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Thursday, October 8, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Railway

Presentation On Railway

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PowerPoint Presentation On Microvia Technology

Presentation On Microvia Technology

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Microvia Technology Presentation Transcript:
1. NEED OF MICROVIA
The development of very complex ICs with extremely high input output has forced the electronic manufacturer to develop new packaging and assembly techniques. Components with pitches less than 0.30mm,chip scale packages and flip chip tech are underlining this trend and highlight importance of new PCBs

2. REQUIREMENTS TO MICROVIA
Clean vias without residue. No delamination of copper and substrate. Big land diameter for robust interconnection to the inner layer.

3. MICROVIA FORMATION FORMATION METHODS:
Mechanically drilled vias. Etching. Plasma etching. Laser drilling.

4. COMPARISION
The following graph shows the dynamic range in hole sizes that different methods offer:

5. FUTURE APPLICATIONS:
In Automobile industries. Intelligent devices and systems. Mobiles phones. Also expected in Computers

6. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Load Sharing

Presentation On Load Sharing

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Load Sharing Presentation Transcript:
1. Base Papers
“Epoch load sharing” by Helen D. Kartza and Ralph C. Hilzer. “Effective Load Sharing on Heterogeneous Networks of Workstations” by Li Xiao, Xiaodong Zhang and Yanxia Qu.

2. Objectives
Define “Load Sharing”. What is Epoch Load Sharing? Define other load sharing strategies. Comparison. Examine Load Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks of Workstations. Compare all the techniques available.

3. Definition
Load balancing is to divide work evenly among the processors. Load sharing is to ensure that no processor remains idle when there are other heavily loaded processors in the system.

4. Algorithms
With sender-initiated algorithms, load-distribution activity is initiated when an over-loaded node (sender) tries to send a task to another under-loaded node (receiver). In receiver-initiated algorithms, load-distribution is initiated by an under-loaded node (receiver), when it requests a task from an over-loaded node (sender).

5. Scheduling Policies
Static Dynamic or Adaptive Probabilistic Deterministic

6. Static Policy
Scheduling policies that use information about the average behavior of the system and ignore the current state, are called static policies. The principle advantage of static policies is simplicity, since they do not require the maintenance and processing of system state information.

7. Static Policy
In the probabilistic case, the scheduling policy is described by state independent branching probabilities. Jobs are dispatched randomly to workstations with equal probability. In the deterministic case, routing decisions are based on system state, so jobs join the shortest of the all workstation queues.

8. Dynamic Policy
Policies that react to the system state are called adaptive or dynamic policies. Adaptive policies tend to be more complex, mainly because they require information on the system's current state when making transfer decisions. improve performance benefits over those achievable with static policies.

9. Dynamic Policy
When workstations become idle, jobs can migrate from heavily loaded workstation queues to idle workstations. Job Migration can be Receiver initiated or Sender initiated. It balances the job load and can improve overall system performance.

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PowerPoint Presentation On ESSAR

Presentation On Essar Power Limited

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ESSAR Presentation Transcript:
1. COMPANY PROFILE
Essar is one of India's largest corporate houses with leadership positions in the high-growth infrastructure sectors of Steel, Energy, Power, Communications, Shipping & Logistics, and Construction. Essar Power Holdings Ltd. was established in1991. The combined cycle power plant in Hazira with a generating capacity of 515MW is strategically located at Hazira in the state of Gujarat. It supplies power to Gujarat State Utility (300MW) and Essar Steel (215MW).

2. GENERATOR PROTECTION
Generator Differential Protection Generator rotor earth fault protection Generator negative phase sequence current protection Stator over voltage protection Stator under voltage protection Under frequency relay Overall differential relay

3. BUS-ZONE PROTECTION
Differential Current Protection High Impedance Relay Scheme Frame leakage Protection

4. SlOW CHANGEOVER CRITERION
System kept in auto mode Bus voltages may not be synchronous. Incomer / Bus coupler breaker trips. NO overcurrent on the bus which has tripped. (ie: no bus fault.) Voltage of the tripped bus less than 70%. Time taken for changeover is about 1.2 sec.

5. QUICK CHANGEOVER CRITERION
System kept in auto mode. Bus voltages shall be synchronous. Incomer / Bus coupler breaker trips. NO overcurrent on the bus which has tripped. (ie: no bus fault.) Voltage of the tripped bus less than 90%. Time taken for changeover is less than 100 mS

 6. INFRARED TECHNOLOGY
Using advanced infrared technology locate and identify problems not visible to the eye.  Verify many items, giving  hard copy documentation of the conditions inspected. A MIKRON infrared camera with temperature measurement and recording capabilities is used to produce images from the infrared spectrum.  Infrared radiation consists of electromagnetic wavelengths greater than visible light and shorter than microwaves.   All materials whose surface temperature is above absolute zero (-273 0C) emit infrared radiation; infrared radiation can be correlated to the objects surface temperature.   Temperature differences are shown by color/gray scale with temperature scale shown to the right..

7. THERMOGRAPHY
Definition of Infrared Thermography Infrared thermography is equipment or method, which detects infrared energy emitted from object, converts it to temperature, and displays image of temperature distribution. To be accurate, the equipment and the method should be called differently, the equipment to be called as infrared thermograph and the method to be called as infrared thermography. It is an electromagnetic wave.Wavelength is 0.7┬Ám or longer Wavelength is 1mm or less = Frequency is 300GHz or more.

 8. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Energy Meters

Presentation On Energy Meters

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Energy Meters Presentation Transcript:
1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANISATION
GENUS was established in 1995 in Jaipur. Accredited with ISO-9001:2000, IECQ, EMC, ISI and C-DOT Certifications Turnover of more than US$ 65 Million most modern plant with Class 10,000 and 100,000 clean room work areas Work areas include (i) Power Projects (ii) Inverters (iii) Energy Meters

2. Some of esteemed clients of Genus:
Reliance Energy Ahmedabad Electricity Co. Surat Electricity Co. Tata Power KSEB, ASEB, RSEB, MSEB, MPSEB (Electricity boards) UPPCL, UPCL, DHBVNL, JKPDD among others ITI - Bangalore / Mankapur / Rai Bareli CDOT - Bangalore / New Delhi Central Electronics Ltd. BSNL - Bangalore / Thiruvanthpuram / Chennai DRDO - Jodhpur Maruti Udyog Ltd. Instrumentation Ltd. - Kota BEL - Bangalore / Kotdwar

3. DESIGNING of PCB
The designing of PCB is done in the first stage. The designing of PCB includes the use of following aids and tools VISULA Software from ZUKEN REDAC for HMC's and PCB's. ORCAD Software for PCB Designing. Powerful SUN SPARC Workstations. Auto Interactive Routing. Floor planning Capabilities with Advanced Placement Tools. Connection Density/Thermal Mapping. Design Rule Checks. In-House Photo plotting Facility

4. DESIGNING of PCB….
SCREEN PRINTING DEK 1762 with print accuracy of better than 15 microns to process Ceramic substrates of size 152 x 152mm

5. SURFACE MOUNTING TECHNOLOGY (SMT)
 In SMT technology very small components are placed on the surface of the PCB The SMT is done in three steps (i) FIRING (ii) AUTOMATIC COMPONENTS PLACEMENT (iii) REFLOW SOLDERING

 6. FIRING
After the PCB designing is completed, pasting of solder paste is done to make the PCB ready to be processed for SMT technology. FIRING OF thick film pastes is performed on Computer controlled,
 7 Zones BTU furnaces

7. AUTOMATIC COMPONENTS PLACEMENT
The components are then placed by an automatic pick and place machine JUKI KE 2020 C. This machine get an input feed of different components and as fed in the software of the machine, components are picked and placed on the PCB.

8 PCB’s can be developed at the same time in the machine. High speed Pick & Place Machine with CCD Vision camera from MYDATA having placement rate of 4600 components per hour to place components of all types is shown in photo 8. REFLOW SOLDERING Soldering of the components placed is then done. This is done by Reflow Temperature Controller machine UIP 70. The temperature for the soldering in the different chambers of this machine range from 137 degree to 270 degree. The temperature is set according to the thickness of the board. More temperature is needed for a thick board. Solder re-flow on BTU Re-flow Furnace having 10 Zones.

9. MORE STEPS
AUTOMATIC OPTICAL INSPECTION PLACING OF DISCRETE COMPONENTS WAVE SOLDERING LEAD CROPPING PLACING OF LCD’s AND LED’s SETTING RTC FUNCTION TESTING CRC COATING QUALITY CONTROL

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Cables

Presentation On Cables

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Cables Presentation Transcript:
1. Establish in1981 Brand name is UNICAB Certified with ISO 9001 & 9002 One of its most modern mfg. plant is in Umbergaon, Gujarat

2. Energy Transfer Signal Light Power

3. Transfer data in the form of light Thin strand of pure glass Diameter approx human hair

4. Speed Bandwidth Distance Resistance Maintenance

5. Telecommunication cable 2-2400 pairs Copper conductor, gauge 0.5mm

6. Wire drawing PVC coating Twisting Final Sheath

7. Higher rating Under ground transmission line High power transfer 6.6kV-33kV XPLE material

8. Wire drawing stranding C.C.V line (Catenary Continuous Vulcanisation) Copper taping Laying Inner sheathing Armoring Outer sheathing

9. C.R test H.V test Partial discharge test Tensile strength test Synthetic material Property Application PVC insulation Size, Types Application

10. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Brain Fingerprinting

Presentation On Brain Fingerprinting

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Brain Fingerprinting Presentation Transcript:
1. What is Brain Fingerprinting?
Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain.

2. Quick Overview
Invented By Dr Lawrence A. Farwell. It’s a patented technique of proven accuracy in US government tests. Ruled Admissible in one US Court as scientific evidence. It has a record of 100% Accuracy.

3. How it works ?
On seeing a previously known information, a specific measurable brain response known as a P300 or MERMER i.e. Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response, is elicited by the brain of a subject.

4. What is P300/ MERMER?
A MERMER is a part of the brainwave observed in response to familiar information. When the brain recognizes something, neurons are fired synchronously, eliciting characteristic changes in brain activity. It is these changes, that investigators look for when trying to determine whether someone recognizes a particular piece of information.

5. Continued…
When a person is exposed to a rare, but meaningful information, there is increase in neuron activity which results in an increase in voltage, typically within 300–1000msec after the stimulus, and that response with increases voltage is known as P300. The utility of the P300 in detection of deception was recognized as early as 1988, However, the P300 has only a 87.5% success rate in revealing the presence of relevant information in one’s brain.

6. Continued...
But Farwell’s test is based on the discovery that the P300 is only a subcomponent of a more complicated response called a MERMER. The MERMER, includes the P300 and another longer latency, electrically negative subcomponent with a latency of up to two seconds post-stimulus

7. It incorporates the following procedure:
A sequence of words, phrases, or pictures is presented on a video monitor to the subject, wearing a special headband designed for detecting the brain wave responses. Three types of stimuli are presented: 1.Target 2. Irrelevant 3. Probe

8. Continued…
Target : The target stimuli are made relevant and noteworthy to all subjects. Irrelevant : These have no relation to the situation under investigation. Probes : Probes are the stimuli that are relevant to the situation under investigation.

9. Continued…
The targets provide a template for a response that will be generated when a subject recognizes a stimuli familiar to the situation under investigation. The irrelevant provide a template, for a response that will be generated when a subject don’t recognizes a stimuli familiar to the situation under investigation.

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Related Project Report:

Brain Fingerprinting

PowerPoint Presentation On Wind Farm

Presentation On Wind Farm

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Wind Farm Presentation Transcript:
1. INTRODUCTION TO SIM POWER SYSTEM
Sim Power Systems software and other products of the Physical Modeling product family work together with Simulink software to model electrical, mechanical, and control systems.

2. CONTENTS:-
Introduction Single-Line Diagram SimPowerSystems of the Wind Farm Connected to the Distribution System (power_wind_dfig) SimPowerSystems of the 2 MVA Plant with its Protection System Turbine Data Menu and the Turbine Power Characteristics Turbine Response to a Change in Wind Speed Simulation of a Fault on the 25-kV System Conclusion

3. INTRODUCTION:-
The wind farm consists of six 1.5 MW wind turbines connected to a 25 kV distribution system exporting power to a 120 kV grid through a 30 km 25 kV feeder. A 2300V, 2 MVA plant consisting of a motor load (1.68 MW induction motor at 0.93 PF) and of a 200 kW resistive load is connected on the same feeder at bus B25. A 500 kW load is also connected on the 575 V bus of the wind farm. Both the wind turbine and the motor load have a protection system monitoring voltage, current and machine speed.

4. Wind turbines use a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) consisting of a wound rotor induction generator and an AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter. The stator winding is connected directly to the 60 Hz grid while the rotor is fed at variable frequency through the AC/DC/AC converter Another advantage of the DFIG technology is the ability for power electronic converters to generate or absorb reactive power, thus eliminating the need for installing capacitor banks as in the case of squirrel-cage induction generators

5. TURBINE RESPONSE WITH CHANG IN WIND SPEED
The waveforms associated with this simulation. At t=5 s, the generated active power starts increasing smoothly (together with the turbine speed) to reach its rated value of 9MW in approximately 15s. Over that time frame the turbine speed increases from 0.8 p.u. to 1.21 pu. Initially, the pitch angle of the turbine blades is zero degree and the turbine operating point follows the red curve of the turbine power characteristics up to point D. Then the pitch angle is increased from 0 deg to 0.76 deg to limit the mechanical power. Observe also the voltage and the generated reactive power. The reactive power is controlled to maintain a 1 p.u. voltage. At nominal power, the wind turbine absorbs 0.68 Mvar (generated Q=-0.68 Mvar) to control voltage at 1pu. If you change the mode of operation to Var regulation with the Generated reactive power Qref set to zero, you will observe that the voltage increases to 1.021 p.u. when the wind turbine generates its nominal power at unity power factor

6. Simulation and Model-Based Design Simulink is an interactive tool for modeling, simulating, and analyzing dynamic, multidomain systems. It lets you accurately describe, simulate, evaluate, and refine a system's behavior through standard and custom block libraries. Simulink models have ready access to MATLAB, providing you with flexible operation and an extensive range of analysis and design tools.

7. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Touch Screen Technology

Presentation On Touch Screen Technology

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Touch Screen Technology Presentation Transcript:
1.HOW DOES TOUCH SCREEN WORK
Parts of Touch Screen System :
1.Touch Sensor
2.Controller
3.Software

2. TYPES OF TOUCH SCREENS
1.Resistive Touch Screens
2.Acoustic Wave Touch Screens
3.Capacitive Touch Screens

3. RESISTIVE TOUCH SCREENS
1.Five wire technology
2.Four and Eight wire technology Advantages of Resistive Touch Screens Disadvantages of Resistive Touch Screens

4. SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE TOUCH SCREENS
How Touch Screen Controller Interprets Screen Measurement? Advantages and disadvantages of Acoustic Wave Touch Screen

5. CAPACITIVE TOUCH SCREENS
Working of Capacitive Technology Advantages and disadvantages of Capacitive Touch Screens

6. CONSTRUCTION OF TOUCH SCREEN
1.Resistive: 1.Top 2.Inside 3.Bottom 2.Surface Acoustic Wave 3.Capacitive

7. APPLICATIONS OF TOUCH SCREENS
Public Information Displays Retail and Restaurant Systems

8. APPLICATIONS TOUCH SCREENS
Customer Self-Service Control and Automation Systems

9. APPLICATIONS OF TOUCH SCREENS
Computer Based Training Assistive Technology

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Electrical Instruments

Presentation On Electrical Instruments

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Electronic Testing

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PowerPoint Presentation On Industrial Automation

Presentation On Industrial Automation

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Industrial Automation Presentation Transcript:
1. Energy Medical engineering Real estate Control systems Transportation systems Information and communication systems Industrial projects Automation systems

2. Swichgear Motors Drives Automation system

3. It is an electronic device that controls machines and processes. With the introduction of micro controllers and development in the field of software technology has replaced the physical wiring of control devices A plc monitors inputs ,makes decision based on its program and controls outputs to automate a process or machine.

4. PLC’s are effective in totally eliminating the possibilities of human error. It is effective in the potentially high explosive chemical processes. It also ensures good quality under repetitive processes.

5. Statement list (stl) Function block diagram (fbd) Ladder logic (lad)

6. S7-200 CPU s support a variety of communication protocols :- Point to point interface Multipoint interface PROFIBUS - DP

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PowerPoint Presentation On Geophysical Instrumentation

Presentation On Geophysical Instrumentation

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Geophysical Instrumentation Presentation Transcript:
1. Providing the location on land for the geophysical survey. Types of Survey :- - 2D Survey - 3D Survey - 4D Survey ( Time Lapse )

2. Theodolites
Total Station Unit GPS

3. Theodolites -
Used to measure horizontal & vertical angles - Very old technique. - Not equipped with internal compass. - Principle of taking reading is based on optics. - Line of Sight is required.

4. Digital Display of angular measurements Capable of performing the calculation of slope to horizontal distances Advantage in speed and accuracy

5. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
Eliminating Cables and enables one person to carry out all the field measurements Allows person to determine the time and the precise location anywhere on earth

6. RECIEVERS
Accelerometers Geophone HydroPhones

7. Accelerometers
Hydrophones Used in Marine Work Based on the principle of Piezoelctricity Also known as Pressure Phones

8. Geophone
Based on the principle that the relative motion b/w coil and Magnet produces emf Spring is used for damping

9. Explosive Sources
- Dynamite - Gas Gun Non Explosive Sources - Weight Drop Technique - Vibrator

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Control Panels

Presentation On Control Panels

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Control Panels Presentation Transcript:
1. Control Circuit Components Push Button Contactor Relay d.c. a.c. 1.Voltage relay 2.Current relay 3.Thremal overload relay Fuse

2. TYPES OF MOTORS
A.C. MOTORS D.C. MOTORS

3. Types of motor Connection
Direct on-line motor connection Reverse Direct on-line motor connection Manual star-delta motor connection Automatic star-delta motor connection

4. Direct on-line Motor
Control Panel Bus bar Selector switch Fuse Contactor Over load relay Transformer Emergency feeder Wiring diagram Terminals Testing

5. Direct reverse
on-line motor Bus bar Selector switch Fuse Contactor Over load relay Transformer Emergency feeder Wiring diagram Terminals Testing

6. Protection devices
 Overload protection Overload relay Short circuit protection Fuse Thermal protection Thermistor type relay

7. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Aditya Cement

Presentation On Aditya Cement

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PPT On Birla Cement

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