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Wednesday, November 20, 2013



INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Presentation Transcript:

2.Trends in Economic Forces:
Interest rates
Home sales
Oil prices
Emerging markets

3.Trends in Technological Forces:
Portable information devices and electronic networking
Alternative energy sources
Precision farming
Virtual personal assistants
Genetically altered organisms
Smart, mobile robots

4.Trends in Political-Legal Forces:
Enforcement of U.S. antitrust laws
Taxation and labor laws
Government bureaucracy
World Trade Organization

5.Trends in Socio-cultural Forces:
Increasing environmental awareness
Growing health consciousness
Expanding seniors market
Impact of Gen Y
Declining mass market

6.Identifying External Strategic Factors:
Issues priority matrix- used to identify and analyze developments in the external environment
External strategic factors- key environmental trends that are judged to have both a medium to high probability of occurrence and a medium to high probability of impact on the corporation

7.Relative Power of Other Stakeholders
Local communities
Trade associations
Special interest groups

8.Industry Evolution
Fragmented industry- no firm has a large market share and each firm only serves a small piece of the total market in competition with other firms.
Consolidated industry- domination by a few large firms, each struggles to differentiate products from its competition

PPT On Innovation In Advertising


Innovation In Advertising Presentation Transcript:
1.Innovation in advertising

“The action of calling something to the attention of public”
 Advertising is  the promotion of a company's products and services carried out primarily to drive up sales of the products and services.
Advertising is the third partner in the relationship between a consumer and a product/service

3.Who needs advertising?
Companies use advertising to:
Inform people about their products and services
To make their brand names familiar to the public

4.Why needs advertising?
Companies use advertising to:
To give the company a “personality” which sets it apart from the others.
To remind customers about their brands at the right time and right place
To tell the public about improvements in products
To help their sales force to be more effective
To reinforce customer confidence in his/her purchase

5.Types of Advertising
Print Advertising –
  Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, Fliers
 Outdoor Advertising –
   Billboards, Kiosks, Trade-shows and Events
 Broadcast Advertising –
 Television, Radio and the Internet  

6. Innovation in advertising
Behind the Success of any advertisement there is Innovation Coupled With:
Culture, Values & Religiosity

7. Innovation in advertising
There’s no second chance at making a good first impression

8. Advertisements, if they           
   don’t catch your attention within seconds they
are considered failed

9. Innovation in advertising
Instead, to really stand out of the crowd, the idea has to be really out of the box, something that makes you laugh, talks about it or at least make you look twice

10.We are seeking for creative advertisements, particularly those that convey messages with sense of humour, or deliver ideas in ways we have never expected

11.Do’s and Don’ts of Advertising

12.Some don’ts
In case you do any comparison with your competitor or show your competitor it should be done in a intelligent and tactful manner that such that it is memorable and not in bad taste.

13. Innovation in advertising Examples

14. FedEx Kinkos : Office Products now at

15. Duracell – Last longer, much longer

PPT On Money Saving


Money Saving Presentation Transcript:
1.Creativity in Money Saving

Welcome to “Becoming a Millionaire: Savings and Investment” sponsored by the Peer Financial Counseling Program from (insert your school’s sponsor(s)).  My name is (counselor’s name). The purpose of this program is to help you to gain skills in managing your income and expenses effectively.  This will help you make the most of the money you have for college, and develop good habits for your years after school. Please feel free to ask questions as we go through the presentation.
Becoming a millionaire is not easy, but it’s still possible for those of us who can’t play basketball like LeBron James, or sing like Britney Spears to achieve wealth.  Through disciplined saving and investment, you can become one of America’s millionaires.

2.Why manage your money?
Control your spending;
Achieve future goals;
Avoid unnecessary debt;
Prepare for emergencies;

3.Starting a Savings Plan
“Getting rich is not a function of investing a lot of money; it is a result of investing regularly for long periods of time.”

4.Find Money to Save
Save $5 a day (lunch, soda,
snacks, etc)
5 X 7 = $35 a week
35 X 4 = $140 a month
140 X 12= $1680 a year!!!

5.Shop around. Even small reductions add up!
Stop using the credit card –
use cash or debit card.
Use cost comparisons to shop around for financial products.

6.How to budget
Monthly budgets are easiest – bills, rent, loans, mortgages are monthly.
Do not include your savings as income.
Divide expenses into essential and non-essential expenses.

7.Track Day-to-Day Spending
Keep a mini notebook with you to keep track of all of the times you spend money.

PPT On Water Industry


Water Industry Presentation Transcript:
1.Innovation in Water Industry

Water is primarily impacts the earth's ecosystem and people.
Climate change is the fundamental driver of change in the world's water resources
Collecting water is expected to become most costly with global warming
 More regions will experience water shortages.

3.Fresh water distribution graph

4.Water use
Water usage almost all aspects of life:
Food production and security
Domestic water supply & sanitation
Environmental sustainability

5.Water use – continued
Each person needs 20-50 liters of water a day to ensure basic needs for drinking, cooking and cleaning.
It takes 2 000 - 5 000 liters of water to produce one person's daily food.
It takes 1 000-3 000 liters of water to produce just one kilo of rice
It takes 13 000-15 000 liters to produce one kilo of grain

6.Why Innovation in water?
There is a major discrepancy in the cost of water in our world
Lack of community involvement cause 50% of water projects to fail

7.Innovative Ideas
Water conservation
Waste water treatment
Water in agriculture

Saturday, November 16, 2013



INVESTMENTS Presentation Transcript: 

Different motivations for investing:
To earn a high rate of return.
To secure certain operating or financing arrangements with another company.

Companies account for investments based on
the type of security (debt or equity) and
their intent with respect to the investment.

4.Investments in Debt Securities
U.S. government securities
Municipal securities
Corporate bonds
Convertible debt
Commercial paper

5.Held-to-Maturity Securities
Classify a debt security as held-to-maturity only if it has both
the positive intent and
the ability to hold securities to maturity.

6.Available-for-Sale Securities
Companies report available-for-sale securities at:
fair value, with
unrealized holding gains and losses reported as part of comprehensive income (equity).

7.Investments in Equity Securities
Represent ownership of capital stock.
Cost includes:
price of the security, plus
broker’s commissions and fees related to purchase.

PPT On Floating Airport


Floating Airport Presentation Transcript: 
1.Floating  Airport

2. Is an airport built and situated on a very large floating structure (VLFS).
1930 The first discussion of a floating airport was for
trans-Atlantic flights.
1935 :Bleriot  suggested
Seadromes solution to economical trans-Atlantic passenger flights
As the population increases and land becomes more expensive  floating airports could help solve land use.
pollution and aircraft noise issues and reduce risks of aircraft crashes to the land-locked population

3.Kansai International Airport
Is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay, 38 km southwest of Osaka Station, located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north), Sennan (south), and Tajiri (central), in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The airport is off the Honshu shore.
 The airport serves as an international hub for All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines, and also serves as a hub for Peach, the first international low-cost carrier
in Japan.

In the 1960s, when the Kansai region was rapidly losing trade to Tokyo, planners proposed a new airport near Kobe and Osaka.
 Osaka International Airport, located in the densely populated suburbs of Itami and Toyonaka, was surrounded by buildings; it could not be expanded, and many of its neighbors had filed complaints because of noise pollution problems.
 Planners decided to build the airport offshore. The new airport was part of a number of new developments to revitalize Osaka, which had lost economic and cultural ground to Tokyo for most of the century.
 Initially, the airport was planned to be built near Kobe, but the city of Kobe refused the plan, so the airport was moved to a more southerly location on Osaka Bay. There, it could be open 24 hours per day, unlike its predecessor in the city.

5.Key Features
Located on a biggest artificial (man-made) island (4 X 2.5 km )in Osaka Bay in Japan
 Project Started in 1986
 Opened for flights  in September 1994
Constructed cost over $20 billion
 On 19 April 2001  the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) named KIA the #2 civil engineering project of the 20th century, second only to the Panama Canal

A man-made island, 4 km  long and 2.5 km  wide, was proposed. Engineers needed to overcome the extremely high risks of earthquakes and typhoons (with storm surges of up to 3 m (10 ft)).
 Construction started in 1987. The sea wall was finished in 1989 (made of rock and 48,000  concrete blocks).

10,000 workers and 10 million work hours over three years, using eighty ships, were needed to complete the 30-metre layer of earth over the sea floor and inside the sea wall.
  The island had been predicted to sink 5.7 m  by the most optimistic estimate as the weight of the material used for construction compressed the seabed silts. However, the island had sunk 8.2 m (27 ft) - much more than predicted.
The project became the most expensive civil works project in modern history after twenty years of planning, three years of construction and several billion dollars of investment. The lessons of Kansai Airport were also applied in the construction of Hong Kong International Airport.

8.  In 1995, Japan was struck by the Kobe earthquake, whose center was about 20 km away from KIA and killed 6,434 people on Japan's main island of Honshu.
Due to its earthquake engineering, the airport emerged unscathed, mostly due to the use of sliding joints. Even the glass in the windows remained intact. Later, in 1998, the airport survived a typhoon with wind speeds of up to 200 km/h (120 mph).

Thus, in 2003, believing that the sinking problem was almost over, the airport operators started to construct a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) second runway and terminal.
The second runway opened on 2 August 2007, but without the originally planned terminal portion postponed. This lowered the project cost to US$8 billion).
It has expanded the airport size to 10.5 km2. The new runway is used for landings and when there are incidents prohibiting take off use of runway A.
A new terminal building opened in late 2012.There are additional plans for several new aprons, a third runway (06C/24C) with a length of 3,500 m (11,483 ft), a new cargo terminal and expanding the airport size to 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi). However, the Japanese government is postponing these plans for economic reasons.

10.Access Information
The most practical means of getting to Osaka and Kyoto is by train. You have a choice of two companies:
JR Haruka : The JR West Haruka limited expresses run from the airport to Tennoji (29 min, ¥1,760).
JR Rapid Service : Low cost train service to reach Tennoji  it takes (43 min, ¥1,030) All seats are non-reserved and trains depart every 20 minutes; the trains can get crowded at rush hour.
Airport Limousine buses  leave for various destinations throughout Kansai from the 1st floor directly outside the arrivals hall. The cost is comparable to or slightly higher than the train, It can be faster than the train for some destinations such as Kobe (60 minutes, ¥1,800) in good traffic.

11.The main KIA passenger Terminal l is a single four-story building designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop (Renzo Piano and Noriaki Okabe) .
 It has a gross floor space of 296,043 square meters.
It is the longest airport terminal in the world, at a total length of 1.7 km.
It has a sophisticated people mover system called the Wing Shuttle, which     moves passengers from one end of the pier to the other.
The terminal's roof is shaped like an airfoil. This shape is used to promote air circulation through the building: giant air conditioning ducts blow air upwards at one side of the terminal, circulate the air across the curvature of the ceiling, and collect the air through intakes at the other side. Mobiles are suspended in the ticketing hall to take advantage of the flowing air.

12.Terminal 2
Terminal 2 is a low-cost carrier (LCC) terminal designed to attract more LCCs by providing lower landing fees than terminal 1.
 Similar to Singapore's Changi International Airport's low cost terminal, the terminal is basic and currently serves only Japan's Peach Air.
 Currently this terminal is not directly accessible by train. A free shuttle bus transports passengers from Kansai International Airport's train station to Terminal 2.

The official website of KIA
 Wikipedia ,The Free Encyclopedia
 Wiki Travel

PPT On Livestock Project


Livestock Project Presentation Transcript:
1.“Livestock project”
This study conduct to assess the feasibility of establishing mixed farm including different animals
 (production and Fattening).
so Livestock are a big part of the business and I hope this study is relevant to the project.

2.Purpose for the project
Provide job opportunities for new graduates.
increase the production capacity in the country.
Return on the project .

3.Livestock cost categories
land (as a part of DAMAN project).
Machinery and.

4.Safety procedures
Healthy food.
Ventilation and lighting.

5.In this livestock project there are three projects
poultry project
cow project
Livestock products  factory

6.Raising chickens for meat production

7.Raising chickens for egg production.

8.the Calves



MANAGEMENT ASSERTIONS Presentation Transcript:

2.Management Assertions

3.General Balance-Related Audit Objectives
Amounts included exist.
Existing amounts are
Amounts included are
stated at the correct

Rights and
Assets are included at
estimated realizable value.
Assets must be owned.
Account balances and
disclosures are presented
in financial statements.

5.How Audit Objectives Are Met
The auditor must obtain sufficient competent
audit evidence to support all management
assertions in the financial statements.
An audit process is a methodology
for organizing an audit.

6.Four Phases of a Financial Statement Audit
Plan and design
an audit approach.
Perform tests of
controls and
substantive tests
of transactions.
Perform analytical
procedures and
tests of details
of balances.
Complete the
audit and issue
an audit report.




2.What is Marketed?


4.Key Customer Markets
Consumer markets
Business markets
Global markets
Nonprofit/Government markets

5.Marketing Channels

6.Marketing Environment

7.Company Orientations

8.Major Societal Forces
Network information technology
Heightened competition
Industry convergence
Retail transformation

PPT On Methods of Financial Statement Fraud


Methods of Financial Statement Fraud Presentation Transcript:
1.Methods of Financial Statement Fraud

2.Fictitious revenues
Timing differences
Improper asset valuations
Concealed liabilities and expenses
Improper disclosures

3.Fictitious revenues
Timing differences
Improper asset valuations
Concealed liabilities and expenses
Improper disclosures

4.Fictitious Revenues
Recording of goods or services that did not occur
Fake or phantom customers
Legitimate customers
Sales with conditions
Pressures to boost revenues

5.Red Flags – Fictitious Revenues
Rapid growth or unusual profitability, especially compared to that of other companies in the same industry
Recurring negative cash flows from operations or an inability to generate cash flows from operations while reporting earnings and earnings growth

6.Timing Differences
Recording revenue and/or expenses in improper periods
Shifts revenues or expenses between one period and the next, increasing or decreasing earnings as desired

7.Red Flags – Timing Differences
Significant, unusual, or highly complex transactions
Unusual increase in gross margin or margin in excess of industry peers
Unusual growth in the number of days’ sales in receivables
Unusual decline in the number of days’ purchases in accounts payable

8.Concealed Liabilities
Liability/expense omissions
Capitalized expenses
Failure to disclose warranty costs and liabilities

9.Red Flags – Concealed Liabilities
Recurring negative cash flows from operations or an inability to generate cash flows from operations while reporting earnings and earnings growth
Assets, liabilities, revenues, or expenses based on significant estimates that involve subjective judgments or uncertainties that are difficult to corroborate
Nonfinancial management’s excessive participation in or preoccupation with the selection of accounting principles or the determination of significant estimates

10.Improper Disclosures
Liability omissions
Subsequent events
Management fraud
Related-party transactions
Accounting changes

11.Red Flags – Improper Disclosures
Domination of management by a single person or small group without compensating controls
Ineffective board of directors or audit committee oversight over the financial reporting process and internal control
Rapid growth or unusual profitability.

12.Significant related-party transactions not in the ordinary course of business or with related entities
Significant bank accounts or subsidiary or branch operations
Overly complex organizational structure involving unusual legal entities or managerial lines of authority

13.Inventory valuation
Accounts receivable
Business combinations
Fixed assets

PPT On Non Controlling Interest


Non Controlling Interest Presentation Transcript:
1.Non-controlling Interest

2.For the parent to consolidate the subsidiary,  only a controlling interest is needed—not 100% interest.
Noncontrolling interest or minority interest refers to the claim of these shareholders on the income and net assets of the subsidiary.

3.Noncontrolling Interest Computation of income to the noncontrolling interest: In uncomplicated situations, it is a simple proportionate share of the subsidiary’s net income.
Presentation: FASB 160 requires that the term “consolidated net income” be applied to the income available to all stockholders.

4.The noncontrolling interest’s claim on the net assets of the subsidiary was previously shown between liabilities and stockholders’ equity in the consolidated balance sheet.
Some firms reported minority interest as a liability, although it did not meet the definition of a liability.

5.Combined Financial Statements
Financial statements are also prepared for a group of companies when no one company in the group owns a majority of the common stock of any other company in the group.

6.Entity Theory
Focuses on the firm as a separate economic entity, rather than on the ownership rights of the shareholders.
Emphasis is on the consolidated entity itself, with the controlling and noncontrolling shareholders viewed as two separate groups, each having an equity in the consolidated entity.

7.All of the assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses of a less-than-wholly owned subsidiary are included in the consolidated financial statements, with no special treatment accorded either the controlling or noncontrolling interest.

8.Current Practice
FASB 141R has significantly changed the preparation of consolidated financial statements subsequent to the acquisition of less-than-wholly owned subsidiaries.

9.Current approach clearly follows the entity theory with minor modifications aimed at the practical reality that consolidated financial statements are used primarily by those having a long-run interest in the parent company.

PPT On Not for Profit Environment


Not for Profit Environment Presentation Transcript:
1.Not-for-Profit Environment

2.Non-for-profit provide services for a political or social cause or other activities for the betterment of the society. 

3. The objectives of the Non-for-profit are often ambiguous and not easily quantifiable.

4.Non-for-profit have relationships with parties providing their resources that are unlike of businesses.

5.Financial reports of Non-for-profit provide information about Inflows (Revenues) and outflows (Expenditures) of cash and other resources.

6.Expenditures and revenues
Excess of expenditures over revenues generally signals financial distress or poor managerial performance.
Excess of revenues over expenditures is not necessarily commendable. It maybe achieved through reducing services, which may be at odds with the entity's’ objective.

7.The goal of Non-for-profit is something other than earning profit.

8.To assess the organization's performance  & to report properly on their accomplishments, non-for-profit must augment its financial statements to include nonfinancial data relating to their objectives, eg:
a school might include statistics on student test scores or graduation rates.
A center for homeless might present data on the number of people fed or adequately housed.

9.Non-for-profit are governed mainly by their budgets, not the market place.
Revenues & Expenditures are controlled through the budgetary process. 



OUTSOURCING Presentation Transcript:

Purchasing from someone else a product or service that had been previously provided internally. Avoid outsourcing distinctive competencies

3.Off shoring
The outsourcing of an activity or a function to a wholly-owned company or an independent provider in another country

4.Disadvantages of outsourcing and offshoring
Customer complaints
Long-term contracts
Ability to learn new skills and develop new core competencies
Lack of cost savings
Poor product quality
Increased transportation costs

5.Errors in Outsourcing Efforts
Outsourcing the wrong activities
Selecting the wrong vendor
Poor contracts
Personnel issues
Lack of control
Hidden costs
Lack of an exit strategy

6.Constructing Corporate Scenarios-
pro forma balance sheets and income statements that forecast the effect of each alternative strategy/its various programs will have on division and corporate return on investment

7.Use industry scenarios to develop assumptions about the task environment
Develop common size financial statements for prior years
Construct detailed pro forma financial statements for each strategic alternative

8.Management’s Attitude Toward Risk
composed not only of the probability that the strategy will be effective but also of the amount of assets the corporation must allocate to the strategy and the length of time the assets will be unavailable for other uses

Friday, November 15, 2013



PALESTINIAN CITIES Presentation Transcript: 











PALESTINIAN OLIVE TREES Presentation Transcript: 

2.The olive tree is considered one of the main crops in Palestine.

3.More than 10 million olive trees are planted in an area of more than 900 thousand acres that constitute 50% of the cultivated area, mostly in mountains.

4.The olive tree is one of the seven types of fruit that the holy land was blessed by. The Lord has said " stokes from a blessed olive tree neither eastern nor western".  35 from Al-Nure

5.Compared to other fruit trees, this tree is the most widespread constituting 80% of the area allotted for fruitful trees.

6.Different botanists and agriculturists have disaccorded about the original home of the olive tree. Some believe that its home was in E. Asia while others argue it`s in the Mediterranean countries. Our country is one of those countries that have planted olives since ancient times. 

PPT On Financial Analysis for PalTel


Financial Analysis for PalTel Presentation Transcript: 
1.Financial Analysis for PalTel

2.Financial Statement Analysis
Any item reported in a financial statement has significance if its inclusion indicates that the item exists at a given time and in a certain quantity. 
Financial Statement amounts must be compared with other financial  amounts to provide more information. 

3.There are three types of comparisons to provide decision usefulness of financial information:
Intracompany Basis
Comparisons within a company are often useful to detect changes in financial relationships and significant trends.
Intercompany Basis
Comparisons with other companies provide insight into a company's competitive position
Industry Averages 
Comparisons with industry averages provide information about a company's relative position within the industry. 

4.Palestine Telecommunications Company P.L.C. (PALTEL) is:
Limited liability public shareholding company.
Registered and incorporated in Nablus in 1995 but it started their operations in 1997.
Engaged in providing, managing, and rendering wireline and wireless services.
The consolidated financial statements of PalTel for the year ended December 31, 2009 were authorized for issuance in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Directors on March 10, 2010.
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of PALTEL and its subsidiaries (the Group) as of December 31, 2009. PALTEL’s direct and indirect ownership in its subsidiaries’ subscribed capital was as follows:
   PALCEL      HADARA       PALMEDIA       HULUL      REACH        AYLA 
(Ownership % 100) 

Three basic TOOLS are used in financial statement analysis :
    Horizontal analysis
    Vertical analysis
    Ratio analysis

6. Horizontal Analysis
Is a technique for evaluating a series of financial statement data over a period of time.
Purpose is to determine whether an increase or decrease has taken place.
The increase or decrease can be expressed as either an amount or a percentage($,%).

7. Vertical Analysis
Is a technique for evaluating financial statement data that expresses each item in a financial statement as a percent of a base amount.
Total assets is always the base amount in vertical analysis of a balance sheet.

8.Ratio Analysis
Three types:
Liquidity ratios
Solvency ratios
Profitability ratios
Single ratio by itself is not very meaningful.

9.Liquidity ratios Measure the short-term ability of the enterprise to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash.
Who Cares?
Short-term creditors such as bankers and suppliers

10.Solvency Ratios
Measure the ability of the enterprise to survive over a long period of time
  WHO CARES? Long-term creditors and stockholders

11.Profitability Ratios
Measure the income or operating success of an enterprise     for a given period of time
WHO CARES? Everybody
WHY? A company’s income affects:
its ability to obtain debt and equity financing
its liquidity position
its ability to grow




2.Payroll &Time Management
A. Main Existing Procedures
A personal file is maintained for each employee.
Time sheets are not maintained.
Severance pay are accrued for but not maintained in a separate bank account.
Salaries are not declared to income tax department.
Salaries are paid through cheques.

3.B.Identified Weaknesses
No time sheets are prepared by each employee and therefore, time can not be properly allocated to projects.
Payroll income taxes are not deducted and paid to tax department.
No bank account is maintained for severance pay and provident fund.  

Payroll expenses may not be properly allocated to various projects.
Weakened controls over the time of employees.
Difficulty in reasonably allocating overhead expenses to projects.
Non-compliance with prevailing tax laws and therefore penalties may be imposed on the entity.
Physical cash may not be available to finance the employees’ severance pay and provident fund. 

Time sheets should be prepared by each employee on regular basis (monthly or by-weekly), which should be reviewed and approved by the employees supervisor.
Payroll income taxes should be calculated, withheld and paid to the tax department on monthly basis.
Funds for employees’ severance pay and provident fund should be maintained in a special bank account and should not be used for any other purposes.     

6.Fixed Assets
A.Main Existing Procedures
Fixed assets are expended at the time of purchase.
No fixed assets register is maintained.

7.B.Identified Weaknesses
Fixed assets are expended at the time of purchase.
No fixed assets register is maintained.
No insurance is maintained for fixed assets.     

Fixed assets may be lost in case of fire or theft.
Financial periods of the entity will not be reasonably charged with the cost of fixed assets.
Loose control over fixed assets.

Fixed assets should be capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.
Fixed assets register should be maintained.
Fixed assets should be insured against fire and theft.
Fixed assets tags should be used to control location and responsibility of each fixed assets item. 

PPT On Porter’s 5 Forces


Porter’s 5 Forces Presentation Transcript:
1.Porter’s 5 forces

2.Threat of new entrants
Rivalry among existing firms
Threat of substitute products
Bargaining power of buyers
Bargaining power of suppliers

3.Threat of new entrants-
new entrants to an industry bring new capacity, a desire to gain market share and substantial resources

Entry barrier- an obstruction that makes it difficult for a company to enter an industry
Economies of scale
Product differentiation
Capital requirements
Switching costs

Rivalry Among Existing Firms- new entrants to an industry bring new capacity, a desire to gain market share and substantial resources
Number of competitors
Rate of industry growth
Product or service characteristics
Amount of fixed costs

6.Threat of Substitute Products or Services-
products that appear different but can satisfy the same need as another product

Bargaining Power of Buyers- ability of buyers to force prices down, bargain for higher quality, play competitors against each other
Large purchases
Backward integration
Alternative suppliers
Low cost to change suppliers
Product is unimportant to buyer

Bargaining Power of Suppliers- ability of suppliers to raise prices or reduce quality
Industry is dominated by a few companies
Unique product or service
Substitutes are not readily available
Ability to forward integrate

PPT On Creative Advertising


Creative Advertising Presentation Transcript:
1.Creative Advertising

2.Objectives of advertising
Outdoor advertising increases brand awareness by reminding consumers of a  product as they travel through their day.
Unlike radio, TV, newspaper, and Internet advertising, outdoor is hard to ignore.

3.Street Furniture
Bicycle racks
Bus benches
Bus shelters
Shopping malls

Golf carts

PPT On Laws of Supply and Demand


Laws of Supply and Demand Presentation Transcript: 

2.Aggregate Demand
The relationship between the quantity of aggregate output demanded and the price level when all other variables are held constant

Based on the quantity theory of money
        Determined solely by the quantity of money
Based on the components parts:
        Consumption, investment, government spending and net exports

4.Factors that Shift Aggregate Demand
An increase in the money supply shifts AD to the right because it lowers interest rates and stimulates investment spending
An increase in spending from any of the components C, I, G, NX, will also shift AD to the right

5.Long-run aggregate supply curve
It is determined by amount of capital and labor and the available technology
It is vertical at the natural rate of output generated by the natural rate of unemployment

6.Short-run aggregate supply curve
Wages and prices are sticky
Stickiness generates an upward sloping SRAS as firms attempt to take advantage of short-run profitability when price level rises

7.Factors that Shift SRAS
Costs of production:
1) Tightness of the labor market
2) Expected price level
3) Wage push
4) Change in production costs unrelated to wages (supply shocks)

8.Self-Correcting Mechanism
Regardless of where output is initially, it returns eventually to the natural rate
1) Wages are inflexible, particularly downward
2) Need for active government policy
1) Wages and prices are flexible
2) Less need for government intervention

Shift in aggregate demand affects output only in the short run and has no effect in the long run
Shifts in aggregate demand affects only price level in the long run
Shift in short run aggregate supply affects output & price in the short run & has no effect in the long run

PPT On Fraudulent Financial Statement


Fraudulent Financial Statement Presentation Transcript: 
1.Fraudulent Financial Statement

2.What is Financial Statement Fraud?
Deliberate misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures of financial statements to deceive financial statement users, particularly investors and creditors.

3.Indications of Financial Statement Fraud
Falsification, alteration, or manipulation of material financial records, supporting documents, or business transactions
Material intentional omissions or misrepresentations of events, transactions, accounts, or other significant information.
Misapplication of accounting principles & procedures.
Intentional omissions of disclosures or presentation of inadequate disclosures regarding accounting principles.

4.Costs of Financial Statement Fraud
More than 50% of U.S. corporations are victims of fraud with losses of more than $500,000 (Albrecht & Searcy 2001)
Enron lost about $70 billion in market capitalization to investors, employees, and pensioners
Enron, WorldCom, Quest,Global Crossing, and Tyco’s loss to shareholders was $460 billion (Cotton 2002)

5.Other Costs of Fraud
Other fraud costs  are legal costs, increased insurance costs, loss of productivity, adverse impacts on employee morale, customers’ goodwill, suppliers’ trust, and negative stock market reactions

6.Impacts of Financial Statement Fraud
Undermines the reliability, quality, transparency, and integrity of the financial reporting process
Jeopardizes the integrity and objectivity of the auditing profession.
Diminishes the confidence of capital markets, in the reliability of financial information
Makes the capital markets less efficient

7.Other impacts of Financial Statement Fraud
Adversely affects the nation’s economic growth and prosperity
Results in huge litigation costs
Destroys careers of individuals involved in financial statement fraud.
Causes bankruptcy or substantial economic losses

8.Financial Statement Fraud also:
Encourages regulatory intervention
Causes devastation in the normal operations and performance of alleged companies
Raises serious doubt about the efficacy of financial statement audits
Erodes public confidence and trust in the accounting and auditing profession 

Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine


Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine Presentation Transcript:
1.Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine

2.Literature review
Trust and integrity have found to be essential in selling insurance (Slattery, 1989).
Beeson (2010) stated that responding to customer complaints consumes significant resources because they are time intensive.
A study conducted by the Development Innovations Group in 2009 revealed that:
There are no clear rules for insurance companies to handle complaints in the West Bank.
Insurers are not required to advise their customers to complain to the PCMA.
Insurance companies comply with the Insurance Law related to keeping records of their consumers.

3.The quality of after sales services lead to customer loyalty (Taylor, 2001).
Previous studies of Wells & Stafford (1995), confirmed widespread customer dissatisfaction in insurance industry, from poor service design & delivery.
National Association of Life Underwriters found other important factors  for customer satisfaction such as:
 financial stability of the company,
reputation of the insurer,
agent integrity and
the quality of information and
guidance from the agent.

4.Problem Statement
Based on our review of previous studies, the problem statement of our study is:
What are the factors that can increase customer satisfaction from insurance services?

5.Theoretical FRAMEWORK
Independent variables:
A clear & understandable Palestinian Law.
PCMA defends insurance consumer rights.
Existence of a consumer complaint unit.
High number of Insurance coverage services.
Font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Competitive prices.
Time to pay insurance compensation.
Discrimination among consumers.
Follow up with consumers
Raising awareness among consumers.
True advertising
Employee treatment to consumers
Social responsibility of insurance companies
Honesty of employees
Previous experience with insurance companies

6.Theoretical FRAMEWORK

Our population consists of the Palestinian insurance customers in the West Bank and Gaza.
We distributed 45 questionnaires on a sample of insurance customers in Ramallah, Nablus and Hebron.
44 were answered and one not answered.
We analyzed the data through SPSS.

8.SPSS Analysis

9.By looking at the results it is clear that sig = 0.039 > .05 without using the sex, education, career, and living area variables; which implies that the null hypotheses is rejected and there is a significant relationship between the dependent and independent variables. And when using the other variables the sig becomes 0.78 which is > 0.05 and this accepts the null hypotheses which means these variables are not significant variables.

10.Based on the above Coefficient analysis, we conclude that only 8 variables out of 15 affect the dependent variable (customer satisfaction). These variables are:
 Variable 3: The existence of a consumer complaint unit.
Variable 4: High number of Insurance coverage services.
Variable 6: Insurance service competitive prices
Variable 7: Time to pay insurance compensation
Variable 9: Follow up with consumers
Variable 10: Providing brochures and raising awareness among consumers
Variable 11: True advertising
Variable 14: Honesty of insurance company employees
The other seven variables have no relationship with the dependent variable.  
Variable 1: The existence of a clear and understandable Palestinian Insurance Law.
Variable 2: PCMA defends insurance consumer rights.
Variable 5: The font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Variable 8: Discrimination among consumers.
Variable 12: Employee treatment to consumers
Variable 13: social responsibility of insurance companies
Variable 15: previous experience with insurance companies

Accept the null hypothesis for variables  1,2, 5, 8, 12, 13 and 15 and therefore:
No relation exists between a clear Insurance Law and Customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between defending consumer rights by PCMA and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between the existence of a clear font size used in the documents of insurance co. and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between discrimination among consumers and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between employee treatment to consumers and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between social responsibility of insurance co.s & customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between prior experience with insurance co. and customer satisfaction.
Reject the null hypothesis for variables  3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 14 and therefore:
The existence of a consumer compliant unit increases customer satisfaction.
Following up with consumers increases customer satisfaction.
Short time to pay consumer compensation increases customer satisfaction.
The existence of competitive prices increases customer satisfaction.
The existence of a high number of insurance services increases customer satisfaction.
Raising awareness among consumers increases customer satisfaction
True advertising increases customer satisfaction
Honesty of insurance company employees increases customer satisfaction.

 In order to achieve customer satisfaction insurance co. should focus on :
The existence of a consumer complaint unit.
High number of insurance coverage services.
Insurance service competitive prices
Time to pay insurance compensation
Follow up with consumers
Providing brochures and raising awareness among consumers
True advertising
Honesty of insurance company employees
 The above issues will achieve customer satisfaction and, therefore, customers will be loyal to insurance companies and increase their profits.
 On the other hand, we recommend insurance companies not to concentrate on:
The existence of a clear and understandable Palestinian Insurance Law.
The font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Social responsibility of insurance companies

PPT On Statement of Retained Earnings


Statement of Retained Earnings Presentation Transcript:
1.The Statement of Retained Earnings

2.Statement of Retained Earnings
The Statement of Retained Earnings reports how net income and dividends affected a company’s financial position during the period.

3.It is one of the main financial statements that are issued in the audited financial statements of any entity on annual basis.

4.The format of the statement is:
Beg. balance, retained earnings
+  Net income
-   Dividends
    End. balance, retained earnings

5.Note that the Income Statement must be prepared before the Statement of Retained Earnings.
This is because you have to know the amount of net income in order to compute the ending balance of retained earnings.

6.The amounts reported in the Retained Earnings are carried to the Balance Sheet. Therefore, certain amounts in the Balance Sheet are derived from this statement.

PPT On Education in Palestine


Education in Palestine Presentation Transcript:

2.Students in Palestine

3.Students in Palestine - University

4.Notes about education in schools

5.International Indicators

6.Local Indicators

7.Help/Support/Aid ..  Is needed

8.Mission of Saned

9.Teachers, from Where?


11.Volunteer?, Teaching

PPT On SFAS 116 and 117


SFAS 116 and 117 Presentation Transcript:
1.Not-for-Profit Organizations: SFAS 116 and 117

SFAS #116 – Accounting for Contributions Received and Contributions Made
SFAS #117 – Financial Statements for Not-for-Profit Organizations

3.Key Definitions
Contribution: An unconditional transfer of cash or other assets to an entity or a settlement or cancellation of its liabilities in a voluntary nonreciprocal transfer by another entity acting other than as an owner.
Promise to Give ("pledge"): A written or oral agreement to contribute cash or other assets to another entity. A promise to give may be either conditional or unconditional.

4.Donor-Imposed Condition: A donor stipulation that specifies a future and uncertain event whose occurrence or failure to occur gives the promisor a right of return of the assets it has transferred or releases the promisor from its obligation to transfer its assets.
Donor-Imposed Restriction: A donor stipulation that specifies a use for the contributed asset that is more specific than broad limits resulting from the nature of the organization, the environment in which it operates, and the purposes specified in its articles of incorporation or bylaws or comparable documents for an unincorporated association. A restriction on an organization’s use of the asset contributed may be temporary or permanent.

Significant source of revenue for most nonprofits.
Defined as: an unconditional transfer of cash or other assets to an entity or a settlement or cancellation of its liabilities in a voluntary nonreciprocal transfer by another entity acting other than as owner.

6.Recognizing Contribution Revenue
In period received or unconditionally promised
Reported in appropriate net asset category

Revenues recognized when unconditional pledge is received
Conditional pledges & transfers recognized as revenues when conditions are met
Unconditional pledges due in future years reported as restricted support unless donor specifies it is for current operations

8.Pledges – Unconditional Promises to Give
Recognize receivable if pledges are unconditional promises to give
Does not have provisions that release donor based on future and uncertain event
Conditional promise may be unconditional if occurrence of event is remote

9.Pledges – Conditional Promises to Give
Not reported as receivables
Note disclosure only
Support from conditional promises to give recognized when conditions are met

10.Classes of Net Assets
Unrestricted Net Assets
Temporarily Restricted Net Assets
Permanently Restricted Net Assets

11.Required Financial Statements
Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)
Statement of Activities
Statement of Cash Flows

12.Statement of Financial Position
No specific format required
Fund reporting not prohibited
Aggregated totals for assets, liabilities, and net assets is required, as is reporting the three classes of net assets
Some accounts do have specific requirements

13.Example on Presentation of Net Assets in Statement of Financial Position

14.Statement of Activities
Revenues and gains reported by source
Reported by function
Classified as either
Program expenses
General & Administrative expenses
Changes in classes of net assets reported separately

15.Example for a Statement of Activities

An Organization Strategic Plan PPT


An Organization Strategic Plan Presentation Transcript:
1.An organization Strategic Plan

Vision Statement
Mission statement
Core Values


4.Vision Statement
     “A State of Justice and Rule of Law in Palestine”

5.Mission statement
Strives for the Rule of Law and the Prevalence of Justice in Palestine by Monitoring the Violations and Non-Compliance to the Law, Documentation and Follow-up, as well as Influencing Policy Legislation, Promoting Public Awareness and Building the Legal Capacity in the Palestinian Society.

6.Core Values
Integrity and Accountability
      A legal organization will strive for openness & honesty internally & towards the public.
Independent and SELF-GOVERNING
       A legal organization will remain Independent & Impartial, working in the Rule of Law.
 A legal organization is dedicated to delivering & developing high quality programs and activities with measurable results.
       A legal organization values teamwork by hearing different perspectives & approaches, guided by empathy & tolerance.





11.GOAL 4: Institutional sustainability

12.SWOT ANALYSIS OF A legal organization
Clearly a non-partisan, neutral, and completely independence from political influence.
Clear historical records that reflects some accumulated experience in the field of its work.
Developed programs that including its publications that become “a point of reference” within the legal & judicial environment in Palestine.
A legal organization’s work, as reflected by its vision/mission is very relevant to Palestinian society.
High respect from stakeholders including relevant governmental organizations as well as those of civil society.
A legal organization’s financial system, policies and procedures are transparent and effective.
A legal organization encourages new initiatives and in a way, is a pioneer in promoting the independence of judiciary and the legal profession.

13.A legal organization’s Mission Statement has to be translated into a set of some concrete goals that direct actions and set the priorities, within an institutional approach.
Management policies and procedures, though present, do not seem to be well communicated to all those concerned particularly the staff.
Employees’ turnover rate is high by many measures prompting the need for a more effective human resources management.
Technical skills of staff need continuous improvement; there is need for more consistent plans and a directive policy for human resources development.
Employees’ satisfaction and general work conditions including job security could be improved.
Absence of long term financial planning creating a risk on the financial sustainability of the organization.
Synergy between and among the various activities and programs within A legal organization could be enhanced and more effectively utilized.

14.Low number of Palestinian organizations that provide such services.
New donors and grants
Palestinian needs for such organizations.
The PA support to such organizations since it is the beneficiary.

15.Unstable political conditions in Palestine.
Bad economic conditions in Palestine.
Lack of expertise in such fields.

Thursday, November 14, 2013

PPT On TRAINING OF Students Graduates


TRAINING OF Students Graduates Presentation Transcript:
1.TRAINING OF students graduates

2.The problems that exist among students graduates?
Weak communication skills so that there is a lack of confidence in the reliance on self.
Weaknesses in the English language.
Existing leadership skills among graduates weak.
A large extent between Theoretical and practical so that the Most  student do not have job skills.
Negotiation skills are weak.

3.Training Project objectives :
Motivate students.
Communication skills , managerial and marketing skills for all  student.
Negotiation Skills.
Leadership skills.
Languages, especially English that will help them to engage the labor market.
Experience  that help student for engage in the labor market.

4.Training with Private Sector
This program relies on the private sector so that there are contracts between the project and the private sector to train graduates so they can practice applied to work.

5.Training with general Sector
This significant program on the public sector to train graduates in various ministries, so they have a high capacity for work in the ministries.

Give the skills of graduates in the agricultural sector.
Give graduates with skills in the livestock sector.
Give skills for graduates in the industrial sector.

Measures the reaction of graduates on training, it is important to feel the graduate training that has meaning and value and experience given will help him to obtain the required expertise.

You measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their knowledge increased as a result of the training?
We at this stage are working to identify the needs of students and what we want to teach him (skills , knowledge, attitudes).

At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have changed their behavior, based on the training they received. Specifically, this looks at how trainees apply the information.

At this level, you analyze the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. 

PPT On Subsidiary Financial Statements


Subsidiary Financial Statements Presentation Transcript: 
1.Subsidiary Financial Statements

2.Subsidiary Financial Statements
Creditors, preferred stockholders, and non-controlling common stockholders of subsidiaries are most interested in the separate financial statements of the subsidiaries in which they have an interest.

3.Because subsidiaries are legally separate from their parents, the creditors and stockholders of  a subsidiary generally have no claim on the parent, and the stockholders of the subsidiary do not share in the profits of the parent.

4.Standard Requirements
ARB 51 indicates that consolidated financial statements normally are appropriate for a group of companies when one company “has a controlling financial interest in the other companies.”
FASB 94 requires consolidation of all majority-owned subsidiaries unless the parent is unable to exercise control.

5.Less Than Majority Ownership
A company may be able to direct the operating and financing policies of another with less than majority ownership.
FASB 94 does not preclude consolidation with less than majority ownership, but such consolidations have seldom been found in practice.
FASB 141R indicates that control can be obtained without majority ownership of a company’s common stock.

6.Ability to Exercise Control
Sometimes, majority stockholders may not be able to exercise control even though they hold more than 50 percent of outstanding voting stock.
Subsidiary is in legal reorganization or bankruptcy
Foreign country restricts remittance of subsidiary profits to domestic parent company
The unconsolidated subsidiary is reported as an intercorporate investment.

7.Changing Concept of the Reporting Entity
FASB 94, requiring consolidation of all majority-owned subsidiaries, was issued to eliminate the inconsistencies found in practice until a more comprehensive standard could be issued.
Completion of the FASB’s consolidation project has been hampered by, among other things, issues related to:
Reporting entity

8.FASB has been attempting to move toward a consolidation requirement for entities under effective control.
Ability to direct the policies of another entity even though majority ownership is lacking.
Even though FASB 141R indicates that control can be achieved without majority ownership, a comprehensive consolidation policy has yet to be achieved.

9.The accounting entity
Defining the accounting entity would help resolve the issue of when to prepare consolidated financial statements and what entities should be included.
FASB 160 deals only with selected issues related to consolidated financial statements, leaving a comprehensive consolidation policy until a later time.

PPT On The Importance of Intellectual Property


The Importance of Intellectual Property Presentation Transcript:
1.The Importance of Intellectual Property

2.Intellectual Property
Is any product of human intellect that is intangible but has value in the marketplace.
It is called “intellectual” property because it is the product of human imagination, creativity, and inventiveness.

Businesses have thought of their physical assets, such as land, buildings, and equipment as the most important.
Increasingly, however, a company’s intellectual assets are the most important.

4.The Four Key Forms of Intellectual Property

A patent is a grant from the federal government conferring the rights to exclude others from making, selling, or using an invention for the term of the patent.

A trademark is any word, name, symbol, or device used to identify the source or origin of products or services and to distinguish those product or services from others.

A copyright is a form of intellectual property protection that grants to the owner of a work of authorship the legal right to determine how the work is used and to obtain the economic benefits from the work.

8.Trade Secrets
A trade secret is any formula, pattern, physical device, idea, process, or other information that provides the owner of the information with a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

9.Common Mistakes Firms Make in Regard to Protecting Their Intellectual Property



TYPES OF BUDGETS Presentation Transcript:

2.Appropriation Budgets
The legislatively approved budget that grants expenditure authority to departments and other governmental units in accordance with applicable laws.

3.Capital Budgets
Focuses on the acquisition and construction of long term assets.
Although the accounting cycle is traditionally one year, the budgeting process may extend for a considerably longer period.
The needs of organization constituents must be forecast and planned for years in advance. 

4.Flexible Budgets
Which relate costs to outputs and are thereby intended to help control costs, especially those of business-type activities.

5.May be appropriate for governmental funds “expenditures and level of activity are pre-established by legislative authorization”

6.How are expenditure and revenues classified
Because the way the budget is presented can significantly impact the allocation of resources
GASB advised that “multiple classification of governmental expenditure data is important from both internal and external management control and accountability standpoints”.

7.How are expenditure and revenues classified
Suggested expenditure classifications include:
By Fund: such as general fund, special revenue fund, debt service funds.
By Organizational Unit: such as police department, fire department, city council.
By Function or Program: a group of activities carried out with the same objective, such as public safety, sanitation, recreation.

8.Suggested expenditure Classifications include:
By Activity: line of work contributing to a function or program such as highway patrol, crime investigation.
By Character: the fiscal period they are presumed to benefit such as (Current, Capital, Debt Service)
By Object classification: the type of items purchased or the services offered such as salaries, fringe benefits, travel, and repairs.

9.Purpose Served by Each Classification
Fund—Identifies which fiscal and accounting entity was affected
Function or program—Assists in budgeting resources for carrying out major areas of service activities or goals
Organization unit —Assists in enhancing managerial control over departments and divisions, and responsibility accounting

10.Why is more than one type of budget necessary?
Capital budget is a plan setting forth when specific capital assets will be acquired and how they will be financed.
Capital budgets are closely tied to operating budgets
Each year, a government must include current-year capital spending in its operating budget.
If the capital projects are financed with debt, the CAPEX will be offset with bond proceeds and will not affect the operating budget. 



TYPES OF CONTROLS Presentation Transcript:

2.Asset Accountability Controls
Subsidiary ledgers provide a cross-check on the accuracy of a control account
Reconciliations compare values that have been computed independently
Acknowledgment procedures transfer accountability of goods to a certain person
Logs and Registers help account for the status and use of assets
Reviews & Reassessments are used to re-evaluate measured asset values

3.Management Practice Controls
Since management is responsible and thus “over” the internal control structure, they pose risks to a firm
In a computerized AIS, management should instigate a policy for:
Controls over Changes to Systems
New System Development Procedures

4.Examples of Management Practice Controls
Human resource Policies and Practices
Commitment to Competence
Planning Practices
Audit Practices
Management & Operational Controls

5.Application Controls
Application controls pertain directly to the transaction processing systems
The objectives of application controls are to ensure that all transactions are legitimately  authorized and accurately recorded, classified, processed, and reported
Application controls are subdivided into input, processing and output controls

6.Authorization Controls - I
Authorizations enforce management’s policies with respect to transactions flowing into the general ledger system
They have the objectives of assuring that:
Transactions are valid and proper
Outputs are not incorrect due to invalid inputs
Assets are better protected
Authorizations may be classified as general or specific 

7.Input Controls
Input Controls attempt to ensure the validity, accuracy, and completeness of the data entered into an AIS.
Input controls may be subdivided into:
Data Observation and Recording
Data Transcription (Batching and Converting)
Edit tests of Transaction Data
Transmission of Transaction Data



TYPES OF MARKETING Presentation Transcript:

2.Holistic Marketing
The holistic marketing concept is based on the development, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that recognize their breadth and inter dependencies.

3.Relationship Marketing

4.Integrated Marketing
Integrated marketing occurs when the marketer devises marketing activities and assembles marketing programs to create, communicate, and deliver value for consumers such that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
Two key themes are that (1) many different marketing activities can create, communicate, and deliver value and (2) marketers should design and implement any one marketing activity with all other activities in mind.

5.Internal Marketing
Internal marketing is the task of 
hiring, training, and motivating able employees
who want to serve customers well.

6.Performance Marketing

7.Types of Corporate Social Initiatives
Corporate social marketing
Cause marketing
Cause-related marketing
Corporate philanthropy
Corporate community involvement
Socially responsible business practices

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

PPT On Child Sexual Abuse


Child Sexual Abuse Presentation Transcript:
1.  Beware  The “Predator” inside the mind of a child rapist.
How    Safe   Is   Your   “CHILD” ….???
There is something terribly wrong with a society that unable to he guarantee  safety of its children . It is well known that India is not the safe place in the world for women….

2. Child Sexual Abuse..
Child sexual abuse isn’t just a matter of twisted psychology. Sociology also matters. Indian society is increasingly exposed to titillation but there are few legitimate outlets for it . The advent of the cheap mobile phone has made it much easier for people without a lot of financial resources to access pornography. The complete lack of sex education in schools and in homes means that too many people are acquiring a perverted notion of sex through porn. The government is already considering proposals to curb access to pornography. I don’t know how feasible that it in the untrammeled of the Internet. Also, ideas from watching porn usually combine with drug use and alcohol consumption to fuel sexual violence.

It is 2.15 a.m. After a long night of study, two girls step out of their rented suburban home for a bite at a busy crossing. Four men  drive past in a car and try to pick them up. One of them escapes, throws a stone at the car, alerts a nearby dhaba owner, who stops a motorcyclist.

May 30, 2005

Rapists are described as “cold – blooded,heinous men” with a lunatic urge to control women by hurting them. In sharp contrast is NARENDRA, 37. In Delhi’s Tihar jail, who could be your neighbour. “Rapist don’t have filmi, violent looks,” says jail superintendent O.P.Mishra.

Sept 9, 2002

A five years old is fighting for life at the AIIMS in Delhi. Grievously injured, she lives to see another day. A thousand kilometers away in Nagpur, an another four year old is lying in coma in a hospital ICU. She lies tethered to a ventilator, with a broken body and serious and 17, respectively, their little lives have rocked the nation and raised a painful question:
Is this no country for children??
Beware the dark underbelly of a nation in transition. Coming out of the woodwork is a shadowy figure, A PREDATOR who weaves perverse sexual fantasies on each prey, children. He is not just the criminal. Nor is he yet another rapist. he is more of a next door neighbor, a relative or a family friend, who looks perfectly normal until the day he decided to strike.

5. Little girls are most at risk..
Girls are gold not to be sold..
Abuse a child go to prison..

6.                                               50%

UP TO                                     36%
OF GIRLS AND                     29%

Child rape is not a problem unique to India but a global emergency
INDIA : Reported child rape incidents have risen 336% in the 10 years from 2001 to 2011.
SOUTH AFRICA: is the world’s child rape capital; three children are raped per minute,50% are abused before age 18.
UK: one in six children aged 11-17 (16.5%) experiences sexual abuse; decline in child sexual abuse rate reported.
CANADA: 54% of girls under 16 have experienced unwanted sexual attention and 24% of those sexual assault.
INDONESIA: out of 2,637 cases of violence on children in 2012, 62% were of sexual abuse.

336% JUMP in child rape cases from 2001 to 2011, with 48,338 such cases reported (22.5% of the total)
 1 IN 4 of reported rapes are of girls younger than 16.
 90% OF THE VICTIMS under 12 are raped by relatives or friends of family.
 32% OF CHILDREN surveyed in India were abused by people close to them between age 2 to 10.
 87% OF THOSE ABUSED were subjected to it repeatedly, 19% lived with an abuser.

Madhya Pradesh = 9,465 rape cases
Maharashtra = 6,868 rape cases
Uttar Pradesh = 5,949 rape cases
Andhra Pradesh = 3,977 rape cases
Delhi= 2,909 rape cases

9. How To Protect Your Child
Listen  to your child . Children hint at fears about a person or a place.
Teach your child about rape as early as you teach her about the parts of the body.
Teach them the difference between good and the bad touch and to say no bad touch firmly.
Monitor access to porn and activate parental controls on the stranger friend requests on social media.
Discuss age appropriate sexual milestones so they are aware of the correct sexuality for their age.
Create an atmosphere of belief; 70% children don’t complain thinking they won’t be believed.
Schools need to have well- lit areas ad monitor isolated spots.
Be vigilant for when a child is making a departure from the known schedule and with whom.
Teach children not to accept sweets, treats , rides, lifts from anyone other than those specified safe.

10. Instead of saying daughters to not to step out at night, PARENTS should taught their Sons to behave well….
LISTEN BOYS…!!!!!!!!!!!!
Girls aren’t toys to play with…
We too have equal right to live as yours…
You are nothing without us…

11. Presented by…
Komal  Bachchani
Gargi  Buteri
Sonal  Gupta
Lochan Gupta

PPT On Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching


Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching Presentation Transcript:
1.Laboratory Method of Clinical Teaching

The laboratory method serve as the foundation for building in those combination of teaching method best suited for establishing a structural framework to bridge the gap between the theoretical study of nursing & the study of patient.
The learning experience are planned so that the theory & laboratory experience can complement each other.

Laboratory method as used in nursing education may be defined as:
  planned learning activity dealing with original data in solution of problem.
    original data includes
            material obtained experimentally & any other material resulting from laboratory procedure.

4.Purposes of Laboratory Method
To provide first hand experience with material or facts in the solution of problem, e.g. science laboratory.
To provide experience with actual situation such as nursing laboratory & hospital wards.
To make student to become skillful in manipulation apparatus, practicing laboratory technique.
It helps students to acquire scientific attitude & scientific approach in problem solving.

5.Types of laboratory
Science laboratory - used to teach the science subject, widely used in physiology, physical science, chemistry, microbiology for teaching these subjects.
Nutrition laboratory – used to teach the basic knowledge about food & for practice of cooking food for normal as well as invalids.
Nursing art laboratory of demonstration room – it is used for demonstration of some techniques in nursing. Student may practice to become familiar with nursing procedure.

6.Technique of laboratory method

It requires establishment of objective & plan of work.
It motivate the student by presenting problem together with effective method for its solution.
Teacher prepare the plan with the cooperation of the students considering objective not wasting time.
Teacher allow time for the maximum use of laboratory work.

8.Work period
It refers to that period when demonstration, experimentation or practice for a skill in nursing procedure.
To ensure an effective work period there must be adequate equipments & facilities including basic tools.
There must be adequate supply of specimens & material.
There should be sufficient space, light & ventilation.

Group discussion, individual reports of finding, written report of principles learned is evaluation tool, which gives more opportunity to the student In mastering knowledge & to put into practice.

Students learn by doing and come in contact with raw data or material objects in the teaching-learning process.
 Develops the power of observation and reasoning.
Develops the scientific attitude.
Gives an understanding of what research is and how to apply the scientific method of research
Gives training in organizing data gathered from real material objects and how these objects are manipulated to attain the objectives.
Since students come in contact with real life situations, it can be a preparation for solving real life problems.

11.Limitations of laboratory work
Poor planning & lack of direction of teacher may result in wasting of time & can create complication.
Lack of budget can create insecurity in teacher regarding laboratory equipments.

It is the part of study in education which helps to give proof to the study which is based upon the scientific principle. It helps for clear & comprehensive study which helps in acquiring study in particular study. It is a type of instruction in which student learn by actual doing the things by himself & its success depends upon  good planning. Wit its help students made to understand the use of laboratory finding.
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