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Thursday, June 19, 2014

PPT On Guidance And Counseling in nursing


Guidance & Counseling in nursing Presentation Transcript

  • Everyone in the universe do come across some problem or other irrespective of their age, sex, occupation and profession.
  • For this, from time immemorial man has been taking help of elders, parents, friends and teachers in solving their problems.
  •  People have been taking advice to resolve their problems yet expertise of giving this advice has been missing. e.g. most of the teacher has a high standard of pupil care but they have little talent and attitude of counselor.
  • It requires special knowledge and attitude to recognize the problem and help an individual.

“Counseling is the helping relationship, that includes some one seeking help, some one willing to give help who is capable or trained to help, in a setting that permits help to be given and received .”
                      - Cormier & Hackney, 1987.
“Counseling is an accepting, trusting and safe relationship in which clients learn to discuss freely what upsets them, to define their goals, to acquire the essential social skills and to develop the courage and  self- confidence to implement desired new behavior.”
                  -Vedanayagam, 1988.

According to the American Counseling Association, counseling is:
“The application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioural or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology.”

“Guidance is a process of helping people make important choices that affect their lives, such as choosing a preferred lifestyle”

Guidance and Counseling are closely related to each other. Although information is given in both the processes, the two are not the same as explained below:
  • Guidance is preventive, whereas counseling is curative.
  • Guidance may be given in any normal set up whereas counseling require a special set up to conduct interview.
  • Guidance is an integral part of education and assists it in fulfilling it’s aim whereas counseling is needed in all the fields.
  • In guidance decision making operates at intellectual level, whereas counseling operates at emotional level.
  • Goals within counseling help to set the tone and direction one travel’s with their client. 
  • Without goals, the sessions will wander aimlessly. 
  • Goals are mutually agreed on by the client and counselor.
  • Goals are specific.
  • Goals are relevant to behavior.
  • Goals are achievement & success oriented.
  • Goals are quantifiable & measurable.
  • Goals are behavioral & observable.
  • Goals are understandable & can be re-stated clearly.  
  • Each client must be accepted as an individual and dealt with as such (the counselor does not necessarily approve of all behavior, but still accepts the client as a person).
  • Counseling is basically a permissive relationship; that is, the individual has permission to say what they please without being reprimanded or judged.
  • Counseling emphasizes thinking with; not for the individual.
  • All decision-making rests with the client .
  • Counseling is centered on the difficulties of the client.
  • Counseling is a learning situation which eventually results in a behavioral change.
  • Effectiveness in counseling depends largely on the readiness of the client to make changes and the therapeutic relationship with the counselor.
  • The counseling relationship is confidential.
The counseling process is influenced by several characteristics that help it become a productive time for the client & counselor.  Not all characteristics apply to all situations, but generally, the following help bring about positive results.Factors are
  • Structure
  • Physical Setting
  • Client Qualities
  • Counselor Qualities
A good counselor concentrates on client’s attitude and emotions    he builds good  relationship with the client & gathers information.For all  these he needs good counselor skills, as given below:
  • Active attending or Listening
  • Reflection of Feelings
  • Questioning
  • ParaphrasingInterpretation
  • Repeating
  • Summarizing
  • Confrontation
  • Respecting
  • Structuring or prioritization
  • Interpretation
  • Repeating
  • Summarizing
  • Confrontation
  • Respecting
  • Structuring or prioritization
There are several important tools which a counselor needs to develop during the  clinical sequence of the counselor training program.
  • Empathy
  • Leading
  • Responding Styles
  • Self Disclosure
  • Immediacy
  • Humor
  • Confrontation
  • Directive Counseling:   In this counselor uses a verity of techniques to suggest appropriate solution to the problem of the client. Counselor directs the client but does not force him.
  • Non- Directive Counseling  In this the client is guided to use his own inner resources to solve the problem. This is client centered approach. Counselor does not play the role of big brother as in case of directive counseling.
  • Eclectic Counseling  Eclectism means selection and orderly combination of  best features  from diverse sources.This is based on the fact that all individuals differ from one other & their problems also differ. So, no single approach can be applied to each & every problem
  • Group Counseling  group counseling is technique where a group of persons is given counseling by Appling group interaction method for the purpose of  arriving at a solution to the problem of the group. 

Stage One    : Establishing relationship
Stage Two   : Assessment

Stage Three : Setting goals
Stage Four  : Interventions

Stage Five   : Termination & follow up





 Importance Of Telenursing Presentation Transcript

Telenursing is the integration of
  • nursing,
  • its information
  • and information management
  • with information processing
  • and communication technology,
  • to support the health of people worldwide
  • Telenursing is the use of telecommunication and information technology in nursing to enhance patient care.                                                                                                                          
  • Telenursing is a specialty that integrates informatics is a specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science and information  science to manage and communicate data,information, knowledge and wisdom in nursing practice. 
  • Increase the accuracy and completeness of nursing documentation
  • Improve the Nurses’ workflow
  • Eliminate redundant documentation
  • Automate the collection and reuse of nursing data the collection and reuse of nursing data
  • Facilitate analysis of clinical data
  • Quality measures and regulatory requirements
  • TN supports patients, nurses and other providers in their decision-making in all roles and settings. 
  • This support is accomplished through the use of information technology and information structures which organize data information and knowledge for processing by computers. 
  • Home Care
  • Case Management
  • Telephone triage
Home Care
     One of the most distinctive telenursing applications is home care.
 For example , patients who are immobilized, or live in remote or difficult to reach places, citizens who have chronic ailments, may stay at home and be "visited" and assisted regularly by a nurse via videoconferencing, internet or videophone.
 In normal home health care, one nurse is able to visit up to 5-7 patients per day. Using telenursing, one nurse can “visit” 12-16 patients in the same amount of time.
Case Management
A common application of Telenursing is also used by call centres operated by manage care organizations.
 which are staffed by registered nurses who act as case managers .
Information and counselling as a means of regulating patient access and flow and decrease the use of emergency rooms.
Telephone triage
Telephone triage refers to symptom or clinically-based calls. Nurse perform symptom assessment by asking detailed questions about the patient's illness or injury. The Nurse task is to estimate and/or rule out urgent symptoms.

  • Provide remote care
  • Decrease patient visit
  • Transcending miles and borders
  • Data Sharing
  • Rapid Response time
  • Improve  access, costs and outcomes
  • Enhances patients voice in decisions
  • Dehumanizing effects
  • Cost
  • Inability for patient to use equipment
  • Knowledge base of the nurse
  • Equipment malfunction
  •   Telephone
  •   Telehealth hardware
  •   PC or laptop computer
  •   Power supply
  •   Web access
  1. Ethical Concerns
  • Maintaining autonomy (identity, privacy)
  • Maintaining patient’s integrity
  • Prevent harm to a patient
     2. Legal Issues
  • Maintaining patient privacy
  • Verifying consent
  • Compliance with institutional regulations
  • Maintaining compliance with scope of practice
As new technology emerge, telenursing practices will continue to evolve. The Registered Nurses will have to make certain that they possess the necessary technical clinical knowledge to  provide safe, competent, compassionate, and ethical care.We, as nurses, must also keep ourselves abreast to the constant changes in technology that may change the way we take care of our patients.


PPT On Importance of formulation of objectives in Nursing education


Importance of formulation of objectives in Nursing education Presentation Transcript


  •  The intentions of any course are determined to a large extent by the form in which the Aims and Objectives are stated. Whereas the aims are general statements broadly indicating the intention of the course, the objectives are specific statements of what the learner is supposed to do as a result of a course of study.
  •     Aims and objectives form the fundamental part of the teaching. Once the intended learning has been specified by the learning objectives they provide the basis for determining the scope and nature of content to be learned, the choice of teaching methods and strategies and the form of assessments for determining whether or not learning has taken place.
  •     When formulating objectives be they for the acquisition of knowledge and intellectual skills (cognitive), physical skills (psycho motor) and feelings (affective), they must be specific, measurable and relevant for the intended learning.
 Purpose  toward which an endeavor is directed. It is desired result that a person wishes to achieve.


 Specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes that students are expected to achieve through their college experience

The object toward which one strives for which something exists.            

5.Types of objectives:
 Classified in two major categories:

1) Educational objectives

2) Teaching/learning objectives.

1) Educational objectives:

  •      Educational objectives tell us what the learner should be able to do after undertaking an educational program.
  •     Educational objectives are statements of those changes in behavior which are desired as a result of specific learner and teacher activity, which is a two way process.
  •     BS Bloom believes that education is a tripolar process.
Types of educational objectives:
According to Guilbert:

  1.     General objectives : correspond to functioning of types of health personnel trained in an establishment. E.g. Providing preventive and curative care to individuals , families, and community in health and sickness.
  2.     Intermediate objectives : arrived at by breaking down professional functions into components which together indicate the nature of functions.Eg. Planning and carrying out a demonstration session on breast feeding for group of mothers in community.
  3.     Specific / instructional objectives: corresponding to precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria.E.g. Demonstrates correct use of blood pressure apparatus in taking blood pressure of patient.
2) Teaching objectives:
  •     Teaching objectives are relating to learning outcome or change of behavior of learners. These are specific, direct and practical in nature.
  •     BS Bloom has classified teaching objectives in three categories-cognitive objectives, affective objectives, and psychomotor objectives.
6.Specific / instructional objectives:

Corresponding to precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria .These are based on specific outcome and these helps to identify terminal outcomes of instruction in terms of observable performance of learner .These are presented in behavioral terms so we can name them learning outcomes

For teachers:

  •      It serves as a guide in selection of important and desirable subject matter.
  •      It describes behavior in terms of student performance.
  •     It serves as basis for evaluation.
  •     It indicates direction towards which behavior is to be geared.
For student:
  •       They indicate to the learner what needs to be learned.
  •      Gives direction to students towards in depth study.
  •      They provide guidance for all remaining aspects involved in planning, implementing and evaluating instructional programme
  •     Learner should be able to demonstrate possession of large quality of facts ,concepts, greater ability to manipulate in more complex ways.
For nurses:
  •     To prepare nurses for rendering community services through primary health care.
  •     To prepare nurses for providing care at institutional level
  •      To prepare nurse educators to handle teaching- learning situations in all learning areas
For all:
Overall evaluation of course gives feedback to planners , administrators ,and others concerned about efficacy of education program

7. Characteristics :

  •     It should be written in behavioral terms (what the students must do)
  •      It should reflect the condition (under what circumstances ) the activities  checked be performed to achieve the objectives
  •      It should reflect standard and condition
  •      It must be reasonable in number
  •      It should be consistent with one another.
  •      It should be distinctive but not completely independent.
  •      It should be approximately of same level of generality or specificity.
  •      It should be descriptive.

8. Terminology to be used

  •     While defining objectives in behavioral terms ,one should be careful in choosing appropriate verbs .These are observable and measurable
  •     Examples of verbs:
  •       Descriptive verbs: describe, state, define , explain , write ,etc.
  •       Discriminative verbs : explain , infer , defend ,compare , differentiate
  •      Motor performance verbs: draw, measure , drive ,type
9.Qualities :
  1. SMART : specific,measurable,attainable,reasonable,timely
  2.   Other qualities should be:                 
  •      Relevant : stated objective should be free from any superfluous material but should cover every point relating to the aims in view. 
  •      Unequivocal : loaded words which are open to a wide range of interpretations should not be used.
  •     Feasible and achievable : It must be ensured that what the student is required to do can actually , within time allowed and facilities available at hand. 
  •      Logical : There should be internal consistency in objective stated.
  •      Observable : There should be some means of observing process towards an objective
  •       Measurable : objective must include an indication
10.Elements of objectives:
1)Condition:It is the condition under which learner should display the desired behaviour.
2)Activity: it denotes the behaviour the learner is expectd to perform after attending a class
3)Standard: It states the norms expected from the student .
4)Content : It describes the subject ,object in relation to which activity is performed.

Formulation of educational objectives is the main step of any curriculum development which must be consistent with the philosophy of the education programme and institution . The faculty should maintain the qualities in setting objectives in behavioral terms in Nursing Practice

12. For more information regarding this topic refer to PPT.

13. Thank You

PPT On Importance of Multimedia in Nursing Education


 Importance of Multimedia in Nursing Education Presentation Transcript

   The New development in medical technology, application of computer in health care delivery system , changing methods of professional training nurses may not be in position to forgo multimedia knowledge and it’s applications in Nursing education and Nursing practices. So today I will discuss importance of multimedia in Nursing.

Multimedia is a computer-based interactive communications process that incorporates text, graphics, sound, animation, and video.

  • Entertainment
  • Education
  • Corporate communications
  • Reference
  • Video Annotation
  • Multimedia Applications
  • Video conferencing and Trans media storytelling  
  • Multimedia used as innovative methods of teaching.
  • Multimedia maps are used to attract students to learn the things which are happening at a distance.
  • Multimedia maps are used for increasing students engagement and retention.
  • Multimedia provide new opportunities for educator to occupy student in following learning activities :
              1. Critical Thinking
              2. Problem Solving
              3. Collaborative Skills
              4. Problem of Space is critical to   attitudes and
                  decision making as global citizens
  • Multimedia maps offers new educational affordances for students at a distance and has the potential to link geographic and cultural understanding with in the contents of a variety of disciplines.
  • MapBlog  provide interactive learning environment  under  various categories i.e.
                 1. External Content
                 2. Student created Content
                 3. Static Content
                 4. Thematic Content

  • Sort out Patient’s issues
  • Patient’s health education
  • Management
  • Effective Teaching
  • Sharing the resources and collaborations 
  • Communication
  • Enhance the thinking process
  • To develop the different concepts
  • To full fill the organization educational needs
  • Individualization
  • Professional Growth
  • Research 
  • Documentation
  • Non-interactive – if one-way, no feedback
  • Lost in cyberspace
  • Cognitive overload
  • Linear content
  • Lack of structure
   Nurse educators need to evaluate changes being made in the use of multimedia technology as an education and training tool. Organizations should look beyond the formal nursing school curriculum to in service presentations and continuing education needs for both students and patients. 




Micro Teaching in nursing presentation transcript

  •  Micro teaching is a miniature classroom teaching. The time selected for teaching a particular unit is reduced to 5-10 minutes.
  • The size of the class is reduced to 5-10 pupils.
  • The content is reduced to 1unit. Only 1 skill is taken up at one time
  • ALLEN(1966) defines micro teaching as a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time.
  • CHIFT & OTHERS defines have recently defined microteaching as a teacher training procedure which reduce the teaching situation to simpler and more controlled encounter by limiting the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size.
  • It is a real teaching but focus on developing teaching skills.
  • It is a scaled down teaching-
  • to reduce the class size 5-10 pupils.
  • to reduce the duration of period 5-10 minutes.
  • to reduce the size of the topic.
  • to reduce the teaching skills.
  • It is highly individualized training device
  1. Student Teacher- The student who gets the training of a teacher is said to be student-teacher. Various capacities are developed in them during training such as – capacity of class management, capacity of maintaining discipline and capacity of organizing various programmes of the school / college etc.
  2. Feedback Devices- Providing feedback is essential to make changes in the behavior of the pupils. This feedback can be provided through video-tape, audio-tape and feedback questionnaires.
  3. Skill: As we know, skill means ability to do something well or expertness.
  4. Teaching Skills- Teaching skill is a set of teacher behaviors which are specially effective in bringing   about the desired changes in pupils.  For example:
  •  a) lecturing skill,
  • b) skill of black-board writing,
  • c) skill of asking questions,
  • d) skill of class management etc.

1. Introduction Skill: The skill of introducing a lesson involves establishing rapports with the learners, promoting their attentions, and exposing them to essential contents.
   Components of this skill are-

A) Preliminary Attention Gaining:  Normally, at the beginning of a lesson, students are found not to be attentive and mentally prepared for learning. They may be thinking something else too. In such situation, the primary duty of a teacher is to create desire for learning among the students.Teacher can do it by telling a story, with the help of demonstration, recitation, etc.

B)Use of previous knowledge: Previous knowledge refers to the learner’s level of achievements before instruction begins. Use of previous knowledge is a must, because it helps to establish an integration between the pre-existing knowledge of the learner and the new knowledge that the teacher wants to impart him.

C)Use of Appropriate Device: In order to motivate the learner, the teacher should make use of appropriate devices or techniques while introducing a lesson.
       For example- dramatization, models, audio-visual aids etc.

D) Link with new topic: After preliminary questions and introduction, teachers should establish a link of previous knowledge with present topic. 

2.  Skill of Probing Question:
 Probing questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the problem. By asking such questions again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful. He enable the pupils to understand the subject deeply.
The components of this skill are:
A) Prompting:- When a pupil expresses his inability to answer some question in  the class or his answer  is incomplete, the teacher can ask such questions which prompt the pupils in solving the already asked questions.   For example- Do you know names  of Vice Chancellors of Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University since 1983?
B) Seeking Further Information: When the pupils answer correctly in the class but the teacher wants more information and further clarification from the learner by putting ‘how’ and ‘why’ of correct part the response.
C) Refocussing : When the teacher ask the same question from other pupil for comparison .
D) Redirecting Questions: Questions which are directed to more than one learner to answer, are called redirected questions.  

3. Skill of Explanation: To present the subject-matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable is known as Explanation Skill. It involves a ability of the teacher to describe logically ‘How’, ‘Why’ and ‘What’ of concept, event etc.
Components of this skill are:
  • Clear beginning statement: Before starting any explanation, the teacher should make the pupils aware of what he is to teach on that day through a clear beginning statement.
  • Lack of Irrelevant Statement:   While presenting the subject matter, only the concerned statements should be used.
  • Fluency in Language: The teacher should use such fluent language that the pupils may listen and understand the thoughts of the teachers.
  • Connecting Links: This technique is used primarily to explain the links in statements with ‘so’, ‘therefore’, ‘because’, ‘due to’, ‘as a result of’, ‘in order to’ etc.
  • Use of Proper Words: The teacher should use proper words for enplaning an object or an event otherwise he would be in a state of confusion.
Precautions for skill of Explaining:
  • It should be in simple language.
  • It should not be given the shape of an advice.
  • The thoughts included in it should be in a sequence.
  • Irrelevant things should not be included in it.
  • It should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils.
4. Skill of Stimulus Variation: Stimulus variation is described as deliberate change in the behaviors of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of his learners throughout the lesson. Stimulus variation  determines teacher liveliness in the classroom. The components of this skill are:
  • Body Movement: The physical movements of the teacher in the class is to attract the attention of the learners. Sudden body movement and suddenly stopping the same helps in gaining learner’s attention at high level. The teacher without these activities is like a stone-idol. Excess  movement is undesirable.
  • Gestures:  Gesture involves the movements of the head, hand, and facial gestures (laughing, raising eyebrows, emotions, etc) signals. This technique helps the teacher to be more expressive and dynamic in presenting his lesson in the class Change in Voice: Teacher should bring fluctuations in his voice. The pupils feel boredom with the speech at the same pitch, and pupils get deviated from the lesson.
  •  Focussing: Focussing implies drawing the attention of the learners towards a particular point which the teacher wishes to emphasize. Such technique involves verbal focusing, gestural focusing, or verbal-gestural focusing.
  • Eye-contact and eye-movement: Both the eye-contact and eye-movement play very important role in conveying emotions and controlling interaction between the teacher and taught. In a classroom situation, this technique implies that the teacher should maintain eye-contact with the learners in order to sustain the attention of the latter.
5. Skill of Black-board Writing: Blackboards, being the visual aids, are widely used in all aspects of education and training, and are most suitable for giving a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds variety to the lesson.
The components of the skill of blackboard writing are:
  • Legibility ( Easy to read )
  • Size and alignment ( In a straight line )
  • Highlighting main points
  • Utilization of the space
  • Blackboard summary
  • Correctness
  • Position of the teacher and
  • Contact with the pupils.
  • The duration of teaching as well as number of students are less.
  • The content is divided into smaller units which makes the teaching easier.
  • Only one teaching skill is considered at a time.
  • There is a provision of immediate feedback.
  • In micro teaching cycle, there is facility of re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation.
  • It puts the teacher under the microscope
  • All the faults of the teacher are observed.
  • The problem of discipline can also be controlled.
1) Orientation lectures are to be given on each skill followed by the discussion with student teacher.

2) A model presentation of one of the skills at a time is given by the supervisor the pupil teachers are given    opportunity to criticize the model.

3) A time schedule of micro lessons is prepared for each pupil teacher.

4) Each pupil teacher prepare a plan for micro lesson with the help of his supervisor.

5) Each pupil teacher then deliver the micro lesson under controlled conditions.

6) The lesson delivered by the pupil teacher is supervised by the supervisor.

7) The lesson is then discussed and the supervisor gives feedback that is suggested improvement.

8) Each trainee incorporates the suggestions and prepares again to re teach the lesson.

9) The trainee teaches after an interval of time the same lesson to another small group of students.

10) The lesson is again discussed and feedback given.


 In micro teaching the pupil teacher tries to complete the following 5 R’s-
A) Recording
B) Reviewing
C) Responding
D) Refining
E) Redoing

  • The  principle of practice and drill.
  • The principle of evaluation
  • The principle of experimentation
  • The principle of microscopic supervision
  • The principle of continuity
  • It is an effective feedback device for the modification of teacher behaviour.
  • The knowledge and practice of teaching skills can be given by the use of microteaching.
  • It is useful for developing teaching efficiency in pre-service and in-service teacher education programs.
  • The specific teaching skills are developed by the microteaching experiences.e.g.reinforcement skill, probing question etc.
  • It is real teaching.
  •  It lessons the complexities of normal classroom size time subject matter.
  •  It focuses on training for accomplishment of specific task.
  •  It allows for increased control of practice.
  •  It expands the normal knowledge of results of feedback dimensions in teaching.
  •  It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors.
  •   It enables understanding of behaviors important in class-room teaching.
  •  It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.
  •  It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior teachers.
  •  It provides experts supervision  and constructive feedback.
  • Putting total skills is difficult in microteaching.
  • 5-10 min not sufficient to give full lesson.
  • It is not feasible actual practice 50-60 students in class not 4-10.
  • It is costly, needs tape recorder, video tape, CCTV.

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