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Wednesday, July 24, 2013



PHP INTRODUCTION Presentation Transcript:

2.PHP started out as a small open source project that evolved as more and more people found out how useful it was. Rasmus Lerdorf unleashed the first version of PHP way back in 1994.
PHP is a recursive acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor".
PHP is a server side scripting language that is embedded in HTML. It is used to manage dynamic content, databases, session tracking, even build entire e-commerce sites.
It is integrated with a number of popular databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server.

3.PHP is pleasingly zippy in its execution, especially when compiled as an Apache module on the Unix side. The MySQL server, once started, executes even very complex queries with huge result sets in record-setting time.
PHP supports a large number of major protocols such as POP3, IMAP, and LDAP. PHP4 added support for Java and distributed object architectures (COM and CORBA), making n-tier development a possibility for the first time.
PHP is forgiving: PHP language tries to be as forgiving as possible.
PHP Syntax is C-Like.

4.Common uses of PHP:
PHP performs system functions, i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read, write, and close them.
PHP can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save data to a file, thru email you can send data, return data to the user.
You add, delete, modify elements within your database thru PHP.
Access cookies variables and set cookies.
Using PHP, you can restrict users to access some pages of your website.
It can encrypt data.

5.Characteristics of PHP
Five important characteristics make PHP's practical nature possible:

6."Hello World" Script in PHP:
To get a feel for PHP, first start with simple PHP scripts. Since "Hello, World!" is an essential!" script.
As mentioned earlier example, first we will create a friendly little "Hello, World, PHP is embedded in HTML. That means that in amongst your normal HTML (or XHTML if you're cutting-edge) you'll have PHP statements like this:

Hello World

7.It will produce following result:
Hello, World!
If you examine the HTML output of the above example, you'll notice that the PHP code is not present in the file sent from the server to your Web browser. All of the PHP present in the Web page is processed and stripped from the page; the only thing returned to the client from the Web server is pure HTML output.
All PHP code must be included inside one of the three special markup tags ate are recognised by the PHP Parser.


Most common tag is the and we will also use same tag in our tutorial.
From the next chapter we will start with PHP Environment Setup on your machine and then we will dig out almost all concepts related to PHP to make you comfortable with the PHP language.

PPT On PHP Operator Types

Presentation On PHP Operator Types

PHP Operator Types Presentation Transcript:
1.PHP Operator Types

2.What is Operator?
Simple answer can be given using expression 4 + 5 is equal to 9. Here 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator. PHP language supports following type of operators.
Arithmetic Operators
Comparison Operators
Logical (or Relational) Operators
Assignment Operators
Conditional (or ternary) Operators
Lets have a look on all operators one by one.

3.Arithmatic Operators:
There are following arithmetic operators supported by PHP language:
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

4. Comparison Operators:
There are following comparison operators supported by PHP language
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

5.Logical Operators:
There are following logical operators supported by PHP language
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

6.Assignment Operators:

7.Conditional Operator
There is one more operator called conditional operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value and then execute one of the two given statements depending upon the result of the evaluation.
The conditional operator has this syntax:

8.Operators Categories:
All the operators we have discussed above can be categorised into following categories:
Unary prefix operators, which precede a single operand.
Binary operators, which take two operands and perform a variety of arithmetic and logical operations.

9.The conditional operator (a ternary operator), which takes three operands and evaluates either the second or third expression, depending on the evaluation of the first expression.
Assignment operators, which assign a value to a variable.

10.Precedence of PHP Operators:
Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression.
This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others;
for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:

PPT On PHP Sessions

Presentation On PHP Sessions

PHP Sessions Presentation Transcript:
1.PHP Sessions

2.An alternative way to make data accessible across the various pages of an entire website is to use a PHP Session.
A session creates a file in a temporary directory on the server where registered session variables and their values are stored. This data will be available to all pages on the site during that visit.
The location of the temporary file is determined by a setting in the php.ini file called session.save_path. Bore using any session variable make sure you have setup this path.

3.When a session is started following things happen:
PHP first creates a unique identifier for that particular session which is a random string of 32 hexadecimal numbers such as 3c7foj34c3jj973hjkop2fc937e3443.
A cookie called PHPSESSID is automatically sent to the user's computer to store unique session identification string.
A file is automatically created on the server in the designated temporary directory and bears the name of the unique identifier prefixed by sess_ ie sess_3c7foj34c3jj973hjkop2fc937e3443.

4.When a PHP script wants to retrieve the value from a session variable, PHP automatically gets the unique session identifier string from the PHPSESSID cookie and then looks in its temporary directory for the file bearing that name and a validation can be done by comparing both values.
A session ends when the user loses the browser or after leaving the site, the server will terminate the session after a predetermined period of time, commonly 30 minutes duration.

5.Starting a PHP Session:
A PHP session is easily started by making a call to the session_start() function.This function first checks if a session is already started and if none is started then it starts one. It is recommended to put the call to session_start() at the beginning of the page.
Session variables are stored in associative array called $_SESSION[]. These variables can be accessed during lifetime of a session.

6.The following example starts a session then register a variable called counter that is incremented each time the page is visited during the session.
Make use of isset() function to check if session variable is already set or not.

7.Put this code in a test.php file and load this file many times to see the result:
if( isset( $_SESSION['counter'] ) )
 $_SESSION['counter'] += 1;
else {
$_SESSION['counter'] = 1;
$msg = "You have visited this page ".
$_SESSION['counter']; $msg .= "in this session.";

8.A PHP session can be destroyed by session_destroy() function. This function does not need any argument and a single call can destroy all the session variables. If you want to destroy a single session variable then you can use unset() function to unset a session variable.
Here is the example to unset a single variable:

9.Here is the call which will destroy all the session variables:

PPT On Computer Systems

Presentation On Computer Systems

Computer Systems Presentation Transcript:
1.The Computer System

2.Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as input, processes the input data by performing mathematical and logical operations on it, and gives the desired output.
The computer system consists of four parts—(1) Hardware, (2) Software, (3) Data, and (4) Users. The parts of computer system are shown

3.Parts of computer system

4.Hardware consists of the mechanical parts that make up the computer as a machine. The hardware consists of physical devices of the computer.

The devices are required for input, output, storage and processing of the data. Keyboard, monitor, hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, printer, processor and motherboard are some of the hardware devices.

5.Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer about the tasks to be performed and how these tasks are to be performed. Programs a set of instructions, written in a language understood by the computer, to perform a specific task.
A set of programs and documents are collectively called software. The hardware of the computer system cannot perform any task on its own.

6.The hardware needs to be instructed about the task to be performed. Software instructs the computer about the task to be performed. The hardware carries out these tasks. Different software can be loaded on the same hardware to perform different kinds of tasks.

Data are isolated values or raw facts, which by themselves have no much significance. For example, the data like 29, January, and 1994 just represent values.

7.The data is provided as input to the computer, which is processed to generate some meaningful information. For example, 29, January and 1994 are processed by the computer to give the date of birth of a person.

Users are people who write computer programs or interact with the computer. They are also known as skinware, liveware, human ware or people ware. Programmers, data entry operators, system analyst and computer hardware engineers fall into this category.

8.A computer is an electronic device that (1) accepts data, (2) processes data, (3) generates output, and (4) stores data. The concept of generating output information from the input data is also referred to as input-process-output concept.

9.The input-process-output concept of the computer is explained as follows—
Input The computer accepts input data from the user via an input device like keyboard. The input data can be characters, word, text, sound, images, document, etc.
Process The computer processes the input data. For this, it performs some actions on the data by using the instructions or program given by the user of the data. The action could be an arithmetic or logic calculation, editing, modifying a document, etc

10.Output The output is the During processing, the data, instructions and the output are stored temporarily in the computer’s main memory.
 result generated after the processing of data. The output may be in the form of text, sound, image, document, etc. The computer may display the output on a monitor, send output to the printer for printing, play the output, etc.
Storage The input data, instructions and output are stored permanently in the secondary storage devices like disk or tape. The stored data can be retrieved later, whenever needed.

PPT On Transmission Media

Presentation On Transmission Media

Transmission Media Presentation Transcript:
1.Transmission Media

2.Classes of Transmission Media

3.Transmission Cable
The bounded media types are wires or network cables.
Signals travels through a physical shielded on the outside (bounded) by some materials. --- bounded media.
Characteristics of each cable type includes :
Cost : cost can be imp when deciding network cable. Ex. Fiber optic – extremely expensive
Installation : fiber optic cable – highly skilled technician to install. If on contract – the installation cost may overweight the actual cost.
Capacity / Bandwidth : cable speed – bandwidth, A bandwidth that cable can accommodate is determined by the cable’s length.

4.Short cable – accommodate greater b.w. than a long cable.
Measured in Mbps – Mega bit per seconds, MBps – Mega Byte per seconds, std. ethernet cable is usually 10 Mbps.
Band Usage
Base Band : Base band transmissions use the entire bandwidth to transmit one signal at a time. Signals can be bidirectional.
Frequently used in LANs – can be used with analog signals. --- limit of 2 km in cable length.
Broad Band : Bandwidth is divided into multiple channels – allows multiple transmissions at once.

5.Less susceptible to attenuation and can transmit farther than baseband.
Signals can be one directional – dual cable configuration uses one cable to transmit and  other to receives.
Split cable configuration -- uses same cable but different frequencies to transmit signals in both directions.
Used only by Analog signals.
Attenuation : fading of the electrical signals over distances
Unable to distinguish b/w the real signals and induced noise after a certain distance.
A measure of flow how much signals weakens as it travels.


7.Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference :
How well the cable  holds up against interference, EMI – consists of outside Electromagnetic noise that distorts the signals in a medium.
Cross Talk : Kind of interference use by adjacent wires – occurs – signals from one wire is picked up by another wire.

8.Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable gets its name – two conductors that are parallel to each other , or on the same axis.
Support 10 to 100 Mbps of bandwidth.
Components of coaxial cables
Central Conductor : Usually solid copper wire, made up of stranded wire.
Outer conductor : consists of braided wires, metallic foil or both – shield – serves as ground – protects the inner conductor from EMI.
Insulation layer : keeps the outer conductor spaced from the inner conductor.

9.Coaxial Cable

10.Plastic encasement (jacket) : protects the cable from damage.
Single cable failure can take down an entire network down. one piece of cable is break, the entire segment will stop working
Categories of coaxial cables.

PPT On Types of Operating System

PPT On Types of Operating System

Types of Operating System Presentation Transcript: 
1.Types of Operating System

2.Types of Operating System
Operating systems are there from the very first computer generation. Operating systems keep evolving over the period of time. Following are few of the important types of operating system which are most commonly used.

3.Batch operating system
The users of batch operating system do not interact with the computer directly. Each user prepares his job on an off-line device like punch cards and submits it to the computer operator. To speed up processing, jobs with similar needs are batched together and run as a group. Thus, the programmers left their programs with the operator. The operator then sorts programs into batches with similar requirements.

4.The problems with Batch Systems are following.
Lack of interaction between the user and job.
CPU is often idle, because the speeds of the mechanical I/O devices is slower than CPU.
Difficult to provide the desired priority.

5.Time-sharing operating systems
Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing. The main difference between Multiprogrammed Batch Systems

6.Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU by switching between them, but the switches occur so frequently. Thus, the user can receives an immediate response.
 For example, in a transaction processing, processor execute each user program in a short burst or quantum of computation. That is if n users are present, each user can get time quantum. When the user submits the command, the response time is in few seconds at most.

7.and Time-Sharing Systems is that in case of Multiprogrammed batch systems, objective is to maximize processor use, whereas in Time-Sharing Systems objective is to minimize response time.

Operating system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time. Computer systems that were designed primarily as batch systems have been modified to time-sharing systems.

8.Advantages of Timesharing operating systems are following
Provide advantage of quick response.
Avoids duplication of software.
Reduces CPU idle time.

9.Disadvantages of Timesharing operating systems are following.
Problem of reliability.
Question of security and integrity of user programs and data.
Problem of data communication.

10.Distributed operating System
Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real time application and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly to which one can perform each job most efficiently.
The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred as sites, nodes, computers and so on.

PPT On Unix Processes Management

Presentation On Unix Processes Management

Unix Processes Management Presentation Transcript:
1.Unix - Processes Management

2.When you execute a program on your UNIX system, the system creates a special environment for that program. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system.
Whenever you issue a command in UNIX, it creates, or starts, a new process. When you tried out the lscommand to list directory contents, you started a process. A process, in simple terms, is an instance of a running program.

3.The operating system tracks processes through a five digit ID number known as the pid or process ID . Each process in the system has a unique pid.
Pids eventually repeat because all the possible numbers are used up and the next pid rolls or starts over. At any one time, no two processes with the same pid exist in the system because it is the pid that UNIX uses to track each process.

4.Starting a Process:
When you start a process (run a command), there are two ways you can run it:
Foreground Processes
Background Processes

5.Foreground Processes:
By default, every process that you start runs in the foreground. It gets its input from the keyboard and sends its output to the screen.
You can see this happen with the ls command. If I want to list all the files in my current directory, I can use the following command:
$ls ch*.doc

6.This would display all the files whose name start with ch and ends with .doc:
ch01-1.doc ch010.doc ch02.doc ch03-2.doc ch04-1.doc ch040.doc ch05.doc ch06-2.doc ch01-2.doc ch02-1.doc
The process runs in the foreground, the output is directed to my screen, and if the ls command wants any input (which it does not), it waits for it from the keyboard.

7.While a program is running in foreground and taking much time, we cannot run any other commands (start any other processes) because prompt would not be available until program finishes its processing and comes out.

8.Background Processes:
A background process runs without being connected to your keyboard. If the background process requires any keyboard input, it waits.
The advantage of running a process in the background is that you can run other commands; you do not have to wait until it completes to start another!
The simplest way to start a background process is to add an ampersand ( &) at the end of the command.

9.$ls ch*.doc &This would also display all the files whose name start with ch and ends with .doc:
ch01-1.doc ch010.doc ch02.doc ch03-2.doc ch04-1.doc ch040.doc ch05.doc ch06-2.doc ch01-2.doc ch02-1.doc
Here if the ls command wants any input (which it does not), it goes into a stop state until I move it into the foreground and give it the data from the keyboard.

10.That first line contains information about the background process - the job number and process ID. You need to know the job number to manipulate it between background and foreground.
If you press the Enter key now, you see the following:
[1] + Done ls ch*.doc & $
The first line tells you that the ls command background process finishes successfully. The second is a prompt for another command.

PPT On Unix Special Variables

Presentation On Unix Special Variables

Unix Special Variables Presentation Transcript:
1.Unix - Special Variables

2.Previous tutorial warned about using certain no alphanumeric characters in your variable names. This is because those characters are used in the names of special Unix variables. These variables are reserved for specific functions.
For example, the $ character represents the process ID number, or PID, of the current shell:
$echo $$
Above command would write PID of the current shell:

3.Pecial variables that you can use in your shell scripts:

4.Command-Line Arguments:
The command-line arguments $1, $2, $3,...$9 are positional parameters, with $0 pointing to the actual command, program, shell script, or function and $1, $2, $3, ...$9 as the arguments to the command.
Following script uses various special variables related to command line:
    echo "File Name: $0“
    echo "First Parameter : $1“
    echo "First Parameter : $2“
    echo "Quoted Values: $@“
    echo "Quoted Values: $*“
    echo "Total Number of Parameters : $#"

5.Here is a sample run for the above script:
$./ Zara Ali
File Name : ./
First Parameter : Zara
Second Parameter : Ali
Quoted Values: Zara Ali
Quoted Values: Zara Ali
Total Number of Parameters : 2

6.Special Parameters $* and $@:
There are special parameters that allow accessing all of the command-line arguments at once. $* and $@ both will act the same unless they are enclosed in double quotes, "".
Both the parameter specifies all command-line arguments but the "$*" special parameter takes the entire list as one argument with spaces between and the "$@" special parameter takes the entire list and separates it into separate arguments.
We can write the shell script shown below to process an unknown number of command-line arguments with either the $* or $@ special parameters:

for TOKEN in $*
echo $TOKEN
There is one sample run for the above script:
$./ Zara Ali 10 Years Old

8.Exit Status:
The $? variable represents the exit status of the previous command
Exit status is a numerical value returned by every command upon its completion. As a rule, most commands return an exit status of 0 if they were successful, and 1 if they were unsuccessful.
Some commands return additional exit statuses for particular reasons. For example, some commands differentiate between kinds of errors and will return various exit values depending on the specific type of failure.

9.Following is the example of successful command:
$./ Zara Ali
File Name : ./
First Parameter : Zara
Second Parameter : Ali
Quoted Values: Zara Ali
Quoted Values: Zara Ali
Total Number of Parameters : 2
$echo $?

PPT On Unix Directory Management

Presentation On Unix Directory Management

Unix Directory Management Presentation Transcript:
1.Unix - Directory Management

2.A directory is a file whose sole job is to store file names and related information. All files, whether ordinary, special, or directory, are contained in directories.
UNIX uses a hierarchical structure for organizing files and directories. This structure is often referred to as a directory tree . The tree has a single root node, the slash character ( /), and all other directories are contained below it.

3.Home Directory:
The directory in which you find yourself when you first login is called your home directory.
You will be doing much of your work in your home directory and subdirectories that you'll be creating to organize your files.
You can go in your home directory anytime using the following command:
$cd ~

4.Here ~ indicates home directory. If you want to go in any other user's home directory then use the following command:
$cd ~username
To go in your last directory you can use following command:
$cd –

5.Absolute/Relative Pathnames:
Directories are arranged in a hierarchy with root (/) at the top. The position of any file within the hierarchy is described by its pathname.
Elements of a pathname are separated by a /. A pathname is absolute if it is described in relation to root, so absolute pathnames always begin with a /.
These are some example of absolute filenames.

A pathname can also be relative to your current working directory. Relative pathnames never begin with /. Relative to user amrood' home directory, some pathnames might look like this:
chem/notes personal/res

To determine where you are within the filesystem hierarchy at any time, enter the command pwd to print the current working directory:
$pwd /user0/home/amrood $

8.Listing Directories:
To list the files in a directory you can use the following syntax:
$ls dirname
Following is the example to list all the files contained in /usr/local directory:
$ls /usr/local
X11     bin     gimp         jikes         sbin
ace     doc     include     lib         share
atalk     etc     info         man         ami

9.Creating Directories:
Directories are created by the following command:
$mkd dirname
Here, directory is the absolute or relative pathname of the directory you want to create. For example, the command:
$mkdir mydir $
Creates the directory mydir in the current directory. Here is another example:
$mkdir /tmp/test-dir $

10.This command creates the directory test-dir in the /tmp directory. The mkdir command produces no output if it successfully creates the requested directory.
If you give more than one directory on the command line, mkdir creates each of the directories. For example:
$mkdir docs pub $Creates the directories docs and pub under the current directory.


Presentation On CINEMAX

CINEMAX Presentation Transcript:

Project for improving My Knowledge
Description of Cinema
Which show is Running in the screen

In an existing system,User can visit Website an reserve their ticket online in cinemax cinema.They can see the RESENT MOVIES and also can see the COMING UP MOVIES.There are three screens are available in cinema.user can see the all Shows in each screen.
        If user want to book their ticket then click to book and select in which screen he/she want to book then feelup detail like their name, no.of persons, show, date,movie and get the payslip. 
        User can also pre book the ticket. They also feelup the feedback form.
        The Website is developed in PHP (WampServer), HTML, Java Script and MySQL for the Database.
        The Website maintains the data of the user’s Ticket booking.








PPT On XML Tutorial

Presentation On XML Tutorial

XML Tutorial Presentation Transcript:

2.What is XML?
XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language
XML is a markup language much like HTML
XML was designed to describe data
XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags
XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML Schema to describe the data
XML with a DTD or XML Schema is designed to be self-descriptive
XML is a W3C Recommendation

3.XML vs. HTML
XML is not a replacement for HTML. XML and HTML were designed with different goals:
XML was designed to describe data and to focus on what data is. HTML was designed to display data and to focus on how data looks.
HTML is about displaying information, while XML is about describing information.

XML was created to structure, store and to send information.
The following example is a note to Kamal from Jani, stored as XML:

    Jani Your CV
    You have been short listed.

5.How XML can be used?
XML can Separate Data from HTML.
With XML, your data is stored outside your HTML.
XML is Used to Exchange Data
With XML, data can be exchanged between incompatible systems.
XML Can be Used to Share Data
With XML, plain text files can be used to share data.
XML Can be Used to Store Data
With XML, plain text files can be used to store data.

6.XML Syntax
Simple xml file:
        Your Resume
        You have been short listed

7.XML Syntax
The first line in the document - the XML declaration - defines the XML version and the character encoding used in the document.
The next line describes the root element of the document (like it was saying: "this document is a note"):
Next 4 lines describes 4 child elements of the root (to, from, heading, and body)
And finally the last line defines the end of the root element: 

8.XML Syntax
All XML Elements Must Have a Closing Tag.
XML Tags are Case Sensitive.
XML Elements Must be Properly Nested.
This text is bold and italic

XML Documents Must Have a Root Element.
XML Attribute Values Must be Quoted.
Comments in XML

 9.XML Elements
XML Elements are Extensible.
XML Elements have Relationships
Elements are related as parents and children.
To understand the relationships between XML elements consider the following example:
My First XML
Introduction to XML
What is HTML
What is XML
XML Syntax
Elements must have a closing tag
Elements must be properly nested

10.XML Elements

    My First XML
    Introduction to XML
        What is HTML
        What is XML

    XML Syntax
        Elements must have a closing tag
        Elements must be properly nested

PPT On Types Of Unemployment

Presentation On Types Of Unemployment


Types Of Unemployment Presentation Transcript:

Unemployment is the condition of willing workers lacking jobs or "gainful employment
A key measure is the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed workers divided by the total civilian labour force.
 The level of unemployment differs with economic conditions and other market forces.
there are many different types of unemployment, which overlap and so confound measurement and analysis

Frictional Unemployment-This unemployment occurs when an individual is out of his current job and looking for another job.

Structural Unemployment-: Structural unemployment occurs due to the structural changes within an economy.

Classical Unemployment-. This type of unemployment occurs when trade unions and labour organization bargain

Cyclical Unemployment-Cyclical unemployment occurs when there is an economic recession.

Seasonal Unemployment-that occurs due to the seasonal nature of the job

4.Consequences of Unemployment
Direct effects
Indirect effects

5.Direct and indirect effects
Loss of personal income
Fall in National Output

Indirect effects-
Loss of tax revenue
Negative Multiplier Effect

6.Policies to reduce Unemployment

7.To reduce Real Wage Unemployment
Minimum wages
Wage 'stickiness'
Strong trade unions

To reduce Frictional Unemployment-
Increase knowledge of labour vacancies
Increase incentives to search jobs

8.To reduce Cyclical Unemployment
Reduction of interest rates
Increased government spending

 To reduce Geographical Unemployment-
Reducing geographical immobility
Regional Incentives

9.To reduce Structural Unemployment-
Reducing geographical immobility

PPT On Introduction To Theory Of Firm

Presentation On Introduction To Theory Of Firm

Introduction To Theory Of Firm Presentation Transcript:
1.Theory of firm

2.Introduction-need to study costs
Firms carry inventories which act as shock absorbers so production and sales never need to stop
There are three types: raw materials, intermediate (semi-finished) goods, and final goods
Inventories must be financed by working capital and require storage space

3.Types of cost-
Fixed cost-are associated with the fixed factor, usually capital, sometimes referred to as overhead cost
Variable cost-Costs which depend on the level of production
Total cost-Total cost is the sum of fixed and variable costs
Average cost -Average cost is total cost divided by quantity of output
Marginal cost-Cost of producing one extra unit of output

Total fixed costs (TFC)
Average fixed costs (AFC)
Total variable costs (TVC)
Average variable cost (AVC)
Total cost (TC)
Average total cost (ATC)
Marginal cost (MC)

5.Short-Run & Long-Run
“Time concepts”
One or more production input is fixed
The quantity of all necessary production inputs can be changed.
Expand or acquire additional inputs.

6.Fixed Costs
Result from owning a fixed input or resource.
Incurred even if the resource isn’t used.
Don’t change as the level of production changes (in the short run).
Exist only in the short run.
Not under the control of the manager in the short run.
The only way to avoid fixed costs is to sell the item.

7.Important Fixed Costs
Total fixed cost (TFC):
All costs associated with the fixed input.

8.Variable Costs
Can be increased or decreased by the manager.
Variable costs will increase as production increases.
Total Variable cost  (TVC) is the summation of the individual variable costs.
VC  =  (the quantity of the input)  X  (the input’s price).
Variable costs exist in the short-run and long-run:
In fact, all costs are considered to be variable costs in the long run.

9.Important Variable Costs
Total variable cost (TVC):
All costs associated with the variable input.
Average variable cost per unit of output:
10.Total Cost
The sum of total fixed costs and total variable costs:

In the short run TC will only increase as TVC increases.

PPT On Theory Of Firm Perfect Competition

Presentation On Theory Of Firm Perfect Competition

Theory Of Firm Perfect Competition Presentation Transcript: 
1.Theory of firm

2.A Perfectly Competitive Market
A perfect competition is market structure where there are large number of buyers and sellers who are willing to buy or sell a product or service at a given price.
A Mobile SIM card is an example of perfect competition where there are many companies which are there to sell these cards at a given price.

Under perfect competition market structure there are large number of buyers as well as sellers for a given product or service.
The price of a product or service is fixed and buyers who are willing to buy at that price can buy the product or service and sellers who are willing to sell the product or service at that price can sell it.
The product or service which is being sold under perfect competition market structure is similar or Homogeneous and that is the reason why sellers do not have any control over the price of a product.
Under perfect competition there are no entry and exit barriers which make it easy for companies to enter into the markets and sell the product or service.
All the buyers and sellers have complete information about the product or service which is being sold in the market.

A perfectly competitive market must meet the following requirements:
Both buyers and sellers are price takers.
The number of firms is large.
There are no barriers to entry.
The firms' products are identical.
There is complete information.
Firms are profit maximizers.

5.Basic Assumptions
Many small sellers each of whom produces an insignificant percentage of total market output and thus exercise no control over the market price

Many individual buyers – no control over the market price

No barriers to entry/ exit

Homogenous product – perfect substitutes. This leads to firm being passive ‘price takers’ and facing a perfectly elastic demand curve for their product.

No externalities arising from production and/or consumption which lie outside the market

6.Homogenous goods/services
Products perceived to be identical

Perfect substitutes

Consumers buy from cheapest provider

Each firm is a passive price taker

Firms face perfectly e l a s t i c demand curve for its product

7.Perfect Information
Consumers have readily available info about the market – prices and products from competing suppliers

Can access info at zero cost

Few transaction costs involved in searching for price info

8.Freedom of entry and exit
No barriers to entry /exit

Entry and exit from the market feasible in the long run

If firms are making abnormal profits, new firms can easily enter the market

This assumption ensures all firm make normal profits in the long run

9.Perfect Competition-Revenue Curve

10.Profit Maximisation in short run

PPT On Theory Of Firm Monopoly

Presentation On Theory Of Firm Monopoly

Theory Of Firm Monopoly Presentation Transcript:
1.Theory of firm

Situation in which a single company or group owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service.

3.Monopoly – Assumptions
There is only one seller in the market.
Barriers to entry exists.
Due to the fact that monopolist is the industry, it is the price maker.
Monopolist is able to make abnormal profits.

4.Barriers to entry
Economies of scale
Natural Monopolies
Legal Barriers

5.Anti-competitive behaviour
Exclusive dealing
Price fixing
Limit Pricing
Resale price maintenance

6.Revenue and demand curves

7.Monopoly and efficiency

8.Advantages of monopoly
It may be able to achieve substantial economies of scale
The monopolist can use part of its supernormal profits for R & D and investment;
There are those who maintain that a monopolist has gained his status by being the most efficient in the industry.
The promise of abnormal profit, protected perhaps by patent may encourage the development of new monopoly industries producing new products

9.Disadvantages of monopoly
It may charge higher price and produce a lower output
even if it is not using the most efficient technique of production;
The monopolist can still make large profits
It may have less incentive to be efficient and innovate.
In the long run there will still be higher price and lower output

10.What is Price Discrimination
As long as a firm faces a downward-sloping demand curve and thus has some degree of monopoly power, it may be able to engage in price discrimination.
Price discrimination can only be a feature of monopolistic and oligopolistic markets
Price discrimination or price differentiation exists when sales of identical goods or services are transacted at different prices from the same provider

PPT On Theory Of Firm

Presentation On Theory Of Firm

Theory Of Firm Presentation Transcript:
1.Theory of firm
Monopolistic competition

2.Monopolistic Competition
It is a market with many competing firms where each firm has a little bit of market share. Firms have the ability to set their own prices.

Each firm produces a product that is differentiated
Consumer and producer have imperfect knowledge of the market.
There is free entry and exit of firms in response to profits in the industry

4.Product Differentiation
Product differentiation is usually achieved in one of three ways:
(1) physical differences- product of one firm is physically different form the product of other firms.
(2) perceived differences- goods are only perceived to be different by the buyers
(3) support services- products that are physically identical and perceived to be identical are differentiated by support services

5.Revenue Curves

6.Short run Profit & Loss

7.Long run Normal Profit

8.Productive and allocative efficiency in Monopolistic Competition-short run

9.Long Run

An oligopoly market exists when barriers to entry result in a few mutually dependent companies controlling a substantial portion of a market.

PPT On Supply

Supply Presentation

Supply Presentation Transcript:

2.What is Supply?
The sellers' supply of goods also plays a role in determining market prices and quantities
Supply refers to the amount of goods and services firms or producers are willing and able to sell in the market at a possible price, at a particular point of time. schedule
A supply schedule is a table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied. curve
A supply curve is a graph that illustrates that relationship listed in supply schedule.


6.Law of Supply
It states that when the price of a commodity rises, the supply for it also increases. The higher the price for the good or service the more it will be supplied in the market. The reason behind it is that more and more suppliers will be interested in supplying those good or service whose prices are rising.

7.According to the law of supply, a direct relationship exists between the price of a good and the quantity supplied of that good. As the price of good increases, sellers are willing to supply more of that good. The law of supply is also reflected in the upward-sloping supply curve

Cost of production is unchanged
No change in technique of production
Fixed scale of production
Govt policies are unchanged
No change in transport cost
No speculation
Prices of other goods are constant.

9.Factors affecting Supply
Price of the commodity
Prices of other commodities
Change in cost of production
Technological advancement
Number of sellers
 Expectation for future prices

10.Tax impact
An increase in corporate taxes increases input costs for the supplier.
A marginal tax on the sellers of a good will shift the supply curve to the left

PPT On Rationing Systems

Rationing Systems Presentation

Rationing Systems Presentation Transcript: 
1.Rationing Systems

Rationing Systems is just a fancy name for the process through which people go through to produce goods and services. It is governed by the basic economic questions. There are 3 basic economic questions any producer must ask before production.
WHAT should be produced and in WHAT quantities?
HOW should they be produced? (what combination of factors of production)
WHO is the goods produced for? (price levels, who is able to afford it, how the price allocates goods in a "fair" way.

3.What to produce?
In planned economy, free and mixed economy?
All businesses must decide what to produce given limited resources
A business must decide how much of each goods or services to produce.
The answer to this question gets complicated with increase in size of business.

4.How to produce?
It is important to have a clear understanding of all your alternatives.
Self or contract production.
Domestic or foreign production
Capital intensive or labour intensive

5.For WHO to produce?
Who is your target consumers?
Will they be able to afford the price?
Are there enough consumer base to support your business?
Differs in each economy and from business to business.

Free Market Economy
Centrally Planned Economies.
Mixed Economics
Barter Economy
Command/government economy

7.Rationing Systems are either known as a Free Market Economy or a Centrally Planned Economies. Markets with features of both economies are classified by the collective term of Mixed Economics. In each form of market consumers, producers and/or the government decides the answers to the basic economic questions.

8.Free Market Economy
In a Free Market Economy all decisions are made by the private sector or consumers. Demand and supply is used to set wages, prices and determine what goods and services are produced and for whom. There are normally few cases of surpluses and shortages as it is in the best interest of firms to provide what consumers demand.

Demerit goods
Under-provision of merit goods
Resources may be used up to quickly
Some members of society will fail
Firm dominance

10.Centrally planned economics
Centrally planned economics are economies for which the basic economic questions are answered by the government, they arrange prices, sets wages and arranges for the production of different types of goods and services. The economy and factors of production are collectively owned by everyone. There is supposed to be a more equal distribution of wealth.

PPT On Objectives Of Macroeconomic Policy

Objectives Of Macroeconomic Policy Presentation

Objectives Of Macroeconomic Policy Presentation Transcript: 
1.Objectives of Macroeconomic Policy

Full employment
Price stability   
Economic growth
Balance of payments in equilibrium

3.Full employment or low unemployment
Those counted must be out of work, physically able to work and looking for it, and actually claiming benefit
international comparisons, the ILO (International Labour Organization) measure is used
Note the issue of active and inactive members of the population of working age

4.Price stability
Inflation is usually defined as a sustained rise in the general level of prices
measured as the annual rate of change of the Retail Price Index (RPI)
For prices to be stable, therefore, the inflation rate should be zero.

5.High economic growth
Economic growth tends to be measured in terms of the rate of change of real GDP
GDP is a measure of the annual output (or income, or expenditure) of an economy.
Growth figures are published quarterly, both in terms of the change quarter on quarter and as annual percentage changes.

6.Balance of Payments in equilibrium
Briefly, this records all flows of money into, and out of economy.
It is split into two: the Current Account and the Capital and Financial Accounts
the most important is the Current Account because this records -exports of goods and services relative to its imports

7.Which is the most important objective?

8.Conflicts between objectives

9.Internal balance-
state in which a country maintains full employment and price level stability.
Internal balance = Consumption [determined by disposable income] + Investment + Government Spending + Current Account (determined by the real exchange rate, disposable income of home country and disposable income of the foreign country).

10.External balance
condition in which the country's current account, its exports minus imports, is neither too far in surplus nor in deficit
External balance = the right amount of surplus or deficit in the current account

PPT On Measuring National Income

Measuring National Income Presentation

Measuring National Income Presentation Transcript:
1.Measuring National Income

2.Circular flow of income

3.What is national income?
The labour and capital of country acting on its natural resources produce annually a certain net aggregate of commodities material an immaterial including services of all kinds-Marshall
national income is the monetary measure of- ·         The net value of all products and services ·          In an economy during a year ·         Counted without duplication ·         After allowing for depreciation ·         Both in the public and private sector of products and services ·         In consumption and capital goods sector ·         The net gains from international transactions.

4.What is gross national product (G.N.P.)?
It is the basic measure of a nation’s output stated in terms of money representing the total value of a nation’s annual output
It is evaluated in terms of market prices.
G.N.P. is defined as the money value of the national production for any given period. Here we take into account: ·         The money value of the final goods and services produced in the economy to avoid double counting. Intermediate products are excluded from it.  ·          The money value of only currently produced goods and services as G.N.P. is a measure of the economy’s productivity during the year

5.What is net national product (N.N.P.)?
It refers to the net production of goods and services in a country during the year. It is G.N.P. less depreciation during the year. N.N.P. = G.N.P. - depreciation for the given year

6.What is national income at factor cost (N.I.FC)?
It is the total of all incomes earned by the owner of factors of production for their contribution of factors of production. 
N.I.FC= N.N.P. - indirect taxes+ subsidies

7.What is personal income (P.I.)?
This is the actual income received by the individuals and households in the country from all sources.
It denotes aggregate money payments received by the people by way of wage, interest, profits, and rents.
 It is the spendable income at current prices available to individuals.

P.I. = N.I. – corporate taxes – undistributed corporate profits – social security contributions + transfer payments

8.What is disposable personal income (D.P.I.)?
The whole of personal income is not available for consumption as personal direct taxes have to be paid. What is left after payment of personal direct taxes is call disposable personal income. D.P.I = P.I. – personal taxes, property taxes and insurance payments
D.P.I. = consumption + savings

9.Nominal and Real GDP
Nominal GDP measures the value of goods and services produced at current prices

Real GDP measures the value of goods and services produced expressed in some base year.

10.Methods for measuring National income
Product Method
Income Method
Expenditure Method



MICROECONOMICS Presentation Transcript: 

2.MARKETS-meaning and features
Market means interaction of buyers and sellers in order to carry  on transactions of goods and services.
Not necessarily a meeting place.
No face to face contact  is necessary
The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society.
Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced.

3.Classification of markets

4.Classification based on place-
Local Market or Regional Market.
National Market or Countrywide Market.

International Market or Global Market.

5.On the basis of Competition, market is classified into:
Perfectly competitive market structure.
Imperfectly competitive market structure.

6.Perfect Competition market
1. Many Sellers
2. Many Buyers
3. Homogenous Product
4. Zero Advertisement Cost
5. Free Entry and Exit
6. Perfect Knowledge
7. Perfect Mobility of Factors
8. No Government Intervention
9. No Transport Cost

A single seller has complete control over the supply of the commodity.
There are no close substitutes for the product.
There is no free entry and exit because of some restrictions.
There is a complete negation of competition.
Monopolist is a price maker.
Since there is a single firm, the firm and industry are one and same i.e. firm coincides the industry.
Monopoly firm faces downward sloping demand curve. It means he can sell more at lower price and vice versa. Therefore, elasticity of demand factor is very important for him.

8.Types of monopoly-
1. Perfect Monopoly
2. Imperfect Monopoly
3. Private Monopoly
4. Public Monopoly
5. Simple Monopoly
6. Discriminating Monopoly
7. Legal Monopoly
8. Natural Monopoly
9. Technological Monopoly
10. Joint Monopoly

1.Profit maximisation conditions
2.Ability to set price
3.Entry and exit
4.Number of firms
5.Long run profits
6.Product differentiation
7.Perfect knowledge

10.Monopolistic competition
Monopolistic competition
1. Large Number of Sellers
2. Product Differentiation
3. Freedom of Entry and Exit
4. Selling Cost
5. Absence of Interdependence
6. Two Dimensional Competition
7. Concept of Group
8. Falling Demand Curve

PPT On Market Failure

Market Failure Presentation

Market Failure Presentation Transcript: 
1.Market Failure

2.Meaning of market failure
An economic term that encompasses a situation where, in any given market, the quantity of a product demanded by consumers does not equate to the quantity supplied by suppliers.
This is a direct result of a lack of certain economically ideal factors, which prevents equilibrium

3.Public Good
A public good is often (though not always) underprovided in a free market because of its characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability.
Public goods have two characteristics:

4.Merit Goods/private goods-
Merit Goods are those goods and services that the government feels that people left to themselves will under-consume and which therefore ought to be subsidised or provided free at the point of use.
Examples: Health services, Education, Work Training, Public Libraries, Citizen's Advice, Inoculations
Excludable by seller
Rivalrous in consumption

Abuse of monopoly power
Lack of public goods
Problems of information
Under provision of merit goods
Overprovision of demerit goods
Environmental degradation(explain sustainable devlpt)
Inequality in distribution of wealth
Immobility of factors of production

Externalities are a loss or gain in the welfare of one party resulting from an activity of another party, without there being any compensation for the losing party.
Marginal Social Cost
Marginal Private Cost
Marginal Private Benefit

7.Types of Externalities
Negative externality of Production
 Negative externality of Consumption
 Positive externality of Production
 Positive externality of Consumption

8.Negative externality of Production
Negative production externalities are the side-effects of production activities. As a result an individual or firm making a decision does not have to pay the full cost of the decision


10.Negative externality of Consumption
Negative consumption externalities occur due to consumption of certain goods and services

PPT On Macro Economic Models

Macro Economic Models Presentation

Macro Economic Models Presentation Transcript: 
1.Macro economic models

2.Aggregate demand
Aggregate demand is the total spending on goods and services in a period of time at a given price level.
G-Government Purchases
Net exports (X-M) where;
M: Imports of goods and services
X: Exports of goods and services

C-Consumption is spending by households on goods and services. Goods include household spending on durable goods and non durable goods

I-Investment is the purchase of goods that will be used in the future to produce more goods and services. It is the sum of purchases of capital equipment, inventories and structures.

G-Government Purchases include spending on goods and services by local, state and central governments. It includes the salaries of government workers as well as expenditures on public works

Net exports (X-M) reflect the net effect of international trade on the level of aggregate demand. Exports sold overseas are an inflow of demand .Imports are a withdrawal of demand

4.Why AD curve slopes downwards
The open economy effect
Interest rate effect
The real-balance effect

5.Changes in AD

6.Factors causing a change in components of AD
Change in Consumption
Change in Investment
Changes in net exports
Change in Government Expenditure

7.Aggregate Supply
Aggregate supply is the total amount of goods and services that all industries in the economy will produce at every given price level.

8.Changes in AS

9.Factors causing a shift of SRAS
Changes in wages
Price of raw material
Change in Taxes
Changes in Subsides
Change in price of imports
Increase in productivity

10.Long run AS curve`The new-classical view (monetarist or free market view)



INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS Presentation Transcript: 

2.Social Science
Meaning-Social Science is a study of people and society and how the interact with each other.

Economics is the study of rationing systems and how scarce resources are allocated to fufill the infinite wants of consumers.

4.Micro economics
Microeconomics is the study of the behavior of markets, workers, households and firms and how they make economic decisions about the allocation of scarce resources.

5.Macro economics
Macroeconomics is the general study of the economy using information such as unemployment, inflation and price levels.

6.Differences b/w macro and micro economics
1. Macro Economics studies economic problems relating to an economy viz., National Income, Total Savings etc.
2. Macro Economics studies the problems of economic growth, employment and income determination etc.
3. Macro Economics does not assume that other things remain constant.
1.Micro Economics studies the problems of individual economic units such as a firm, an industry, a consumer etc.
2. Micro Economic studies the problems of price determination, resource allocation etc.
3. While formulating economic theories, Micro Economics assumes that other things remain constant.
The main determinant of Micro Economics is price.

7.Positive  Science
Positive economics are facts that can be tested and proven.
It is objective knowledge.

It is the branch of economics that concerns the description and explanation of economic phenomena.[1]
It focuses on facts and cause-and-effect behavioral relationships and includes the development and testing of economics theories.
Positive economics usually answers the question "why“
To illustrate, an example of a positive economic statement is as follows:      The price of milk has risen from $3 a gallon to $5 a gallon in the past five years.

8.Normative Science
Normative economics are opinion or beliefs that cannot be proven wrong or right.
 It is called value judgment of economic fairness and this is subjective knowledge.
It states what the economy ought to be like or what goals of public policy ought to be.[1
An example of a normative economic statement is as follows:      The price of milk should be $6 a gallon to give dairy farmers a higher living standard and to save the family farm.

9.Difference b/w positive and normative economics
1.Positive economics deals with what is
2.Positive statements rely on facts and describe the economy the way it is.
3.Positive economics describes the economy as it actually is, avoiding value judgments and attempting to establish scientific statements about economic behavior.
4.Eg-Positive Statement:  The unemployment rate is rising.
1.normative economics deals with what ought to be
2.Normative statements are value judgments.
3.    Normative economics involves value judgments about what the economy should be like and the desirability of the policy options available.
4.Eg-Normative Statement:  The unemployment rate is too high.

10.Economic growth
Economic growth is the real increase (inflation adjusted) of the goods and services produced in an economy. (caused by either increasing production capacity or quality and value of products)

PPT On Economic Growth

Economic Growth Presentation

Economic Growth Presentation Transcript:
1.Introduction to development
Economic growth
Economic development

2.Economic growth-Meaning
Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time
measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP
Growth is usually calculated in real terms
" typically refers to growth of potential output

3.Economic development
generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policymakers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area
can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy
“economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development.”

4.Sources of economic growth
Increasing standard of living
Increasing quality of life
Economic development

5.Factors contributing to growth and development-
Natural factors
Human factors
Physical capital and technological factors
Institutional factors

6.Barriers to economic growth/development
Poverty cycle
Institutional and political factors
International financial barriers
Social and cultural factors

7.GDP(Gross domestic product)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the value of final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. It is the total of all activities in a country, regardless of who owns the productive asset.
The raw GDP figures are called the Nominal or Current GDP
The GDP adjusted for changes in money-value in this way is called the Real GDP.

8.GNP(Gross national product)
Gross National Product (GNP/GNI) is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labour and property supplied by the residents of a country.
 It is the total income that is earned by a country's factors of production regardless of where the assets are located

9.What is std of living?
the standard of living is a measure of the material welfare of the inhabitants of a country
The baseline measure -real national output per head of population or real GDP per capita.
Other things being equal, a sustained increase in real GDP increases a nation’s standard of living providing that output rises faster than the total population

10. Problems in using national income statistics to measure living standards-
GDP and living standards – problems of interpretation
GDP and living standards - problems of accuracy
Regional Variations in income and spending
Inequalities of income and wealth
Leisure and working hours
Imbalances between consumption and investment
Changes in life expectancy
The value of non-marketed output including work done in the home
Innovation and the development of new products
Environmental considerations
Defensive expenditures

PPT On Interaction Of Demand And Supply

Interaction Of Demand And Supply Presentation

Interaction Of Demand And Supply Presentation Transcript:
1.Interaction of demand and supply

Meaning of equilibrium
Determination of equilibrium price
How equilibrium is “self righting concept”
Excess demand
Excess supply
Movement of equilibrium price
Affect of Change in Demand on equilibrium
Affect of Change in Supply on equilibrium

It is the point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied is equal
Equilibrium is a state in market where economic forces are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.

4.Market equilibrium refers to a condition where a market price is established through competition such that the amount of goods or services sought by buyers is equal to the amount of goods or services produced by sellers. This price is often called the equilibrium price.

5.Determination of equilibrium qty and price

6.Equilibrium is ‘self righting’-meaning
It means that if we try to move away from the equilibrium situation it will revert back to its original position, if there is no external disturbance.
How equilibrium is “self righting concept”
Excess demand
Excess supply

7.Excess demand-self righting

8.Excess supply-self righting

9.Movement to a new equilibrium

10.Affect of Change in Demand on equilibrium

PPT On Inflation

Inflation Presentation

Inflation Presentation Transcript: 

2.Sub topics
Features with examples
Degree of inflation
Causes –demand and supply side
Measures-monetary and fiscal measures

a sustained increase in the general price level leading to a fall in the purchasing power or value of money
The result of inflation is that the nominal amount of goods and services that a unit of currency can purchase (its purchasing power) declines over time.

4.Features +examples
To be called as ‘inflation’ , it should sustain for at least more than a day, week or month and the rise in price level must be somewhat substantial
The unfortunate result of the inflation is "spiral".
Inflation is stated as a percentage

5.Degree of inflation

6.Causes of inflation
The inflation taking place due to demand pressures is known as Demand pressures is known as Demand--Pull Inflation.
Increase in the overall price level due to cost-- pressures is known as Cost--Push or Supply Push or Supply-side

7.Demand side causes
1. Increase in money supply
2. Increase in disposable income
3. Increase in public expenditure
4. Increase in consumer spending
5.Cheap monetary policy
6. Deficit financing
7. Black money
8. Expansion in private sector
9. Exchange Rates
10. Increase in exports

8.Supply side causes
1.Shortage of factors of production
2. Artificial scarcity
3. Increase in exports
4. Industrial dispute
5. Natural calamities
6. Reduced production
7. Global factors

9.Effects of inflation
1.Effects on redistribution of income and wealth
2. Effects on production
3. Misallocation of resources
4. Changes in the process of transactions
5.Reduction in production
6.Black marketing, hoarding etc
7. Reduction in savings
8. Fall in quality
9.Encourages speculation
10. Hinders foreign capital

Monetary measures
Fiscal measures
Other measures



EXTERNAL STABILITY Presentation Transcript:

2.Measures to assess external stability
“external stability” means a situation in which Australian economy is able to fulfill its international commitments.

3.Balance of Payments
Balance of payments (Bop) accounts are an accounting record of all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world.
These transactions include payments for the country's exports and imports of goods,services,financial capital and transfers.
The Bop accounts summarize international transactions for a specific period, usually a year, and are prepared in a single currency,

4.Balance of payments

5.Balance of payments(NFD)

6.1.Current A/c Deficit
Part of balance of payments.
Australia has been facing deficit as imports>exports
Another important reason being the high level of interest paid towards NFD.
Elements of Balance of current A/c
Credits-Debits+NFD=balance of current A/c

7.Net Foreign Debts
What is gross and net foreign debt?
Net Foreign Debt o/s=Payments-Receipts
Expressed as % of GDP or just as a raw figure.
Financial institutions have a huge role to play in creation of foreign debts.
NFD of Australia seems to grow every year-
Low saving rate
High investment
Dependence on global markets.

8.Difference in saving and investment

9.NFD  as % of GDP

10.Exchange Rates
Exchange rates are needed in order to have trade between different countries-receipt and payments
Exchange rates are fixed based on the market share the particular economy is holding in global trade.
It is the value of Australian dollar expressed as another currency.
For e.g.-
        1 AUD$=0.983 US$
        1 AUD$=Rs.53.45
Usually converted to US dollar
Traded Weighted Index also assess movements of the currency
Floatation of AUD in 1983-Dirty Float
Appreciation and Depreciation



EXCHANGE RATES Presentation Transcript:

The exchange rate is the amount of foreign currency paid to obtain a unit of the home currency (this is the definition used by the IB)

If the exchange rate rises, the home currency appreciates, more of the foreign currency is needed in order to purchase the home currency.

If the exchange rate falls, the home currency depreciates; less of the foreign currency is needed to purchase the home currency

The real exchange rate takes into account the effects of inflation

3.Exchange rate systems
Fixed Exchange Rates
Floating Exchange Rates
Managed Exchange Rates

4.Fixed Exchange Rates
Under the fixed exchange rate system rates are fixed at some value and the central bank intervenes to ensure it stays at that agreed upon rate
A fixed exchange-rate system (also known as pegged exchange rate system) is a currency system in which governments try to keep the value of their currencies constant against one another
If there is a permanent switch away from the agreed on rate, the central bank will be faced with constantly buying or selling to maintain the old rate.

1. Promotes International Trade
2. Necessary for Small Nations:
3. Promotes International Investment
4. Removes Speculation
5. Necessary for Developing Countries
6. Suitable for Currency Area
7. Economic Stabilization
8. Not Permanently Fixed
9. Other Arguments

1. Outmoded System
2. Discourage Foreign Investment
3. Monetary Dependence
4. Cost-Price Relationship not Reflected
5. Not a Genuinely Fixed System
6. Difficulties of IMF System

7.Floating Exchange Rates
Under the flexible exchange rate system, rates are allowed to float.
Currencies are allowed to float and govt. intervenes periodically to influence the price but does not set the price.
A floating currency is a currency that uses a floating exchange rate as its exchange rate regime.

8.Managed Exchange Rates
The managed float is basically a flexible exchange rate system in which rates are permitted to float, but the central bank intervenes on a regular basis to keep the rate within some agreed upon limits.
Govt. can influence exchange rates, usually through the Central Bank by:
Buying and selling both domestic and foreign currency
Altering interest rates in order to influence short term capital flows
Altering return on investment

1. Independent Monetary Policy
2. Shock Absorber
3. Promotes Economic Development
4. Solutions to Balance of Payment Problems
5. Promotes International Trade
6. Increase in International Liquidity:
7. Market Forces at Work
8. International Trade not Promoted by Fixed Rates
9. International Investment not Promoted by Fixed Rates
10. Fixed Rates not Necessary for currency Area
11. Speculation not Prevented by Fixed Rates

1. Low Elasticity
2. Unstable conditions
3. Adverse Effect on Economic Structure
4. Unnecessary Capital Movements
5. Depression Effects of Capital Movements
6. Inflationary Effect
7. Factor Immobility
8. Failure of Flexible Rate System

PPT On Demand And Supply Side Policies

Demand And Supply Side Policies Presentation

Demand And Supply Side Policies Presentation Transcript:
1.Demand and supply side policies

2.Demand-side Policies
Fiscal Policy
Monetary Policy

3.Expansionary Fiscal Policies

4.Contractionary  Policies

5.Strengths of Fiscal Policy
Combats rapid and escalating inflation
Government spending directed at redistribution of income
Government spending on the provision of public goods and services
Combats a deep recession

6.Weaknesses of Fiscal Policy

7.Monetary policy -
process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money
The official goals usually include relatively stable prices and low unemployment
expansionary or contractionary

8.Weakness of demand side policies-
Time Lags
Data lags
Political lags
Implementation lag
Can cause a budget deficit
"Crowding out

9.Supply side policies-
Supply Side economics is the branch of economics that considers how to improve the productive capacity of the economy
emphasise the benefits of making markets, such as labour markets more flexible
Supply Side Policies are government attempts to increase productivity and shift Aggregate Supply (AS) to the right.
supply side policies can involve government intervention to overcome market failure

10.Supply Side Policies
1. Privatisation
2. Deregulation
3. Reducing Income Taxes
4. Increased education and training
5. Reducing the power of Trades Unions
6. Reducing State Welfare Benefits
7. Providing better information
8. Deregulate financial markets
9. Lower Tariff barriers
10. Removing unnecessary red tape
11. Improving Transport and infrastructure
12 Deregulate Labour Markets
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