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Wednesday, October 7, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On BSNL

Presentation On BSNL


Practical Training At BSNL






Industrial Training At BSNL


PowerPoint Presentation On Neural Networks

 PPT On Neural Networks


Neural Networks Presentation Transcript:
1. Introduction
What Is Neural Network? An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.

2. Why Use Neural Networks?
A trained neural network can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyze. The Other advantages include: 1.Adaptive learning 2.Self-Organisation 3.Real Time Operation 4.Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding

3. Neural Networks Vs Conventional Computers
1.Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach i.e. the computer follows a set of instructions in order to solve a problem . 2. The network is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurones) working in parallel to solve a specific problem. Neural networks learn by example.

4. Network Layers INPUT:
The activity of the input units represents the raw information that is fed into the network. HIDDEN:The activity of each hidden unit is determined by the activities of the input units and the weights on the connections between the input and the hidden units. OUTPUT:The behaviour of the output units depends on the activity of the hidden units and the weights between the hidden and output units.

5. Perceptrons

6. Applications of neural networks
Neural networks in medicine Electronic noses Instant Physician Neural Networks in business sales forecasting industrial process control customer research data validation risk management target marketing

7. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Maglev Trains

PPT On Maglev Trains


Maglev Transportation


Presentation on Maglev Trains


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PowerPoint Presentation On GSS

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132 KV PPT






PowerPoint Presentation On GPS



GPS Presentation Transcript:
1. Introduction
GPS is the Global positioning system is to determine your position on earth :east- west north-south and vertical(longitude,latitude and altitude). GPS is provided on mid 1990. Today many different standard was used which are WAAS LAAS DGPS NDGPS. DGPS is used to correct bias errors at one location with major bias error at one position. Local area augmentation system focus its service on the airport area. It work using very high frequency radio data link.

2. Basics of GPS
In order to understand how the GPS system works we use for this high school physics. If we send out a pulse of sound or radio waves then we can determine resistance of object by dividing the time it took for reply by the speed of sound. Distance = speed * time Time = Distance/ Speed GPS works on much the same principle. GPS satellite only transmit timing data pulse, GPS receive units, only receive.

3. Shouting From the Stars
The GPS works on this principle, although it uses much more precise clocks and the speed of light. If each GPS unit had to have an atomic clock, it would be expansive. With three satellites we can solve three of these four variables. X, Y = Horizontal Position Z = Altitude T = Time With only three satellites and an imprecise clock, we have to assume altitude to be a known constant. Eg: Sea level. Since we can only solve for three variables using three satellites X , Y and Time. But if we have four visible satellites we can solve for all four variables X, Y, Z and T.

4. Contd-
GPS signals work in microwaves bands. They can pass through glass, but are absorbed by water molecules and reflect off concrete, steel and rock. This means that GPS unit have trouble operating in rain forest, urban jungle, deep canyons, inside automobiles and roads and in heavy snowfalls-among other things. These environmental obstacles degrade positional accuracy or make it impossible to get a fix on your location.

GPS elements consist of three basic parts: Space segment User segment Control segment

6. Space segment
Space segment of the system consist of the GPS satellites. These space vehicles (vs.) send radio signal from space. The nominal GPS operation constellation consist of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth in 12 hours. There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to repeat older satellites. The satellites orbit repeats all most the same ground track once each day the orbit altitude is such that satellite repeat the same track. There are six orbital plane equally spaced (60 degree apart) and inclined at about 55 degree with respect to the equatorial plane

7. User segment
User segment consist of receivers, which you can hold in your hand or mount in your path. The GPS receiver converts SV signals into position, velocity and time. Four satellites are required to compute the 4 dimensions: X, Y, Z and Time. GPS receivers are used for navigation, position, time and other research.

8. Control segment
Control segment consist of a system of tracking stations located around the world. These stations measure signals from the sves which are incorporated into orbital model for each satellites. The models compute precise orbital data and sv clock correction for each satellites. The master clock station uploads ephemeris and clock data to sves. The master control facility determines the orbit and clock parameters using measurements from five monitor stations distributed around the world.

9. GPS Error sources
There are various types of error in GPS . These are: Satellite clock Receiver clock Satellite orbit error Atmospheric error: Ionosphere and troposphere Multi-path errors These errors in the satellites produce error in distance measurements Satellite clock error

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On GPRS

Presentation On GPRS


GPRS Basics




PowerPoint Presentation On Space Optics

Presentation On Free Space Optics


Free Space Optical Communication


Free Space Optics


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PowerPoint Presentation On Embedded Linux

Presentation On Embedded Linux


Embedded Linux Presentation Transcript:
Introduction give a brief idea to the thrilling and exciting world of Linux and Embedded systems. It also remove FUD’s (fear,uncertainty and doubt) that people normally associate with Linux. There are three points consider in it. Brief History Of Linux. What Are Embedded Systems. What’s The Deal About Embedded Linux.

2. Brief History Of Linux : -
MINIX operating system written by Andrew s. Tanenbaum was good but it is not an industry standard. At that time, Richard Stallman started GNU project which was a software movement to provide free and quality software. In 1984, Stallman started to writing GNU C Compiler(GCC). GNU provide a lot of tools. In Aug.25,1991 Linus Benedict Trovalds introduce a free operating system Linux 0.01 and ask his fellow net users for feedback to make it better and improved. Soon Linux 0.02 Came on Oct. 5. This started a remarkable journey of Linux. LINUX proved its reliability during attacks of CIH and love bug viruses. Linux like RedHat find a great response from public. Biggest problem with Linux is its text mode. So professional advent desktop environment such as KDE(K Desktop Environment) and GNOME. Linux is cheaper then other OS. It can run on various platforms.

3. What Are Embedded System :-
Embedded Systems are basically electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually in the form of microprocessor) within their implementation.Embedded Systems area are Hot because of following reasons. 1.Embedded system make a system more autonomous and smart then other system. 2.Embedded Microprocessors account for almost 100% of worldwide microprocessor production. 3.The ratio of Embedded microprocessor with their desktop is 100:1. 4.Average home has about 40-50 Embedded Processors.

4. What’s The Deal About Embedded Linux :-
Today Embedded Systems are are intricate due to the increasing complexity of the nature of the task they handle. Traditional embedded design methodology where the application developer use the issues of memory management and process scheduling Embedded linux provid a reliable and customizable platform for the developers to create their applications.

5. The Why’s of Embedded Linux :-
Free and Open Source. Well Documented. Network Friendly. Linux is Real-Time Too. Free Development Tools and Software.

6. Free and Open Source:-
Linux is free because it is distributed under GPL(GNU public license).With the source code always accessible, development of Embedded System is Easier and straightforward as Embedded Systems demand a high degree of customization. Well Documented:- Source code can not be usable without any documentation.Linux Open Source Community’s volunteer put several ‘How to’ and other guides on the net. It gives speed to the development process of Embedded Linux.

7. Network Friendly :-
Linux is pre-configured with TCP/IP protocol stack and IPX, SNA stacks are fully supported. Incorporation of TCP/IP reduces development time of Embedded Linux Systems. Linux is Real-Time Too :- Real-time systems produce the output response within a certain time limit.The time critical functions need to be done at interrupt level.The priority of these interrupts and the functions that they perform need to be carefully designed.RT-Linux fulfill this type of interrupt control. Free Development Tools and Software :- The most prominent tools is GNU tool chain consisting gcc(GNU C Compiler), gdb(GNU Debugger), gas(GNU assembler),GNU Linker. There are other development tools 16-bit compiler,assembler and linker for 8086 like bcc,as86and id86.

8. The How’s of Embedded Linux :-
Understanding application and Requirements. Size and Functionality Trade-off. Hardware and Platform Issues. The Linux Boot Process. Linux Device Drivers and the Kernel. Memory Management Issues. process and Threads. Inter process Communication. Interrupt Handling. RAM/ROM File Systems. TCP/IP Networking.

9. Understanding application and requirements :-
This is the first logical step towards creating an embedded System. Only those features are added which are most vital to the functioning of the System.This improves efficiency and reduces size of Embedded system. Size and Functionality Trade-off :- Embedded Linux distributions are available for all kinds of hardware and functional configuration that one can think of. The size-functionality trade-off is what should be considered with great care while choosing a particular distribution. Hardware and Platform Issues :- The same platform used for development and deployment of Embedded Linux for easily debugging and administering a system.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On DNA Computing

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PowerPoint Presentation On CODA

Presentation On CODA File System


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PowerPoint Presentation On Artificial Intelligence

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