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Thursday, July 25, 2013

PPT On Introduction To Nanotechnology

Presentation On Introduction To Nanotechnology

Introduction To Nanotechnology Presentation Transcript:



4.What is Nanotechnology?
Technology which is done at the molecular level.
Nanotechnology is basically the mechanisms that have been built by nano scale components using to place every atom and molecule in a desired place.
Nanotechnology means “The science, engineering and technology related to the understanding and control of matter at the length scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers”.

5.Nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman.



How big or small are we talking     about?


10.Salient Features
Make nanoscale objects to obtain special properties. Use nanotechnology to manufacture other things. Nanotechnology deals with putting things together atom by atom and with structures so small they are invisible to the naked eye. It provides the ability to create materials, devices and systems with fundamentally new functions and properties.

PPT On National Capital Navigator

Presentation On National Capital Navigator

National Capital Navigator Presentation Transcript:
1.National Capital Navigator

National Capital Navigator is a high-end offline/online tour guide Android Application. It is a complete virtual tour guide to the magnanimous Indian metropolis. It gives detailed information about the weather, metro, must visit spots, hotels, nightlight, restaurants, emergency and help. It is a collection of information about the most exotic and best places in Delhi.

3.Technologies Used


JAVA 1.6

Android 2.3

4.Tools to be Used
Eclipse IDE

Windows 7 Operating System

Android SDK

Weather: It enables users to get the most recent weather updates before they step out to explore the city.

Metro: It enables users to travel through the Metro and reach their destinations on time. Check the available Routes, Schedules and Metro Stations offline, now with accurate detailed train timings.

Must Visit: It lets users to get detailed information about  hot-spots like the Red Fort, Qutub Minar, Chandni Chowk, Lodi Gardens, India Gate, Humayun's Tomb, Garden of Five Senses, Jama Masjid, Gandhi Smriti, Akshardham Temple, Jantar Mantar and other iconic places in delhi with a snapshot, address and Google Locations.

6.Nightlife: It lets users to experience city in some of the most top notch places such as Machan - The Taj Mahal Hotel, Oro The Bar - Radisson Blu, Kafe Fontana - Taj Palace Hotel, Onyx Bar - The Royal Plaza, The Blue Bar - Taj Palace Hotel, Threesixty Degrees - The Oberoi, and others.

Hotels: It helps the users to get a reservation in a hotel by providing e-mail id’s and contact numbers of the city’s best hotels. It also allows them to check the ratings, amenities, location, cuisine served at the hotel, all in a few clicks.

7.Emergency: It provides the users with quick emergency help in Delhi. Be it Medical, Transport and/or Crime help anywhere anytime, find all numbers installed within the application.

Eating Out: It lets the users to discover the most famous and best places for Dinner with friends and family. Locate the Indian as well the International Cuisines famous in the capital.






COMPUTER NETWORKS Presentation Transcript:

A network is a collection of computers connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information.

The Advance Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed "Advanced Research Projects Agency Network" (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense. It was the first computer network in the world.

3.Benefits of Computer Network
Cost Effective Resource Sharing
By networking your business computers you can reduce the amount of money you spend on hardware by sharing components and peripherals while also reducing the amount of time you spend managing your computer system.
Equipment sharing is extremely beneficial: when you share resources, you can buy equipment with features that you would not otherwise be able to afford as well as utilize the full potential of that equipment on your network. A properly designed network can result in both lower equipment costs and increased productivity.

4.  Streamlined Business Processes
A well-designed computer network produces benefits on several fronts: within the company, between companies, and between companies and their customers. Within the company, networks enable businesses to streamline their internal business processes. Common tasks such as employee collaboration on projects, provisioning, and holding meetings can take less time and be much less expensive. For example, a managing editor, associate editors, writers, and artists may need to work together on a publication.

5. Freedom to Choose the Right Tool
A networking solution that enables data and resource sharing between different types or brands of hardware, operating systems, and communication protocols—an open networking environment—adds another dimension to the information-sharing capabilities inherent in computer networking.

6.Powerful, Flexible Collaboration b/w Companies
When two or more companies connect selected portions of their networks, they can streamline business processes that normally occupy inordinate amounts of time and effort and that often become weak points in their productivity

7.Secure Management Of Sensitive Information
Another significant advantage of computer networking is the ability to protect access to network resources and files. A network that is properly designed has extremely powerful security features that enable you to control who will have access to sensitive data, equipment, and other resources. This control can be exercised over both your own employees and those outside your company who access your system over the Internet.

Personal Area Network (PAN)
Local Area Network (LAN)
Campus Area Network (CAN)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Global Area Network (GAN)

A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings, however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves.
There are many different types of LANs, with Ethernets being the most common for PCs. Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apple's AppleTalk network system, which is built into Macintosh computers.

10.A conceptual diagram of a local area network using 10BASE5 Ethernet



OBJECT ORIENTED TESTING Presentation Transcript:

The class is the smallest unit for testing. This is due to the following reasons.

A) methods are meaningless apart form their class.
B) we can design, method tests, only if we take a class into consideration.
C) class behavior should be verified before a class is reused or promoted to a library.

The goal is to provide some design paradigms that help us to perform object oriented testing (OOT).
Object oriented software centers on a class and the inheritance and encapsulation that affect a class.

4.The class clusters are the practical unit for testing.

A) it is typically impossible to test a class in total isolation.

B) it is not cost effective to develop a complete set of drivers and stubs for every class.

C) a smaller testing budget usually means larger clusters.

A state machine can model the behavior of such classes. They are also called as sequential machines.

The state determined message response patterns are called the behaviour of an objects.

State machines are an engineering application of mathematical models known as finite automata.

6.State-Based Behaviour
A state machine accepts only certain sequences of input and rejects all other. State based behaviour means that the same input is not necessarily always accepted and when accepted, does not necessarily produce the same output.

A state machine is a model that describes behaviour of the system under test in terms of events, states and actions.

7.Mealy/Moore Machines
There are two main variants of state models
Moore Machines
Transitions do no have output
An output action is associated with each state.
Mealy Machine
Transitions have output
No output action is associated with state
In software engineering models, the output action often represents activation of a process, program method or module

8.Design guidelines- Basic requirements
One state must be designated as the initial state.
At least, one state must be designated as the final state. If not, assumptions about termination should be made explicit.
There are no equivalent states. (equivalent state produce exactly the same response for all events visible to the machine in question)
Every defined event and every defined action must appear in at least one transition.
There should be an explicit definition of the mechanism to handle events which are implicity rejected.

9.Limitations of the Basic State Models.
State diagrams can be easily drawn or read up to 20 states. Tabular representation helps but is not suitable for large states.
Concurrency cannot be modeled. Only a single state may be active, so the basic model cannot accommodate two or more simultaneous transition processes. Only one state may client/server system.
With even a moderately large number of states, a state diagram becomes a spaghetti ball.
Basic models do not offer any mechanisms for partitioning or hierarchic abstraction  .

Concatenation involves the formation of a subclass that has no locally defined features other than the minimum requirement of a class definition.
Class hierarchies that do not meet these condition are very likely to be buggy.




Organizing involves determining the activities to be done, grouping the activities, assigning the grouped activities to individuals, and creating a structure of authority and responsibility among the people to achieve the objectives of the enterprise.
Organizing is an important function of management by which management brings together the human and material resources.

Framework of duties and responsibilities through which an enterprise functions.
Defines the scope of activities of the enterprise by laying down the structure of relationships.
Dynamic entity
Mechanism through which management directs, coordinates and controls.

A set of planned relationships between groups of related functions and between physical factors and personnel required for the performance of the functions
Shown on an organization chart
Shows authority and responsibility relationship
Lays down pattern of communication and co-ordination in an enterprise

Determination of Objectives
Division of Activities
Creating and Grouping of Jobs
Assignment of Groups of Job
Creation of Managerial Hierarchy
Establishing Integration Mechanism


Differentiation is the process of dividing and sub-dividing a unit of activity and authority and segmenting it into identifiable sub-units.

Integration is the collaboration among various sub-units and manages that is needed to achieve a common purpose



The Organization chart is a graphic means of showing organization data.

According to Henry Albers ,”An organization chart portrayers managerial positions and relationships in a company or a department unit.”

PPT On Phishing

Presentation On Phishing


Phishing Presentation Transcript:

2.What is Phishing??
Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one.

3.Techniques Of Phishing
Spear Phishing
      Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spearphishing.

        Phishing attacks directed specifically at senior executives and other high profile targets within businesses.

Evil Twins
         Phisher creates a fake wireless network that looks similar to a legitimate public network that may be found in public places such as airports, hotels or coffee shops.
4.Phone Phishing
    uses fake caller-ID data to give the appearance that calls  come from a trusted organization.

       It takes advantage of the multiple tabs that users use and silently redirects a user to the affected site.

5.Phishing Process
Identity Theft & Fraud

6.Damages Caused By Phishing
Damage caused by phishing ranges from denial of access of e-mail to substantial financial loss.

It is estimated that between May 2009 and May 2010, approximately 1.2 million computer users in the United States suffered losses caused by phishing, totalling approximately US$929 million.

7.Reasons For Successful Phishing
Lack Of Knowledge.
User’s don’t give Proper attention to read the Warning.
Lack of attention to the absence of security indicators.

8.Reasons For Successful Phishing

9.Anti Phishing
There are several different techniques to combat phishing, including legislation and technology created specifically to protect against phishing.  Most new internet browsers come with anti-phishing software.

10.Social responses
train people to recognize phishing   attempts. People can take steps to avoid phishing attempts by slightly modifying their browsing habits. legitimate e-mail messages from companies to their customers contain an item of information that is not readily available to phishers.

PPT On Managing And Monitoring Network

Presentation On Managing And Monitoring Network

Managing And Monitoring Network Presentation Transcript:
1.Managing & Monitoring Network

2.Resource Sharing
Microsoft uses very specific terms to describe elements of internetworking structure.
There are five basic terms :

A resource – essential component to use or share on the network .
Resources could be of any file, any machine or any printer devices or any specific program.
Without networking, a resources can be accessed physically sitting on that machine which has that resources installed – either local machine or local printer

4.Networking structure grants capability to use a server computer to share resources with others @ remote client machines.

When users get grant to access other resource – like a file, CD-ROM drive, printer & so on…
A shared resources is what a user grant other user to make it available to use.
Some resources are not available until administrator manually share out the resources.
Files & printer are the sharing resources.

6.Even resources are password protected, so granted user will get access only.

User is who requests network resources.
In big network – login name & password is required.
Users can be created on any operating system like WinNT, Netware, Unix
Win 95 & Windows for workgroup enables creation of individual profiles

Groups are administrative units – comprised of one or more users with similar needs of network resources.
Users are placed into groups, resources access is managed on a group basis.
Much more easier to manage 5 groups rather than 500 users.

9.Two types of groups are exist on WinNT
Local group
Global group

Security is the process of giving “Rights” or “Permissions” to groups or users.
Users get access as per the security parameters : rights & permission are like Read, Write, Change or Full access.

PPT On Binary Codes

Presentation On Binary Codes

Binary Codes Presentation Transcript:
1.Binary Codes

2.In the coding, when numbers, letters or words are represented by a specific group of symbols, it is said that the number, letter or word is being encoded.
The group of symbols is called as a code. The digital data is represented, stored and transmitted as group of binary bits. This group is also called as binary code. The binary code is represented by the number as well as alphanumeric letter.

3.Advantages of Binary Code
Following is the list of advantages that binary code offers.
Binary codes are suitable for the computer applications.
Binary codes are suitable for the digital communications.
Binary codes make the analysis and designing of digital circuits if we use the binary codes.
Since only 0 & 1 are being used, implementation becomes easy.

4.Classification of binary codes
The codes are broadly categorized into following four categories.
Weighted Codes
Non-Weighted Codes
Binary Coded Decimal Code
Alphanumeric Codes
Error Detecting Codes
Error Correcting Codes

5.Weighted Codes
Weighted binary codes are those binary codes which obey the positional weight principle. Each position of the number represents a specific weight. Several systems of the codes are used to express the decimal digits 0 through 9. In these codes each decimal digit is represented by a group of four bits.

6.Weighted Codes

7.Non-Weighted Codes
In this type of binary codes, the positional weights are not assigned. The examples of non-weighted codes are Excess-3 code and Gray code.
The Excess-3 code is also called as XS-3 code. It is non-weighted code used to express decimal numbers. The Excess-3 code words are derived from the 8421 BCD code words adding (0011)2 or (3)10 to each code word in 8421. The excess-3 codes are obtained as follows

It is the non-weighted code and it is not arithmetic codes. That means there are no specific weights assigned to the bit position. It has a very special feature that has only one bit will change, each time the decimal number is incremented as shown in fig. As only one bit changes at a time, the gray code is called as a unit distance code. The gray code is a cyclic code. Gray code cannot be used for arithmetic operation.

Gray code is popularly used in the shaft position encoders.
A shaft position encoder produces a code word which represents the angular position of the shaft.

10.Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) code
In this code each decimal digit is represented by a 4-bit binary number. BCD is a way to express each of the decimal digits with a binary code. In the BCD, with four bits we can represent sixteen numbers (0000 to 1111). But in BCD code only first ten of these are used (0000 to 1001). The remaining six code combinations i.e. 1010 to 1111 are invalid in BCD.

PPT On C++ Basic Input/Output

Presentation On C++ Basic Input/Output

C++ Basic Input/Output Presentation Transcript:
1.C++ Basic Input/Output

2.C++ Basic Input/Output
The C++ standard libraries provide an extensive set of input/output capabilities which we will see in subsequent chapters. This chapter will discuss very basic and most common I/O operations required for C++ programming.
C++ I/O occurs in streams, which are sequences of bytes. If bytes flow from a device like a keyboard, a disk drive, or a network connection etc. to main memory

3.this is called input operation and if bytes flow from main memory to a device like a display screen, a printer, a disk drive, or a network connection, etc, this is called output operation.

4.I/O Library Header Files:

5.The standard output stream (cout):
The predefined object cout is an instance of ostream class. The cout object is said to be "connected to" the standard output device, which usually is the display screen. The cout is used in conjunction with the stream insertion operator, which is written as << which are two less than signs as shown in the following example.

using namespace std;
int main( )
char str[] = "Hello C++";
cout << "Value of str is : "
<< str << endl;
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces following result:
Value of str is : Hello C++

7.The C++ compiler also determines the data type of variable to be output and selects the appropriate stream insertion operator to display the value. The << operator is overloaded to output data items of built-in types integer, float, double, strings and pointer values.
The insertion operator << may be used more than once in a single statement as shown above andendl is used to add a new-line at the end of the line.

8.The standard input stream (cin):
The predefined object cin is an instance of istream class. The cin object is said to be attached to the standard input device, which usually is the keyboard.
The cin is used in conjunction with the stream extraction operator, which is written as >> which are two greater than signs as shown in the following example.

using namespace std;
int main( )
char name[50];
cout << "Please enter your name: ";
 cin >> name;
 cout << "Your name is: " << name << endl;

10.You enter a value and then hit the enter to see the result something as follows:
Please enter your name:
cplusplus Your name is: cplusplus
The C++ compiler also determines the data type of the entered value and selects the appropriate stream extraction operator to extract the value and store it in the given variables.
The stream extraction operator >> may be used more than once in a single statement. To request more than one datum you can use the following:

PPT On C++ Data Types

Presentation On C++ Data Types

C++ Data Types Presentation Transcript:
1.C++ Data Types

2.C++ Data Types
While doing programming in any programming language, you need to use various variables to store various information.
Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory.
You may like to store information of various data type like character, wide character, integer, floating point, double floating point, boolean etc.
Based on the data type of a variable, the operating system allocates memory and decides what can be stored in the reserved memory.

3.Primitive Built-in Types:

4.Several of the basic types can be modified using one or more of these type modifiers:
The following table shows the variable type, how much memory it takes to store the value memory, and what is maximum and minimum vaue which can be stored in such type of variables.

5.The sizes of variables might be different from those shown in the above table, depending on the compiler and the computer you are using.
Following is the example which will produce correct size of various data type on your computer.

using namespace std;
int main()
cout << "Size of char : " << sizeof(char) << endl;
cout << "Size of int : " << sizeof(int) << endl;
 cout << "Size of short int : " << sizeof(short int) << endl;
cout << "Size of long int : " << sizeof(long int) << endl;
cout << "Size of float : " << sizeof(float) << endl;
cout << "Size of double : " << sizeof(double) << endl;
cout << "Size of wchar_t : " << sizeof(wchar_t) << endl;
 return 0;

7.This example uses endl which inserts a new-line character after every line and << operator is being used to pass multiple values out to the screen.
We are also using sizeof() function to get size of various data types.
When the above code is compiled and executed,
it produces following result which can vary from machine to machine:

8.Size of char : 1
Size of int : 4
Size of short int : 2
Size of long int : 4
 Size of float : 4
Size of double : 8
Size of wchar_t : 4

9.Typedef Declarations:
You can create a new name for an existing type using typedef. Following is the simple syntax to define a new type using typedef:
typedef type newname;
For example, the following tells the compiler that feet is another name for int:
typedef int feet;
Now, the following declaration is perfectly legal and creates an integer variable called distance:
feet distance;

10.Enumerated Types:
An enumerated type declares an optional type name and a set of zero or more identifiers that can be used as values of the type. Each enumerator is a constant whose type is the enumeration.
To create an enumeration requires the use of the keyword enum. The general form of an enumeration type is:
enum enum-name { list of names } var-list;
Here, The enum-name is the enumeration's type name. The list of names is comma separated.
For example, the following code defines an enumeration of colors called colors and the variable c of type color. Finally, c is assigned the value "blue".

PPT On C++ Overview

Presentation On C++ Overview

C++ Overview Presentation Transcript:
1.C++ Overview

2.C++ Overview
C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming.
C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.
C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey as an enhancement to the C language and originally named C with Classes but later it was renamed C++ in 1983.

3.C++ is a superset of C, and that virtually any legal C program is a legal C++ program.
Note: A programming language is said to use static typing when type checking is performed during compile-time as opposed to run-time.

4.Object-Oriented Programming
C++ fully supports object-oriented programming, including the four pillars of object-oriented development:
Data hiding

5.Standard Libraries
Standard C++ consists of three important parts:
The core language giving all the building blocks including variables, data types and literals etc.
The C++ Standard Library giving a rich set of functions manipulating files, strings etc.
The Standard Template Library (STL) giving a rich set of methods manipulating data structures etc.

6.The ANSI Standard
The ANSI standard is an attempt to ensure that C++ is portable -- that code you write for Microsoft's compiler will compile without errors, using a compiler on a Mac, Unix, a Windows box, or an Alpha.
The ANSI standard has been stable for a while, and all the major C++ compiler manufacturers support the ANSI standard.

7.Learning C++
The most important thing to do when learning C++ is to focus on concepts and not get lost in language technical details.
The purpose of learning a programming language is to become a better programmer;
 that is, to become more effective at designing and implementing new systems and at maintaining old ones.

8.C++ supports a variety of programming styles. You can write in the style of Fortran, C, Smalltalk, etc., in any language. Each style can achieve its aims effectively while maintaining runtime and space efficiency.

9.Use of C++
C++ is used by hundreds of thousands of programmers in essentially every application domain.
C++ is being highly used to write device drivers and other software that rely on direct manipulation of hardware under realtime constraints.
C++ is widely used for teaching and research because it is clean enough for successful teaching of basic concepts.

10.Anyone who has used either an Apple Macintosh or a PC running Windows has indirectly used C++ because the primary user interfaces of these systems are written in C++.

PPT On C++ Strings

Presentation On C++ Strings

C++ Strings Presentation Transcript:
1.C++ Strings

2.C++ Strings
C++ provides following two types of string representations:
The C-style character string.
The string class type introduced with Standard C++.

3.The C-Style Character String:
The C-style character string originated within the C language and continues to be supported within C++.
This string is actually a one-dimensional array of characters which is terminated by a nullcharacter '\0'. Thus a null-terminated string contains the characters that comprise the string followed by a null.
The following declaration and initialization create a string consisting of the word "Hello

4.". To hold the null character at the end of the array, the size of the character array containing the string is one more than the number of characters in the word "Hello.“
char greeting[6] = {'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
If you follow the rule of array initialization then you can write the above statement as follows:
char greeting[] = "Hello";

5.Actually, you do not place the null character at the end of a string constant. The C++ compiler automatically places the '\0' at the end of the string when it initializes the array. Let us try to print above mentioned string:

using namespace std;
int main ()
char greeting[6] = {'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
cout << "Greeting message: ";
 cout << greeting << endl;
return 0;
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces result something as follows:
Greeting message: Hello

7.C++ supports a wide range of functions that manipulate null-terminated strings:

using namespace std;
int main ()
char str1[10] = "Hello";
char str2[10] = "World";
char str3[10]; int len ;
 // copy str1 into str3 strcpy( str3, str1);
cout << "strcpy( str3, str1) : " << str3 << endl;
// concatenates str1 and str2 strcat( str1, str2);
cout << "strcat( str1, str2): " << str1 << endl;
// total lenghth of str1 after concatenation
len = strlen(str1);
cout << "strlen(str1) : " << len << endl;
return 0;

9.When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces result something as follows:
strcpy( str3, str1) : Hello
strcat( str1, str2): HelloWorld
strlen(str1) : 10

10.The String Class in C++:
The standard C++ library provides a string class type that supports all the operations mentioned above, additionally much more functionality. We will study this class in C++ Standard Library but for now let us check following example:

At this point you may not understand this example because so far we have not discussed Classes and Objects. So can have a look and proceed until you have understanding on Object Oriented Concepts.

PPT On Computer Data And Information

Presentation On Computer Data And Information

Computer Data And Information Presentation Transcript: 

1.Computer - Data & information

2.What is Data?
Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts or instruction in a formalized manner which should be suitable for communication , interpretation or processing by human or electronic machine.
Data is represented with the help of characters like alphabets (A-Z,a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters(+,-,/,*,<,>,= etc).

3.Raw Computer Data

4.What is Information?
Information is organised or classified data so that it has some meaningful values to the receiver.
Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based.
For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics
Timely - Information should be available when required.

5.Accuracy - Information should be accurate.
Completeness - Information should be complete
Computer information

6.Data Processing Cycle
Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness & add values for particular purpose.
Data processing consists of basic steps input, processing and output. These three steps constitute the data processing cycle.

7.Computer Data

8.Input -
 In this step the input data are prepared in some convenient form for processing.
The form will depend on the processing machine.
For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data could be recorded on any one of several types of input medium,
such as magnetic disks, tapes and so on.

9.Processing -
In this step input data are changed to produce data in a more useful form.
For example, pay-checks may be calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month may be calculated from the sales orders.

Here the result of the proceeding processing step are collected.
The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data.
For example, output data may be pay-checks for employees.

PPT On Computer Number System

Presentation On Computer Number System

Computer Number System Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer - Number System

2.When we type some letters or words, the computer translates them in numbers as computers can understand only numbers.
A computer can understand positional number system where there are only a few symbols called digits and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy in the number.

3.A value of each digit in a number can be determined usingThe digit
The position of the digit in the number
The base of the number system (where base is defined as the total number of digits available in the number system).

4.Decimal Number System
The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system.
Decimal number system has base 10 as it uses 10 digits from 0 to 9. In decimal number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point represent units, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on.
Each position represents a specific power of the base (10). For example,

5.the decimal number 1234 consists of the digit 4 in the units position, 3 in the tens position, 2 in the hundreds position, and 1 in the thousands position, and its value can be written as
(1x1000)+ (2x100)+ (3x10)+ (4xl)
(1x103)+ (2x102)+ (3x101)+ (4xl00)
1000 + 200 + 30 + 1

6.As a computer programmer or an IT professional, you should understand the following number systems which are frequently used in computers.

7.Number System & Description
Binary Number System Base 2. Digits used: 0, 1
Octal Number System Base 8. Digits used: 0 to 7
Hexa Decimal Number System Base 16. Digits used: 0 to 9, Letters used: A- F

8. Binary Number System
Uses two digits, 0 and 1.
Also called base 2 number system
Each position in a binary number represents a 0 power of the base (2). Example 20
Last position in a binary number represents a x power of the base (2). Example 2x where x represents the last position - 1.

Binary Number: 101012
Calculating Decimal Equivalent:

10.Octal Number System
Uses eight digits, 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7.
Also called base 8 number system
Each position in a octal number represents a 0 power of the base (8). Example 80
Last position in a octal number represents a x power of the base (8). Example 8x where x represents the last position - 1.

PPT On Computer Operating System

Presentation On Computer Operating System

Computer Operating System Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer - Operating System

2.Computer - Operating System
An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware.
It is an integration set of specialised programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer.
It is specialised software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer, including application programs and other system software.

3. Objectives of Operating System
Making a computer system convenient to use in an efficient manner
To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users
To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system.
To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users and making it easier for the users to access and use other resources.
Manage the resources of a computer system.

4.keep track of who is using which resource, granting resource requests, according for resource using and mediating conflicting requests from different programs and users.
The efficient and fair sharing of resources among users and programs

5.Operating System

6.Characteristics of Operating System
Memory Management -- It keeps tracks of primary memory i.e what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use etc.Allocates the memory when the process or program request it.
Processor Management -- Allocate the processor(CPU) to a process. Deallocate processor when processor is no longer required.
Device Management -- Keep tracks of all devices. This is also called I/O controller. Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time.

7.File Management -- Allocates the resources. De-allocates the resource. Decides who gets the resources.
Security -- By means of passwords & similar other techniques, preventing unauthorized access to programs & data.
Job accounting -- Keeping track of time & resources used by various jobs and/or users.
Control over system performance -- Recording delays between request for a service & from the system.

8.Interaction with the operators -- The interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. Operating System acknowledges the same, do the corresponding action and inform the operation by a display screen.

Error-detecting aids -- Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error-detecting methods.

9.Coordination between other software and users -- Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.


Presentation On RAM

RAM Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer - RAM

A RAM constitutes the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and program result. It is read/write memory. It is called random access memory (RAM).
Since access time in RAM is independent of the address to the word that is, each storage location inside the memory is as easy to reach as other location & takes the same amount of time. We can reach into the memory at random & extremely fast but can also be quite expensive.

3.RAM is volatile, i.e. data stored in it is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. Hence a backup uninterruptible power system(UPS) is often used with computers. RAM is small , both in terms of its physical size and in the amount of data it can hold.

4.There is two type of RAM:-

Static RAM (SRAM)
Dynamic RAM (DRAM)


6.Static RAM (SRAM)
The word static indicates that the memory retains its contents as long as power remains applied. However, data is lost when the power gets down due to volatile nature.
SRAM chips use a matrix of 6-transistors and no capacitors. Transistors do not require power to prevent leakage, so SRAM need not have to be refreshed on a regular basis.

7.Because of the extra space in the matrix, SRAM uses more chips than DRAM for the same amount of storage space, thus making the manufacturing costs higher.
Static RAM is used as cache memory needs to be very fast and small.

8.Characteristic of the Static RAM
It has long data lifetime
There is no need to refresh
Used as cache memory
Large size
High power consumption

9.Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
DRAM,unlike SRAM, must be continually refreshed in order for it to maintain the data.
This is done by placing the memory on a refresh circuit that rewrites the data several hundred times per second.
DRAM is used for most system memory because it is cheap and small. All DRAMs are made up of memory cells. These cells are composed of one capacitor and one transistor.

10.Characteristic of the Dynamic RAM
It has short data lifetime
Need to refresh continuously
Slower as compared to SRAM
Used as RAM
lesser in size
Less expensive
Less power consumption

PPT On Computer Fundamentals

Presentation On Computer Fundamentals

Computer Fundamentals Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer Fundamentals

2.What is Computer?
Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and
processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives
the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and
non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
A computer has four functions:
a. accepts data:-          Input
b. processes data:-      Processing
c. produces output:-    Output
d. stores results:-          Storage

3.Input (Data):
Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the
input devices. It is the Collection of letters, numbers, images

Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is
totally internal process of the computer system.

Output is the processed data given by computer after data pr-
ocessing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these
results in the storage devices for the future use.

4.Computer System
All of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the simple
Hardware = Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices
All physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are known as
Software = Programs
Software gives "intelligence" to the computer.
USER = Person, who operates computer.

5.Digital and Analog Computers
A digital computer uses distinct values to represent the data internally. All information are represented using the digits 0s and 1s. The computers that we use at our homes and offices are digital computers.
Analog computer is another kind of a computer that represents data as variable across a continuous range of values. The earliest computers were analog computers.
 Analog computers are used for measuring of parameters that vary continuously in real time, such as temperature, pressure and voltage. Analog computers may be more flexible but generally less precise than digital computers. Slide rule is an example of an analog computer.
This book deals only with the digital computer and uses the term computer for them.

6.Characteristics of Computer/Advantages
Speed, accuracy, diligence, storage capability and versatility are some of the key characteristics of a computer. A brief overview of these characteristics are
Speed:- The computer can process data very fast, at the rate of millions of instructions per second. Some calculations that would have taken hours and days to complete otherwise, can be completed in a few seconds using the computer. For example, calculation and generation of salary slips of thousands of employees of an organization, weather forecasting that requires analysis of a large amount of data related to temperature, pressure and humidity of various places, etc.
Accuracy:- Computer provides a high degree of accuracy. For example, the computer can accurately give the result of division of any two numbers up to 10 decimal places.

7.Diligence:- When used for a longer period of time, the computer does not get tired or fatigued. It can perform long and complex calculations with the same speed and accuracy from the start till the end.
Storage Capability:- Large volumes of data and information can be stored in the computer and also retrieved whenever required. A limited amount of data can be stored, temporarily, in the primary memory. Secondary storage devices like floppy disk and compact disk can store a large amount of data permanently.
Versatility:- Computer is versatile in nature. It can perform different types of tasks with the same ease. At one moment you can use the computer to prepare a letter document and in the next moment you may play music or print a document.

Computer is a automatic machine.
Automation means ability to perform the task automatically.
Once a program is given to computer i.e. stored in computer memory, the program and instruction can control the program execution without human interaction.

Reduction in Paper Work:-
The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and speeds up the process.
As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the problem of maintenance of large number of files gets reduced.


Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.

Following list demonstrates the disadvantages of Computers in today's arena.
No i.q:-
A computer is a machine and has no intelligence of its own to perform any task.
Each and every instruction has to be given to computer.
A computer can not take any decision on its own.
It can perform function as instructed by user.So it is fully dependent on human being.

PPT On Computer Memory

Presentation On Computer Memory

Computer Memory Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer - Memory

2.A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instruction. Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored.
The memory is divided into large number of small parts. Each part is called cell. Each location or cell has a unique address which varies from zero to memory size minus one.
For example if computer has 64k words, then this memory unit has 64 * 1024=65536 memory location. The address of these locations varies from 0 to 65535.

3.Memory is primarily of three types
Cache Memory
Primary Memory/Main Memory
Secondary Memory

4.Cache Memory
Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up CPU. It acts as a buffer between the CPU and main memory.
It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by CPU. The parts of data and programs are transferred from disk to cache memory by operating system, from where CPU can access them.

5.Advantage/ Disadvantage
Cache memory is faster than main memory.
It consumes less access time as compared to main memory.
It stores the program that can be executed within a short period of time.
It stores data for temporary use.
Cache memory has limited capacity.
It is very expensive.

6.Cache memory

7.Primary Memory (Main Memory)
Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It has limited capacity and data get lost when power is switched off.
It is generally made up of semiconductor device. These memories are not as fast as registers. The data and instruction required to be processed earlier reside in main memory. It is divided into two subcategories RAM and ROM.

8.Characteristic of Main Memory
These are semiconductor memories.
It known as main memory.
Usually volatile memory.
Data is lost in case power is switch off.
It is working memory of the computer.
Faster than secondary memories.
A computer cannot run without primary memory.

9.Primary memory

10.Secondary Memory
This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. It is slower than main memory. These are used for storing Data/Information permanently.
CPU directly does not access these memories instead they are accessed via input-output routines. Contents of secondary memories are first transferred to main memory, and then CPU can access it.For example: disk, CD-ROM,DVD etc.

PPT On Computer Network Topology

Presentation On Computer Network Topology

Computer Network Topology Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer network Topology & Architecture

2.Access Methods Contention
An Access method – set of rules – how network nodes share the transmission medium.
A pair of fundamental philosophies are
First come First served
Take turn
Media Access Methods of three types
    Token Passing
The way devices on the network – physically connected is known as the topology .
Topology is a map of the network – plan for how the cabling interconnect the nodes.

3.Contention / Polling / Token Passing
Contention – computers are contending for use of the transmission medium.
Any computer – network transmit data @ any time (first come first served)
Polling – one device is responsible for polling– other devices to see –ready for transmission / receiving data.
Token Ring – Computers take turns – to use transmission medium.
New Access Method – Demand Priority – resolves contention and doing accounts – data type priorities.

In pure contention based control – any computer can transmit – any time.
Collision occurs -- two computers – transmit – at the same time –disrupt each other’s signaling
Modern Contention Based networks – devices listens for other signals on the media before transmitting – Collisions are not totally eliminated  – kept down to manageable levels – technique known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access or CSMA
Two types of CSMA are ………
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance

Device “listens” to media – any other transmission
Media quiet -- device proceeds to start transmitting data
After transmits its data – listens to the media to detect any collision
If collision detects – device send a signal for all other device not to send data for a small period of time to clear all signals from the media
Trasmitting device – wait a random amount of time b’fore sending its data
If second collision occurs with same device – double the random time out b’fore transmit again – once transmission successfully, other devices – allowed to transmit again


Device wanting to send -- checks the media for any active transmission
If media clear - device sends Request to Send message
If it is okay to transmit – network server responds with Clear to Send signal
When device receives Clear to Send signal – it transmits its data
After the successful transmission – device send Abort sequence signal – it is finished
CSMA/CA most often used by Apple’s LocalTalk network
Ethernet uses CSMA/CD method

Polling based systems – device – controller / master device – poll other – on network – whether – ready or transmit or receive data.
Polling system – not used – on networks. – fair amount of network traffic.
Computer – polls – printer to receive a print job.

9.Polling based access

10.Token Passing
Special packet is passed from computer to computer -- Token
A computer that wants to transmit must wait for a free token.
Computer takes control of the token and transmits data. Only this computer is allowed to transmit; others must wait for control of the token.
Receiving computer strips the data from the token and sends an acknowledgment.
Original sending computer receives the acknowledgment and sends the token on.


Presentation On ROM


ROM Presentation Transcript:
1.Computer - ROM

2.ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture.
A ROM, stores such instruction as are required to start computer when electricity is first turned on, this operation is referred to as bootstrap. ROM chip are not only used in the computer but also in other electronic items like washing machine and microwave oven.


4.Various types of ROM
MROM (Masked ROM)
The very first ROMs were hard-wired devices that contained a pre-programmed set of data or instructions.
These kind of ROMs are known as masked ROMs. It is inexpensive ROM.

5.PROM (Programmable Read only Memory)
PROM is read-only memory that can be modified only once by a user.
The user buys a blank PROM and enters the desired contents using a PROM programmer. Inside the PROM chip there are small fuses which are burnt open during programming.
It can be programmed only once and is not erasable.

6.EPROM(Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)
The EPROM can be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. Usually, a EPROM eraser achieves this function.
During programming an electrical charge is trapped in an insulated gate region.
The charge is retained for more than ten years because the charge has no leakage path. For erasing this charge, ultra-violet light is passed through a quartz crystal window(lid).
This exposure to ultra-violet light dissipates the charge. During normal use the quartz lid is sealed with a sticker.

7.EEPROM(Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)
The EEPROM is programmed and erased electrically. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times.
Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 ms (milli second). In EEPROM, any location can be selectively erased and programmed.
EEPROMs can be erased one byte at a time, rather than erasing the entire chip. Hence, the process of re-programming is flexible but slow.

8.Advantages of ROM
Non-volatile in nature
These can not be accidentally changed
Cheaper than RAMs
Easy to test
More Reliable than RAMs
These are static and do not require refreshing
Its contents are always known and can be verified

PPT On Connecting Devices

Presentation On Connecting Devices

Connecting Devices Presentation Transcript:
1.Ch- 6 Connecting Devices

2.Devices Works on OSI Layer
Different devices works on the different OSI layers.
Physical Layer – Repeaters
Data Link Layer – Bridges
Network Layer – Routers
Network & Above Network Layer -- Gateway

3.Connecting Devices

4.Connecting devices and the OSI Model

Repeats or Regenerates the signal, passing signals in all direction, signals become weaker during the transmission.
Repeaters extend the distance between two stations.
Loss of Signal’s Strength – Attenuation.
Repeaters don’t understand protocols, packet address – anything concerning data what it carries.
Understands only 1’s and 0’s.
Repeaters are of normally two port boxes, connect two segments. Signal comes in one port – Regenerated– sent out to the other port.
Send & receive data @ the speed of network , but regeneration will take time and cleaned out (noise).

6.A Repeater in the OSI Model

7.A Repeater

8.Function of a Repeater

9.Repeaters can not connect dissimilar Network types ( Token ring / Ethernet)
Repeaters connects segments with similar networks (data frames) but dissimilar cabling. (Twisted pair / coaxial cable)
Repeaters also follow the 5-4-3 rule. That is five segments     connected by four repeaters, with no more than 3 of the segments being populated.

10.5-4-3 Rule

PPT On Enterprise Java Beans

Presentation On Enterprise Java Beans

Enterprise Java Beans Presentation Transcript:
1.EJB (Enterprise Java Beans)

What is an EJB ?
EJB Component.
EJB Benefit
EJB Security
Java Beans v/s EJB
Some EJB Server

3.What is an EJB ?
Development and deployment of Java applications that are:
Portable, Multi-tier, Scaleable, Secure, Distributed, Transactional
Server-side component encapsulating application functionality
Business logic
DB access
Integrate with other legacy systems
Serve multiple clients
Desktop apps
Other EJBs
Web app components (e.g., Servlets)
Web Service clients

4.What is an EJB ?
EJB container provides services to bean and manages its life cycle.
A component architecture
A component model
For developing object-oriented
distributed enterprise-level applications

5.EJB Component

6.EJB Session Beans
Session beans perform work for a client application
For example, a session bean could charge a credit card for a specific transaction

Two types of session beans

7.Session Beans -  Stateful
Stateful – A stateful bean maintains a conversational state with a client. The client perceives that it is only talking to one bean, and that bean maintains information between calls

8.Session Beans -  Stateless
Stateless – A stateless bean maintains no client information between method calls – the container can substitute beans as necessary between method calls

9.Stateless vs. Stateful
No internal state, nothing maintained across client calls
Does not need to be passivated
Can be pooled to service multiple
Possess internal state
Needs to handle passivation and activation
One per client

10.EJB - Entity Beans
Entity beans are classes that map to individual entities – typically, an Entity bean references a row in a database table, providing an object representation of that database object.
For example, an entity bean could represent a customer, and changing the values in that entity bean would cause updates to that database row

Entity beans provide an abstraction layer so that working with the entity is not specific to the storage mechanism for that entity.


Presentation On FIREWALL

FIREWALL Presentation Transcript:

What is a firewall?
What is does?
Firewall Analyzer help
Use of Firewall
What It Protects You From ?
Type of Firewall
Mechanisms used by firewalls
Firewall Service
Firewall Topology

A firewall can be a hardware device or a software application and generally is placed at the perimeter of the network to act as the gatekeeper for all incoming and outgoing traffic.
A firewall blocks unauthorized and potentially dangerous material from entering the system.

4.Just as a traffic  controls the flow of vehicles, a firewall controls the flow of packets of information that travel between your computer or network (more than one computer connected together) and the Internet.

A Firewall is an important perimeter defense tool that protects your network from attacks.

5.Security tools like Firewalls, VPN(Virtual Private Network), and Proxy Servers generate a huge quantity of traffic logs, which can be mined to generate a wealth of security Information reports.
Or, another way to look at it is in a physical security analogy: a firewall is equivalent to a door lock on a perimeter door or on a door to a room inside of the building – it permits only authorized users such as those with a key or access card to enter.

6.What It Does?
A firewall is a software program or hardware device that filters the information coming from the Internet connection into your network or computer system.
It can also filter information outgoing to the Internet.

7.Firewall Analyzer help
Analyze incoming and outgoing traffic/bandwidth patterns
Identify top Web users, and top websites accessed
Project trends in user activity and network activity
Identify potential virus,potential virus attacks and hack attempts

8.Firewall Analyzer help
Determine bandwidth utilization by host, protocol, and destination
Alert on firewalls generating specific log events
Analyze efficiency of firewall rules and modify them if needed
Determine the complete security posture of the enterprise

9.Use of Firewall
firewall can help block many of these attacks by preventing malicious computers on the Internet from connecting to your computer.
 Even with a firewall, there are still ways your computer can be attacked or infected with a virus.
 For example, if you are not running up-to-date anti-virus software, a firewall will not stop a virus sent in an email message from infecting your computer.

10.What It Protects You From ?
Key loggers

PPT On Generations of Computer

Presentation On Generations of Computer

Generations of Computer Presentation Transcript:
1.Generations of Computer

2.Generations of Computer
The computer has evolved from a large-sized simple calculating machine to a smaller but much more powerful machine.
The evolution of computer to the current state is defined in terms of the generations of computer.
Each generation of computer is designed based on a new technological development, resulting in better, cheaper and smaller

3.computers that are more powerful, faster and  efficient than their predecessors.
Currently, there are five generations of computer. In the following subsections, we will discuss the generations of computer in terms of.

4.the technology used by them (hardware and software),
computing characteristics (speed, i.e., number of instructions executed per second),
physical appearance, and
their applications.

5.First Generation (1940 to 1956): Using Vacuum Tubes
Hardware Technology The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes (Figure) for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. The input to the computer was through punched cards and paper tapes. The output was displayed as printouts.      Figure1.1Vacuum tube

6.Software Technology The instructions were written in machine language. Machine language uses 0s and 1s for coding of the instructions. The first generation computers could solve one problem at a time.
Computing Characteristics The computation time was in milliseconds.

7.Physical Appearance These computers were enormous in size and required a large room for installation.
Application They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest computing device of their time.
Examples UNIVersal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC), and Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC).

8.The first generation computers used a large number of vacuum tubes and thus generated a lot of heat. They consumed a great deal of electricity and were expensive to operate. The machines were prone to frequent malfunctioning and required constant maintenance. Since first generation computers used machine language, they were difficult to program.

9.Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Using Transistors
Hardware Technology Transistors (Figure) replaced the vacuum tubes of the first generation of computers. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, energy efficient and reliable. The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory. They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. The input was still through

10.punched cards and the output using printouts. They used the concept of a stored program, where instructions were stored in the memory of computer.

PPT On History of Computer

Presentation On History of Computer

History of Computer Presentation Transcript:
1.History of Computer

2.History of Computer
Until the development of the first generation computers based on vacuum tubes, there had been several developments in the computing technology related to the mechanical computing devices. The key developments that took place till the first computer was developed are as follows—
Calculating Machines ABACUS was the first mechanical calculating device for counting of large numbers. The word ABACUS means calculating board. It consists of bars in horizontal positions on which sets of beads are inserted. The horizontal bars have 10 beads each, representing units, tens, hundreds, etc. An abacus is shown in Figure 1.1

3.Napier’s Bones was a mechanical device built for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 AD. by an English mathematician John Napier.
Slide Rule was developed by an English mathematician Edmund Gunter in the 16th century. Using the slide rule, one could perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It was used extensively till late 1970s. Figure 1.2 shows a slide rule.

4.Pascal’s Adding and Subtraction Machine was developed by Blaise Pascal. It could add and subtract. The machine consisted of wheels, gears and cylinders.
Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine was a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide. The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built it around 1673.
Punch Card System was developed by Jacquard to control the power loom in 1801. He invented the punched card reader that could recognize the presence of hole in the punched card as binary one and the absence of the hole as binary zero.

5.The 0s and 1s are the basis of the modern digital computer.

6.Babbage’s Analytical Engine An English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations, in the year 1823. The machine was called as difference engine. Later, Charles Babbage and Lady Ada Lovelace developed a general-purpose calculating machine, the analytical engine. Charles Babbage is also called the father of computer.
Hollerith’s Punched Card Tabulating Machine was invented by Herman Hollerith. The machine could read the information from a punched card and process it electronically.

7.The developments discussed above and several others not discussed here, resulted in the development of the first computer in the 1940s.


Presentation On HTML


HTML Presentation Transcript:
1.What is HTML?
HTML is the "mother tongue" of your browser.

To make a long story short, HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called Tim Berners-Lee. The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to gain access to each other's research documents. The project became a bigger success than Tim Berners-Lee had ever imagined. By inventing HTML he laid the foundation for the web as we know it today.

HTML is a language, which makes it possible to present information (e.g. scientific research) on the Internet. What you see when you view a page on the Internet is your browser's interpretation of HTML. To see the HTML code of a page on the Internet, simply click "View" in the top menu of your browser and choose "Source".

2.HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with (enter here what document is about) and ends with . All the information you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the and tags.

There are hundreds of other tags used to format and layout the information in a Web page. Tags are also used to specify hypertext links. These allow Web developers to direct users to other Web pages with only a click of the mouse on either an image or word(s)

3.What does H-T-M-L stand for?
HTML is an abbreviation of "Hypertext Mark-up Language" - which is already more than you need to know at this stage. However, for the sake of good order, let us explain in greater detail.

Hyper is the opposite of linear. In the good old days - when a mouse was something the cat chased - computer programs ran linearly: when the program had executed one action it went to the next line and after that, the next line and so on. But HTML is different - you can go wherever you want and whenever you want. For example, it is not necessary to visit before you visit

Text is self-explanatory.

4.Mark-up is what you do with the text. You are marking up the text the same way you do in a text editing program with headings, bullets and bold text and so on.

Language is what HTML is. It uses many English words.

5.Elements and tags
You are now ready to learn the essence of HTML: elements
Elements give structure to a HTML document and tells the browser how you want your website to be presented. Generally elements consists of a start tag, some content, and an end tag.

Tags are labels you use to mark up the beginning and end of an element.
All tags have the same format: they begin with a less-than sign "<" and end with a greater-than sign ">".
Generally speaking, there are two kinds of tags - opening tags: and closing tags: . The only difference between an opening tag and a closing tag is the forward slash "/". You label content by putting it between an opening tag and a closing tag.
HTML is all about elements. To learn HTML is to learn and use different tags.

7.Example 1:
Emphasised text.
Will look like this in the browser:
Emphasised text.
This text is bigger.
This text is bigger.

8.Example 2:

This is heading 1

This is heading 2

This is heading 3

This is heading 4

This is heading 5

This is heading 6

This is heading 1
This is heading 2
This is heading 3
This is heading 4
This is heading 5
This is heading 6

9.So, I always need an opening tag and a closing tag?

As they say, there's an exception to every rule and in HTML the exception is that there are a few elements which both open and close in the same tag.
These so-called empty elements are not connected to a specific passage in the text but rather are isolated labels, for example, a line break which looks like this:
10.Should tags be typed in uppercase or lowercase?
Most browsers might not care if you type your tags in upper, lower or mixed cases. , or will normally give the same result. However, the correct way is to type tags in lowercase. So get into the habit of writing your tags in lowercase.

PPT On Java Character Class

Presentation On Java Character Class

Java Character Class Presentation Transcript:
1.Java - Character Class

2.Java - Character Class
Normally, when we work with characters, we use primitive data types char.
char ch = 'a';
// Unicode for uppercase Greek omega character char uniChar = '\u039A';
 // an array of chars
char[] charArray ={ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e' };

3.However in development we come across situations were we need to use objects instead of primitive data types. In-order to achieve this Java provides wrapper classe Character for primitive data type char.
The Character class offers a number of useful class (i.e., static) methods for manipulating characters. You can create a Character object with the Character constructor:

4.Character ch = new Character('a');
The Java compiler will also create a Character object for you under some circumstances.
For example, if you pass a primitive char into a method that expects an object,
the compiler automatically converts the char to a Character for you.
This feature is called autoboxing or unboxing, if the conversion goes the other way.

// Here following primitive char 'a'
// is boxed into the Character object ch Character ch = 'a';
// Here primitive 'x' is boxed for method test,
// return is unboxed to char 'c'
char c = test('x');

6.Escape Sequences:
A character preceded by a backslash (\) is an escape sequence and has special meaning to the compiler.
The newline character (\n) has been used frequently in this tutorial in System.out.println() statements to advance to the next line after the string is printed.
Following table shows the Java escape sequences:

7.If you want to put quotes within quotes you must use the escape sequence, \", on the interior quotes:
public class Test
public static void main(String args[])
System.out.println("She said \"Hello!\" to me.");
This would produce following result:
She said "Hello!" to me.

PPT On Java Data Structures

Presentation On Java Data Structures

Java Data Structures Presentation Transcript:
1.Java - Data Structures

2.Java - Data Structures
The data structures provided by the Java utility package are very powerful and perform a wide range of functions. These data structures consist of the following interface and classes:
All these classes are now legacy and Java-2 has introduced a new framework called Collections Framework which is discussed in next tutorial:

3.The Enumeration:
The Enumeration interface isn't itself a data structure, but it is very important within the context of other data structures.
The Enumeration interface defines a means to retrieve successive elements from a data structure.
For example, Enumeration defines a method called nextElement that is used to get the next element in a data structure that contains multiple elements.
To have more detail about this interface, check The Enumeration.

4.The BitSet
The BitSet class implements a group of bits, or flags, that can be set and cleared individually.
This class is very useful in cases where you need to keep up with a set of boolean values; you just assign a bit to each value and set or clear it as appropriate.
To have more detail about this class, check The BitSet.

5.The Vector
The Vector class is similar to a traditional Java array, except that it can grow as necessary to accommodate new elements.
Like an array, elements of a Vector object can be accessed via an index into the vector.
The nice thing about using the Vector class is that you don't have to worry about setting it to a specific size upon creation; it shrinks and grows automatically when necessary.
To have more detail about this class, check The Vector.

6.The Stack
The Stack class implements a last-in-first-out (LIFO) stack of elements.
You can think of a stack literally as a vertical stack of objects; when you add a new element, it gets stacked on top of the others.
When you pull an element off the stack, it comes off the top. In other words, the last element you added to the stack is the first one to come back off.
To have more detail about this class, check The Stack.

7.The Dictionary
The Dictionary class is an abstract class that defines a data structure for mapping keys to values.
This is useful in cases where you want to be able to access data via a particular key rather than an integer index.
Since the Dictionary class is abstract, it provides only the framework for a key-mapped data structure rather than a specific implementation.
To have more detail about this class, check The Dictionary.

8.The Hashtable
The Hashtable class provides a means of organizing data based on some user-defined key structure.
For example, in an address list hash table you could store and sort data based on a key such as ZIP code rather than on a person's name.
The specific meaning of keys in regard to hash tables is totally dependent on the usage of the hash table and the data it contains.
To have more detail about this class, check The Hashtable.

9.The Properties
Properties is a subclass of Hashtable. It is used to maintain lists of values in which the key is a String and the value is also a String.
The Properties class is used by many other Java classes. For example, it is the type of object returned by System.getProperties( ) when obtaining environmental values.
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