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Sunday, October 16, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Climate Change

PPT On Climate Change



2. Climate
Specific atmospheric trend and pattern of particular place determined by the interaction of Atmospheric elements

3. Climate Change
Climate change is a phenomenon due to emissions of greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, deforestation, urbanization and industrialization (Upreti, 1999) resulting variations in solar energy, temperature and precipitation.

4.Livestock : GHG emissions
Livestock  18 % of GHGs
The enteric fermentation of animals,
Manure (waste products),
Production of feed and forage (Dourmad et al., 2008).
Indirect sources : changes in land use and deforestation to create pasture land.

5.Climate change will have major impact on the people who depend on livestock for their livelihoods (Thornton et al., 2002).

6. Climate Change and its Impacts in Nepal
Approximately 0.06 degrees Celsius per year.
Temperature in the Himalayas is increasing at a faster rate.
The Rika Samba Glacier in the Dhaulagiri region is retreating at a rate of 10m per year.
The AX010 Glacier of Shorong Himal will be extinct by 2060 if the current trend continues.
More than 40 Himalayan glacial lakes are dangerously closed to bursting (UNEP).
Rapidly melting glaciers means more seasonal variation in river flow water shortage, frequent floods and draughts in the country.

7.Direct And Indirect Impacts On Livestock And Livestock Systems
Feeds: quantity and quality
Herbage growth and quality
Changes in composition of pasture
Changing concentration
of water soluble carbohydrates
and N at given dry matter yields
Lignifications of plant tissues

8.B. Heat stress :
Feed intake, mortality, growth, reproduction, maintenance and production
Increased energy deficits

C. Water :
Water scarcity
Not only will affect livestock drinking water sources, but it will also have a bearing on livestock feed production systems and pasture yield (Thornton et al., 2008)

9.D. Livestock diseases and disease vectors
Vector-borne diseases could be affected by:
(i) Expansion of vector populations into more temperate zones (such as livestock tick-borne diseases in higher altitude areas).
(ii) Changes in rainfall pattern during wetter years, which could also lead to expanding vector populations and large-scale outbreaks of disease.

10.Livestock disease
Helminthes infections.
Trypanotolerance- could be lost.
Distribution and impact of malaria in many systems.
Schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis in irrigated systems.
Heat-related mortality and morbidity could increase (Thornton et al., 2008).

11.E. Biodiversity
A 2.5° C rise in global temperature
high risk of extinction.
Local and rare breeds could be lost

12.Livestock Adaptation strategies
Breeding strategies
Identifying and strengthening local breeds
Adapted to local climatic stress and feed sources
Heat tolerant breeds
Disease tolerant breeds
Improving local genetics

13.Livestock management systems
Shade and water to reduce heat stress.
Reduction of livestock numbers – a lower number of more productive animals leads to more efficient production and lower GHG emissions from livestock production (Batima, 2007).
Changes in herd composition (selection of large animals rather than small)
Improved management of water resources (e.g. drip and sprinkler irrigation, store rainwater).

14.Mitigation of livestock GHG emissions
Higher concentrate in the diet  lower the emission of CH4.
Management of animal waste products (covered storage facilities).
Pasture grazing through rotational grazing.
Management of feed crop production.
Selection of faster growing breeds.
Lowering livestock production and consumption

15.Take-home messages
Participatory approaches to sustainable management of natural resources
Community involvement in adaptation strategies
Financial incentives
Risk management mechanisms
Awareness and education
Mitigation strategies
Innovation, research and technology development
Indigenous knowledge

Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA). 2007. The state of the world animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. FAO, Rome, 523 pp.
Dourmad, J., Rigolot, C., and Hayo van der Werf, 2008. Emission of Greenhouse Gas: Developing management and animal farming systems to assist mitigation. Livestock and Global Change conference proceeding. May 2008, Tunisia.
FAO, 2008b. Climate-related Transboundary Pests and Diseases Including Relevant Aquatic Species. Expert meeting,

FAO. 2007b. Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries: perspective, framework and priorities. FAO, Rome.
Hahn, G.L. 1999. Dunamic Responses of cattle to thermal heat loads. Journal of Animal Science. Vol.77, 10-20.
Hoffmann, I. 2008. Livestock Genetic Diversity and Climate Change Adaptation. Livestock and Global Change conference proceeding. May 2008, Tunisia.
Sidahmed, A. 2008. Livestock and Climate Change: Coping and Risk Management Strategies for a Sustainable Future. In Livestock and Global Climate Change conference proceeding, May 2008, Tunisia.
Thornton P., Herrero M., Freeman A., Mwai O., Rege E., Jones P., and McDermott J., 2008. “Vulnerability, Climate Change and Livestock – Research Opportunities and Challenges for Poverty Alleviation”. ILRI, Kenya.

17.Thank you
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