness and Service

3.Nursing as a Profession
Extended education
Theoretical body of knowledge
Provides a specific service
Autonomy in decision making and practice
Code of ethics

4.Predicting the future
The probable future
The possible future
The plausible future
The preferred future

5.We are in a new place, we are not on the edge of old place. We are not pushing the envelope, we are in totally a new envelope. So the rules have changed. Ever fundamental premise of the old way of thinking is no longer applies.
                Sister Elizabeth Davis

6.Vision for the future of nursing:-
Addition new diseases and the threat of bio-terrorism.
New treatments and technologies.
 Patients are moved out of hospital rapidly, those that remain are more acutely ill.
Those discharged patients need more assistance at home (expensive).

7.Trends and patterns emerging in heath care.
We need to recognize
Rapid changes in healthcare in technology and therapy
Demographic trends, epidemiological trends and health care statistics
Supply of manpower and competition

8.Public opinion
Nursing practice and theory
Working conditions
Patients’ bill of rights

9.Future of nursing career:
Many nursing functions will be automated.
Result of nursing shortages, healthcare facilities will be forced to use their nurses judiciously.
Changes in technology will possibly attract more men and minorities into the profession.

10.The number of outpatient care will increase, as will the need for home health care nurses.
community health care.
focus more on preventing the illnesses rather than treatment.

11.Changing roles of Nurse

12.Client Advocate
Nurse protects the clients human and legal rights
Providing information to assist in decision making
Patient Bill of Rights

13.Comforter Role
Caring for client as a human being
Role is traditional to nursing
Care is directed to whole person, not just a body part
Demonstration of care and concern

14.Rehabilitator Role
Assist client to return to optimal level of functioning
Nurse helps client to adapt physically and emotionally to changes in lifestyle, body image

15.Communicator Role
Role is central to all other roles
Involves communication with client, family, healthcare team members, resource people, and the community
Without clear, concise communication it will be difficult to give effective care



LECTURE METHOD Presentation Transcript:

The lecture is a teaching procedure consisting of clarification of explanation of the facts, principles, or relationships which the teacher wishes the class to understand. Usually the students do not converse with the teacher. They might ask few questions, but these are for sake of clarification and not for the sake of discussion.

Lecture is a teaching activity where by the teacher presents the content in comprehensible manner by explaining the facts, principles and relationships, during which the teacher is explained to elicit student participation by employing appropriate techniques.

Transmit information.
Create interest.
Promote understanding.

5.Purpose of lecture.
To provide structured knowledge.
To motivate and guide in hunting knowledge
To arouse student’s interest in a subject.
Introduce students to new areas of learning.
To clarify difficult concepts.
To assist in preparing students for a discussion.
To promote critical thinking.

6.Preparation of the lecture
Objectives of the course and immediate objective of the lecture.
Lecturer must know her material thoroughly.
Lecturer should have a central theme carried in completion in each delivery.

7.Should contain sequence of ideas with simple heading and subheadings.
The teacher will make sure that the important points in her class are made clear before advancing to the next point.
The teacher will use illustrations and interact questions to help to clarify points before students  become too fatigued form the strain of intense listening.

8.A lecture is teacher-centered, the expert teacher will compensate for the restriction of student’s verbal expression by sensing how her students are responding in thought to what is being said.
The lecture should provide internals for clarification of thought, assimilation of ideas.

9. Factors in good lecture technique.
Lecturer should be careful about her personal appearance.
Teachers should let their personality speak.
Mannerism should be avoided.
Voice should be audible to the class.
An audience should be spoken to and not spoken at so the teacher should address the students with her eyes as well as her voice.
Always necessary to get off to a good start.

10.Guides helpful to the teacher in using the lecture method.
Eye contact
Lecture online and student’s notes

Most economical method of teaching.
Presence of the teacher.
Covers a large group of students.
Gives a feeling of security.
Stimulates the students and promote thinking process.
It can be employed to meet the learning needs of any group of students.
Students usually prefer lecture method

Keeps the students in a passive situation.
Does not facilitate learning how to solve problems.
Offers hardly any possibility of checking learning progress.
Does not allow for individual pace of learning.
Low receptivity.

13.When the lecture method should be used.
When introducing a new topic and unit.
Should be used when new data or information can be given through it more effectively than through making them read or giving assessments.
When students interest lags.
When classes are large.
When students have difficulty in interpreting facts and ideas that are complicated.
When a lesson or unit has been completed to as to speak and summarize the main points.

14.Criticism of the lecture method.
The lecture is time consuming
The lecture provides little students activity
The lecture requires special skills
The teacher is not readily analyzed and summarized by the student
The lecture is sometimes poorly adapted to the perceptive ability of students
The lecture is likely to become a sustained dictation exercise

PPT On Literature Review


Literature Review Presentation Transcript:
Review of literature is one of the most important steps in the research process. It is an account of what is already known about a particular phenomenon. The main purpose of literature review is to convey to the readers about the work already done and the knowledge and ideas that have been already established on a particular topic of research.
Literature review is a laborious task, but it is essential if the research process is to be successful.

“A Literature Review is a body of text that aims to review the critical point of knowledge on a particular topic of research”

Literature Review is defined as a broad ,comprehensive , in depth, systematic and critical review of scholarly publication, unpublished printed or audio visual materials and personal communications.
                               S.K. Sharma

3.According to Polit and Hungler,
  It refers to the activities involved in searching for information on a topic and developing a comprehensive picture of the state as knowledge on that topic.
According to Nancy burns and Groove,
   The review of literature is a summary of current knowledge about a particular practice problem and includes what is known and not known about the problem.

4.Purposes of Literature Review
To determine what is already known about the topic that you want to study.
Define ethical implications.
It helps to build on previous knowledge in the research process.
That help to plan the research methodology, design selection of tool, sample and plan for statistical analysis.
Identify data sources that other researchers have used.
Learn how others have defined and measured key concepts.

5.Place each in context of its contribution to the understanding of subject under review.
8. Describe the relationship of each study to the other research studies under consideration.
9.  Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort
10. The researcher may be able to capitalize on the success as well as the errors of other investigators.

6.11. Define concepts.
12. Identify pitfalls and weaknesses.
13. Assess modern equipments.
14.Describe modified procedure..
15. The research studies have recommendation for future research which can be taken for new research.
16. Place one’s original work in context of existing literature.
17. See what has and  has not been investigated.
18. Identify new ways to interpret and shed light on any gaps in previous research.

Determine what is known and not known about a subject, concepts of problem.
Discovery of unanswered questions about subjects, concepts or problems.
Determination of any gaps or inconsistencies in a body of knowledge.
Describe the strength and weakness of  designs/methods of inquiry and instruments used in earlier research work.
Development of hypothesis to be tested in a research study.
It also helps in development of research instruments.
Discover conceptual traditions used to examine problems.
Determine the need for replication of well designed study or refinements of a study.

9. Generation of useful research questions or projects/ activities for the discipline.
10. Identification of suitable design and data collection methods for a research study.
11. Promotes development of protocols and policies  related to nursing practice (administration, education, research and service.)
12. Assistance in interpreting study findings and in developing implications and recommendations.
13. Determination of a need to replicate a prior study  in different study settings or different sample designs  or sizes or different study populations.

Research Findings.
Opinions and View points.
Anecdotes and Clinical Descriptions.

Primary sources
Secondary source

11.Computer Assisted literature searchCINAHL database(Cumulative index to nursing & allied health literature)
 RN Dex top100
 Mediline(medical literature online)
 HAPI(health & psychosocial instruments database)
 Eric(Education resources information centre database)
 Psycinfo(psychology information)
 Dissertation abstracts online.

12.Process of Literature Review

13. Identify the focus questions
Can the question be searched?
Is the review needed?
What approach will review take?
What expertise is needed?
Is the review question feasibly answered within the constraints of time and availability of resources.

14.Locating the literature sources
Card catalogue
 Computerised approach
 Printed indexes
 Computer assisted literature searches

15.Read the review
Read the articles in an integrated fashion.
 Investigate the literature with overall trends &details.
Read the literature several times and extract out the best .
Conceptualise  the literature by going through the literature thoroughly and deep studying.
Result  of  these studies should not be immediately incorporated before screening with the researcher.



BASIC HUMAN NEEDS Presentation Transcript:

NEEDS:  a lack of something required or desired.
*Needs motivate us to act!
BASIC NEEDS :- are the absolute needs that every human being needs and other needs cannot imagined without fulfillment of these needs.
Fulfillment of basic needs is essential for life and is the motivating force behind human behavior.
Every individual has basic human needs – physical ,emotional ,social and intellectual.

3. Characteristics of basic needs
1)Basic needs are approximately same for all.
2)The importance of each need is different for each person.
3)All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive.

—Maslow’s  hierarchy theory
  of Basic needs for Human

5.Maslow’s theory
(a) Basic content
(b) Basis for need’s hierarchy
(c) General rules
(d) Significance to nursing

6.MASLOW ‘S hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by ABRAHAM MASLOW in 1943 paper A theory of human motivation.
Maslow’ s theory was fully expressed In his 1954 book MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY.
The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contains what Maslow called ‘’deficiency needs or’’ d needs’’ which includes esteem ,love ,security & physical needs.
If these deficiency needs are not met,the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious .
Maslow’ s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire for secondary needs.


8.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The hierarchy has five levels:
Physiological Needs: oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium and other minerals and vitamins, shelter and sleep etc.
Safety Needs: security, stability, protection from physical and emotional harm
Belongingness & Love Needs: affection, belonging, acceptance, friendship, community
Esteem Needs: Internal ones are need for self-respect, confidence, autonomy, and achievement. External ones are need for respect of others, status, fame, glory, recognition and attention. Maslow feels these are the roots to many, if not most of our psychological problems.
Self-actualization:  doing that which maximizes one’s potential and fulfills one’s innate aspirations.

9.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

10.PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS - related to body   necessary for life; when unmet, these needs lead to death    
Protection from extreme temperatures
Sensory needs
Motor needs

Physiological needs are the very basic  and strongest needs such as air, water, food, sleep, etc.
 When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things.
We need these for basic survival.

Personal security :- includes
The need to be free from anxiety and fear
The need to be secure in the environment.  i,e. stability
The need for order and routine
Financial security
Health and well being security

13.2. Safety Needs/ Security Needs
When all physiological needs are satisfied & no longer dominating our thoughts & behaviors, we progress to safety needs,  that is need for security.
We often have little awareness of these, except in times of emergency & disorganization in social structure (war time, terrorist acts, domestic violence, natural disasters). People  often experience post traumatic disorder in absence of physical security.
Absence of economic safety due to economic crisis manifest themselves in saving accounts, insurance policies, accommodations and many  more like this.

14.LOVE AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS/ SOCIAL NEEDSSocial acceptance, friendship, to be loved
Need to belong, to relate to others
    -the ability to give and receive love and affection
    -reproductive capabilities

15.Belongingness & Love needs
When safety & physiological needs are met, we desire, to be loved by others & to belong.
Humans have desire to belong to family, groups ,clubs, work groups, religious groups etc.
We need to feel loved by others, accepted by others and seek to overcome the feelings of loneliness and alienation.
 We need to be needed.
This involves both giving & receiving love, affection & the sense of belonging (family, friends, social groups).
 These needs often overcome the Physiological  and Safety needs depending on the strength of peer pressure.
This need is especially strong in childhood.            



RESEARCH UTILIZATION Presentation Transcript:

Research utilization is the process of communicating and using knowledge generated through the research to affect or change the existing practices in the health care system.

3.Terms used
Institutionalization : 
Scale –up:

4.Communicating results to influence decision
Translate & synthesize
Reaching the same audience many time & many audience at least once
Share result with specialist “mediator” organization

5.Communicating results to influence decision
Become a decision maker.
Managers to seek out research- based information .

6.Strategies for research utilization
Plan for utilization before starting research
work with data users throughout     research process
Undertake  operations research in a favorable context

7.Use strongest  research design & data collection methods possible
Analyze data quickly &prioritize results needed for decision
Plan for budget

8.Building Blocks of Utilization Modeling
1. Source - Where does the research               information come from? 2.    Content - What is the research information about? 3.    Context - How does the research information relate to existing   
   knowledge or products? 4.    Medium - How can I get the research information? 5.    User - How can I benefit from this research information?

Indirect research utilization:- involving changes in nurses thinking
Direct research utilization:- involving the direct use of findings in giving patient care
Persuasive utilization:- involving the use of findings to persuade others to make changes in nursing policies.



It was the first major project to address research utilization in nursing
The clinicians and educators were asked to participate in workshop that focused on improving skills in critiquing research.

13.CURN PROJECT  ( conduct and utilization of research in nursing)
This project developed clinical protocol to direct the use of research findings in practices.

Barriers related to research findings.
Barriers created by practicing nurses.
Barriers created by organizations

The practicing nurses don’t value research and are unaware /unwilling to read research reports.



NON PROJECTED AV AIDS Presentation Transcript:

2.Introduction of A.V AIDS Meaning of A.V Aids The A.V. Aids are sensory devices and provide sensory experience to the learner , i.e. the learner can see and hear simultaneously. Definition of A.V. Aids Audio-visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.

3.Projected A.V. Aids
Non projected A.V. Aids.
Classification  of non projected A.V.AIDS
Graphic aids- it includes graphs , charts , diagrams , flashcards, poster, maps photographs.
Three dimensional Aids-It includes objects , specimen , models puppets etc.
Display boards-includes black board ,white board.
Print material-the print material includes pamphlets, booklets, handouts ,leaflets etc.
Audio-Aids-it includes radio , recordings , television etc.
Activity Aids- it includes demonstrations, field trips , computer assisted instructions etc.

4.Purposes of A.V. AidsTo improve and make teaching more effective and interesting.
To serve an instructional role in it self through motion picture or television/
Enable the audience to look ,listen and learn.

   A pamphlet is an unbound booklet .It may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on both sides and folded in half ,in thirds or in fourth ,OR it may consist of a few pages that are folded in half  and stapled at the crease to make a simple book.

     The pamphlets are used when we want to give people somewhat detailed information for example ,to:
Explain an issue to the community.
Inform people of their rights.
Win support for a campaign .
Advertise for a product .

1. Pamphlets are easy to understand.
2.They are time saving as much information is provided in a single pamphlet.
3.They are very cheap to produce.
Success of a pamphlet is not assured . Objective of a pamphlet is accomplished only if:
It is distributed properly and is attractive enough.

    A leaflet is a written or pictorial  message on a single sheet of  paper which may be folded in half, in thirds or in fourths . It may be printed on both sides of paper.
1.It provides people with brief information.
2.It can be used in any field.

Leaflets are:
Cheapest to produce .
Easy to understand.
Time saving.
Easy to create.
Preferable over other printed material as they provide adequate information on a single sheet.
It  does not provide detailed information .
Success of a leaflet is not assured ,proper distribution and attractiveness are essential.

   A sheet or sheets of paper containing topical information , distributed to people attending a speech, lecture or meeting.
Features of a good handout:
1.Handout should be made such that people pay attention to the content of the handout, not its appearance.
2.It should be easy to navigate.

   Advantage-Handout assists the audience in understanding the content of the presentation .
   Disadvantage-It can be a source of distraction if  a listener misses the first few minutes of a  speaker’s presentation because of being busy in looking through the handout.

    A field trip is defined as a planned and supervised visit of a group of students outside the class room to get the first hand educational experience.
Types of field trips-
Local school trip.
Community trip.
Educational trip.
Aims of fields-
To get the first hand experience and direct contact with the things.
To have an in–depth study of an instructional unit.

13.Advantages of field trips
Field trips provide accurate information about objects, and systems in their real settings.
It provides meaningful direct experience .
Students enthusiasm for fields trips can be easily diverted to effective learning.
Field trips can effectively supplement the classroom learning through application and review of  field trip experiences of students.
Field trips develop proper attitudes and social skills among  the children.

Prepare  yourself  and students for field trip.
Identify the main purpose of the trip.
Take a manageable group of students for field trip.
Prepare a guide and activity sheet for the educational tour.
Inform the proper agency about the field trip.
Prepare activity  and workshop sheet and distribute to the student.

They can be  expensive  and out  of reach for many  disadvantaged and poor children.
Field trips  require  proper and detailed planning.

PPT On Nursing Audit


Nursing Audit Presentation Transcript:
1.A very Sweet Good Morning
to all Smiling Faces.

2.Presentation on
Nursing Audit Techniques

 3.Nursing Audit IntroductionAudit is a systematic and critical examination to examine or verify.
Nursing audit is an evaluation of Nursing services.
It is a careful review of Nursing care to determine its effectiveness and any area needing improvement.

4.Audit is of no value unless good record are kept during the stay of the patient in the hospital, the patient medical record will be needed to determine what treatment was given and with what results.
It is the process of feedback if any deficiency is found then correction is made at the earliest.

5.Before 1955 very little was known about the concept of Nursing audit.
It was introduced by the industrial concerns.
The year 1918 was the beginning of Medical Audit.

6.George Groward pronounced the term
Physician for the first time Medical Audit.
First report of the Nursing audit was published in 1955.
The program of Nursing audit is based up on Nursing plan, Notes, Patient condition and Nursing care.

7.Nursing Care Audit
Audit is an important phenomenon of Nursing care.
It is systematic ,critical analysis of medical care and the use of resources and quality of life for patient.

8.Concept of Nursing Audit
According to Robert .H. Montgomery-
  Audit is a systematic examination of book and record of business or verify and report upon the fact regarding the financial operations.
9.The concept of Nursing audit is based on debit and credit.

10.Definition of Nursing Audit
According to Elison,” Nursing Audit refers to assessment of the quality of clinical nursing”.
According to Goster Walfer ,” Nursing audit is an exercise to find out whether good nursing practices are followed.”

11.The Nursing audit is defined as an evaluation of patient care through analysis of the written record maintained by nurses in the patient treatment profile.
In short we can say that the audit is a mean by which nurses themselves can define standards from their point of view and describe the actual practice of nursing.

12.Objectives of Nursing Audit
Evaluation of Nursing Care.
Stimulant to better record.
Contributes to Research.
Strengthen the Nursing Services.
Maintain the New Standards for the profession.

13.To justify the cost increased on human and material resources.
To study the Quality of the patient care against defined Criteria.
To take remedial actions towards cost effectiveness.

14.Types of Audit
There are two types of Audit.
Internal Audit.
External Audit.

15.Internal Audit
The internal audit is a continuous process which is carried out by the hospital staff and classify clinical record to evaluate the nursing care plan.



SIMULATION Presentation Transcript:

It is basically the role play to learn the problem solving behavior .it is as old as human being is on the earth. Not only human being even animal also use this to train their young ones to adjust to environment. But its use in teaching is  comparatively very recent.
Example-pilots are given all types of experience of actual flying in office room on maps or on models prepared to acquiring the trainees with strategy of war fair

3.Meaning :
It is basis of sensitivity training, sociodrama, role playing, & psychodrama. It is not actual teaching. It is assumed that through role perception the psychological appreciation of class room problem will grow & develop in student teacher a basis for handling the problem in class

4.Definitions :
An attempt to give appearance or to give the effect of something else."                   
                               Barton (1970)
 “It is imitation of operation of a real world process or system over time.”
 “Act of imitating the behavior of some situation or some process by means of something suitably analogues.”

5.“Role playing in which process of teaching is displayed artificially &an effort is made to practice some important skills of communication through this technique. Pupil teacher & student simulate the role of particular person or actual life situation. The whole programmed become a training in role perception & role playing.”

6.Purposes :
To help the students to practice decision making & problem solving skills in controlled & safe setting.
 Students have a chance to apply principles & theories they have learned & to see how & when these principles work.
 By means of active involvement in simulation exercise, games, role playing the student achieve cognitive, affective & psychomotor skills.

7. Characteristics-
Mirror like situation while providing control over external variable .
Provide a mix of experience that can be replicated over successive learner.
Provide a safe environment in which learning has  priority over patient care or system demands.
Provide immediate feedback on performance

8. Steps of procedure-
Selecting the role player -  a small group of 4 or 5 pupil teacher is selected. They are assigned different letters in an alphabetical order. Role assignments are rotated within the group to give chance to everyone. Every member of the group gets an chance to be actor or observer.   

9.Selecting & discussing skills - skills to be practiced are discussed &the topic fit in skills is suggested. One topic each is selected by group member for exercise.
Planning  -  it has to decided that who will start the conversation, who will top the interaction .

10.Deciding the procedure of evaluation -  how to record the interaction & how to present it to actor has to be decided sothat a proper feedback on his performance can be given.

Provided practical lesson -  role player should be provided reinforcement on their performance. Give them training for playing their part well.

11.Activities in simulation
Role play
Socio drama

12.Activities in simulation
Role play  - actual or false role is performed in an artificial environment. This may give the pupil an understanding of a situation or relationship among real life participants of a social process. He will gain some perception of action, attitude & insight  of person or situation.

13.Socio drama – it seeks to utilize role playing as a means of find out the solution to a problem situation assigned to role players. This problem may be false or based upon real life situation & the actor is required to find out an acceptable solution of the situations .

14.Game  - situation involve outcomes affected by decision made by one or more decisions. It designs in a manner which enables chances to affect the outcome.

15.Types of simulation
Written simulation
Audio visual simulation
Live simulation

PPT On Preparation of Clinical Rotation Plan


Preparation of Clinical Rotation Plan Presentation Transcript:
1.Preparation of Clinical Rotation Plan

Organization of clinical experience in the curriculum done on the basis of the syllabus and regulations laid down by the statutory bodies like Indian Nursing Council and Universities.

“Clinical rotation plan is the statement, which explains the order of the clinical posting of various groups of nursing students belonging to different classes in relevant clinical areas and community health settings as per the requirements laid down by the statutory bodies.”

It will help student to gain maximum experience from clinical area and community settings.
It will contribute towards the attainment of overall objectives of the nursing educational programme.

It must be developed accordance with the master plan of the curriculum.
It must be made in advance with co-operation of all the faculty members involved in the clinical teaching.
Maxims of teaching should be followed while selected areas of experience.
Principles of continuity, sequence and integration should be followed.
Enough teaching staff should make available in the clinical areas for giving proper instructions to the students.

6.Seeking suggestion of nursing staff working in clinical areas will ensure their co-operation
First year students should receive maximum supervision and attention
All the students should get enough experience as per the clinical rotation plan.
All assignments related to clinical area should be finished before the completion of postings.
Overcrowding in the clinical areas with different group of students is not advisable.

7.Factors to be considered in planning
Standards, policies, philosophy and objectives of organization.
Curriculum outline
Requirement laid down in syllabus and course
Course objectives
INC guidelines
Nature of clinical facilities available, location of ward.
Teacher – student ratio
Permission from authorities and payment of fees
Formal theory classes

8.Facilities e.g. Transport convenience
Availability of appropriate time to avoid overlapping of students
Clinical instructions and experts in the field availability.
Number of staff nurses employed to provide nursing services in the hospital
Duration of clinical experiences required
Size of ward
Select ward depending on the length of learning experience to be provided
Adhere to rotation plan.

9.Criteria for organizing clinical experience
There are 4 criteria

10.Role of the Teacher
One experience will provide many nursing activities
Different experiences should be provided to reinforce many activities.
No gap or expectation for provision of clinical experiences.
There should be relationship between theory and practice.
Before the clinical experience, major has to be covered.
Concurrent evaluation to avoid mistakes and subjectiveness.

11.Role of the Teacher
Along with theory and practice provide the chances and opportunities for the student, to develop personality also.
Provide experiences continuously, no student should be left alone
Overcrowding of experiences should be avoided.
Division of students into groups, should be based on supervisory principle depended on
Alphabetical order
Registered number of teachers
Observation of students
Number of clinical areas to be completed.

12.Meaningful experiences should be provided
It should be flexible, not too rigid
All procedures have to be observed for each student.
Assigning clients depends upon
Students level of knowledge and experience
Faculty member
Patients point of view, condition wise and system affected
Doctor’s wise
Geographic area
Needs of patient’s functional wise.




2.Quality Assurance is a program that guarantees quality patient care by tracking outcomes through scheduled reviews
Guidelines are developed for all the processes and when formally adopted becomes the QA program.

Quality Assurance Is The Monitoring Of Activities Of Client To Determine The Degree Of Excellence Attained In The Implementation Of The Activities”

Quality Assurance In Nursing is a pledge to the public by the professional nurses that they will work toward the goal of an optimal achievable degree of excellence in the services rendered to every patient.

5.An elderly patient with “night incontinence” should remain dry throughout the night as a result of an individualized  bladder training program.
A patient who is bedridden should be able to maintain joint motion as a result of a daily range-of-motion exercise program.

Quality council
Concurrent monitoring
High volume case assessment
High risk assessment
Standard of quality care

Inter disciplinary quality assurance
Automation of data sources
Performance of the staff
Managed Care
Evidence Based Practice

The interesting development in quality assurance programme is the use of quality councils.
The council is a governing body that oversees the quality of care patients receive.
 The council would be responsible for developing standards and assessing and monitoring the quality of care that patient receive.

9.Intermittent assessment of quality does a lot to improve nursing practices.
Earlier the primary focus was on presence or absence of documentation. But the presence of documentation might be a proxy to the fact. Concurrent monitoring provides a more scope to the best quality care.                                                                

High volume cases are easy for nursing service to identify. One way to assess high volume cases is to look at hospital utilization data.
 If medical patients are admitted for cardiac problems, it is logical to monitor the care of cardiac patients.

Aspects of care in which there is high risk to the patient are monitored. Eg-
  Patient falls,
  Medication errors.

Standard of quality care are used as guidelines for the development of monitors.
The use of standard in the evaluation of care will have positive effect on the assurance of quality.

The increased complexity of care often required the services of multiple health care professionals but no one discipline is totally responsible for patient outcomes.
Multidisciplinary quality assurance activities are required for the ultimate quality of patient care.                                               

Incident Reports, Direct Observation & Patient Interview has been explored now as data source for quality assurance studies.
Earlier patient record was the primary data source,
    but it was time consuming & also may not accurately reflect the quality of care that patient receives.

One of the basic ways of ensuring the quality of patient care is competent, capable, and caring.
Ensuring competence require the development of structure and process standard in four areas:
Entry requirements
Performance expectations
Continuing education
Performance appraisal



PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS Presentation Transcript:
1.Presentation on Projected a/V aids

Pictures  can be projected on a screen to supplement teaching

Useful for larger group
To motivate the students
Arouse interest
To demonstrate skills

Slide projectors
Film strips cum slide projectors
Film strip projectors
Over head projectors
Opaque projectors
Film projectors

Film strips over head transparencies
 Opaque material such as books objects
Films 16mm 8mm 35mm
  Power point presentation

A small piece of transparent material on which
a single pictorial or scene is reproduced
Standard size of slide is 2×2or 4.5×4 inches
Photographic slides
Hand made slides
 Slide frames

Slides are small in size ,so can be stored and carried around easily
Can be used repeatedly
Save  time
Easily handled ,stored and re-arrangedfor various uses.
Requires simple skills to operate

Requires skills in photography or self making
Color processing is costly
Darkening facilities required for projecting ,it is difficult for students to write
Can get out of sequence and be projected incorrectly

Series of Sequenced slides on a piece of film 
covering a large portion of a lesson
20—25 slides are there on an about half meter  to one and a half meter long film strip

Discussional film  strips—
It consists of slides which has self explanatory titles .each strip may contain 25-100 pictures
Sound slide film—
In this type instead of explanatory titles spoken discussionis recorded which is audible and it is syncronized with pictures

It is a versatile and popular device for projecting transparencies
Permits day light projection
Gives a bright image
Operator has complete control over the projections

Transparencies are readymade transparent acetate sheets  on which image can be seen through a visual projection .
The size of the transparency is 10×10cm.It can be as big as25×25cm.
The teacher can write with marker pen  that will be projected on the screen  or wall

Permits face to face interaction with the students
Can be used in day light condition
Can present information  systematic developmental sequences
Simple to use with presentation rate can be controlled by the teacher
Requires limited planning and can be prepared in a variety of inexpensive methods
Use of overhead projector can be quite cheap as transparencies can be used repeatedly
Normally lighted room . The students can take down notes and the teacher facing the class can observe the students reactions and strengthen his presentation  

Requires special equipment, facilities and skills for more advance preparation methods.
Overhead transparencies are large compared to other projected aids such as slides.
Projection lamps are costly.
Keystone effects can be there . When the lens of the projector is not parallel to the screen an optical distortion occurs resulting in broadening of the picture at the top and narrow at the bottom     

Have one main idea on each transparency
Include only relevant figures and diagrams
Use simple lettering style in writing 
Use diagrames in proportion to its lettering
Keep the massege simple and clear
Emphasize the key masseges
Use colour and lettering with discretion.



RADIO Presentation Transcript:

Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.

3.» A type of Auditory Aids.
» One of the most common form of public education and entertainment.
» If used effectively, serves as a vital agency of mass communication.

Immediacy : Radio can describe events as they happen.
Emotional impact : Through the combined effect of voice, environmental sound and music.

Conquest of time and space
One way communication

Procure and study in advance the nature and content of the radio lesson.
Prepare students for the radio lesson by informing them about the background of the lesson.

7.Allow students to listen to the radio lesson  and note down important  points.
Make use of noted points to discuss with students.
Clarify the main points of radio lesson using other visual aids.

To develop increased skills in listening participation and evaluating what is heard.
To acquire information about the cultural background of various groups.

9.To learn about the teaching of major faiths, as well as personally receive inspirational values from religious programmes.
To call attention to social problems which frequently involve health.
To keep well informed in literature, history and current events.

10.Its one of the mass media that can be used to inform the public objectives and needs of nursing and nsg education.
Broadcasts are effective means of presenting music, drama and discussions for study and appreciation.


Radio programmes are good for mass education.
Effective for distance education.
Can arouse positive emotions and reinforce positive attitudes.
Effective and expert teacher can be made to reach out to a large majority of students.

No concentrated attention
One way communication
No reusability
Administrative problems

14.Audiovisual Instruction Movement
1920 - 1930
* Technological advances in areas like radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and sound motion pictures led to an increased interest in instructional media. * The Great Depression occurred in 1929. During the Depression, radio broadcasting brought entertainment of comedy, drama, and music. It also brought news and information. It also let people hear the inspiring words from the President about how life was going to get better * The field continued to grow but the educational community at large was not greatly affected by the growth.

PPT On Role Play Method of Teaching


Role Play Method of Teaching Presentation Transcript:
Every teacher devises his or her good effective method for teaching. The teacher in her method should appeal through sense perception to the understanding of the student. One of the methods used in teaching learning is “role play”.

Role play
                  Role playing is an educational technique in which people spontaneously act out problems of human relation and analyze the enactment with the help of the other players and observers.

3.Purpose of Role Play
To convey information.
To develop specific skills.
To develop a situation for analysis.
To develop understanding of points of view of others.
To increase insight into typical way of dealing with a problem.
Provides an opportunity for social interaction among members.

4.Values of Role Playing
There is emotional involvement as the actors try to feel the character he/she is portraying and puts himself in that person’s character.
It is enjoying by people who do it.
It does not need equipment.
It is a method to involve a group through participation.
It can bring out data human behavior and human relations which are not made available by other methods.
In role playing the student not only hears about a problem or tells about it, he lives through it by acting it out.

5.Values of Role Playing
. Individuals may develop new skills for dealing with problems in human relations.
8. Role playing can be tailored to fit the specific need  and situation of particular group that is using it.
9. It is a way of presenting human relations, problems. The student can experiment with behavior, make mistake and try new skills.

6.Principles of Role Playing
Role playing is flexible.
The role play should be stimulant to think and not escape from the discipline of learning.
There is no single best method of selecting the characters, the group may do the assigning.
Role play never be rehearsed.
Analysis and evaluation is essential to attain the maximum learning benefits.
Role play should be brief.

7. Setting up of Role Playing
Define the problem to be considered and the nursing situation in a meaning ful manner to all student in the class.
Identify the characters in the situation and ask for valunters to play these roles.
Ask the participants to try to place themselves in the position of the characters.
Caution the participants against the desire to express their own ideas and options.
Each class member select some role and identifies herself with it, listen and try to anticipate what the person in the situation might say or do,
Never rehearse for role playing.

8.Setting up of Role Playing
At any point during a dramatization participants may holed a short conference to clarify the problem understudy.
8. The length of role play will depend upon how long it take to make the nursing situation clear and the student become aware of feelings and thoughts of these in the actual situations.

9. At the end of the activity time should be given for a discussion.
9.Phases or steps involves in Role Play
There are nice steps in any role play. They are :
Warming up the group :- Concerned with the identification or introduction of the problem.
Selecting participants :- Concerned with the analysis of roles and selection of the students for playing the specific roles.
Set the stage :- Concerned with setting the line of action, restating roles etc.
Preparation of observers :- Concerned with the assignment of roles of observers to students who are not acting and assigning them observation tasks and starting what to look for.

10.Phases or steps involves in Role Play
Enactment :- Actual role playing process.
6. Discussion and evaluation :- Free discussion about quality of roles, major focus of play.
7. Re-enactment :- concerned with re-enactment of the role play in the light of modification made.
8. Re-discussion and Evaluation :- Review of roles leading to conclusions.
9. Deriving Generalizations :- relate problem situation to real experience and current problems.

11.Effect of Role Play
On the student
 Role Playing helps the student to :-
Develop real communication skills in leadership, interviewing and social interacting. E.g. how to lead a communication etc.
Develop sensitivity to another’s feelings by having the opportunity to put oneself in another’s place and develop emapthy and understanding.

12.Develop skill in group problems solving. E.g. the group works as a whole to develop the problem of concern to the group. To develop the situation , to identify issues and to come to some mutual agreement.
4. Develop ability to observe and analyze situations.
5. Practice selected behaviours in a real life situation without the stress of making a mistake.

13.Role of a teacher in Role Play of Teaching
This provides the teachers with the opprtunity to note individual student by observing and analysing her needs in a real life situation.
Encourage independent thinking and action by stepping a side on giving indirect guidence to emphasize them to themselves.
The teacher can correct the errors and use the role play for specific teaching on the subject.

14.Points to be remember while doing Role Playing
There should never one answer to a situation presented.
The time of the play should be brief.
Enough time should be allowed for discussion and analysis of the situation.
Evaluation concerns the teacher and participants through discussion or follow-up as to specific individual behaviour or group actiion.

15.Advantages of Role Play
It provides opportunity to  the students to learn about a subject from the inside. It gives them a chance to feel the intensity of the situation by enacting it through role play.
Student drives useful real life experiences through playing specific roles of the players or observers and in turn prepare them for their activities.
It increase student’s interest , motivation and effects for the learning about a subject or phenomenon.
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