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Thursday, June 19, 2014



Micro Teaching in nursing presentation transcript

  •  Micro teaching is a miniature classroom teaching. The time selected for teaching a particular unit is reduced to 5-10 minutes.
  • The size of the class is reduced to 5-10 pupils.
  • The content is reduced to 1unit. Only 1 skill is taken up at one time
  • ALLEN(1966) defines micro teaching as a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time.
  • CHIFT & OTHERS defines have recently defined microteaching as a teacher training procedure which reduce the teaching situation to simpler and more controlled encounter by limiting the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size.
  • It is a real teaching but focus on developing teaching skills.
  • It is a scaled down teaching-
  • to reduce the class size 5-10 pupils.
  • to reduce the duration of period 5-10 minutes.
  • to reduce the size of the topic.
  • to reduce the teaching skills.
  • It is highly individualized training device
  1. Student Teacher- The student who gets the training of a teacher is said to be student-teacher. Various capacities are developed in them during training such as – capacity of class management, capacity of maintaining discipline and capacity of organizing various programmes of the school / college etc.
  2. Feedback Devices- Providing feedback is essential to make changes in the behavior of the pupils. This feedback can be provided through video-tape, audio-tape and feedback questionnaires.
  3. Skill: As we know, skill means ability to do something well or expertness.
  4. Teaching Skills- Teaching skill is a set of teacher behaviors which are specially effective in bringing   about the desired changes in pupils.  For example:
  •  a) lecturing skill,
  • b) skill of black-board writing,
  • c) skill of asking questions,
  • d) skill of class management etc.

1. Introduction Skill: The skill of introducing a lesson involves establishing rapports with the learners, promoting their attentions, and exposing them to essential contents.
   Components of this skill are-

A) Preliminary Attention Gaining:  Normally, at the beginning of a lesson, students are found not to be attentive and mentally prepared for learning. They may be thinking something else too. In such situation, the primary duty of a teacher is to create desire for learning among the students.Teacher can do it by telling a story, with the help of demonstration, recitation, etc.

B)Use of previous knowledge: Previous knowledge refers to the learner’s level of achievements before instruction begins. Use of previous knowledge is a must, because it helps to establish an integration between the pre-existing knowledge of the learner and the new knowledge that the teacher wants to impart him.

C)Use of Appropriate Device: In order to motivate the learner, the teacher should make use of appropriate devices or techniques while introducing a lesson.
       For example- dramatization, models, audio-visual aids etc.

D) Link with new topic: After preliminary questions and introduction, teachers should establish a link of previous knowledge with present topic. 

2.  Skill of Probing Question:
 Probing questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the problem. By asking such questions again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful. He enable the pupils to understand the subject deeply.
The components of this skill are:
A) Prompting:- When a pupil expresses his inability to answer some question in  the class or his answer  is incomplete, the teacher can ask such questions which prompt the pupils in solving the already asked questions.   For example- Do you know names  of Vice Chancellors of Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University since 1983?
B) Seeking Further Information: When the pupils answer correctly in the class but the teacher wants more information and further clarification from the learner by putting ‘how’ and ‘why’ of correct part the response.
C) Refocussing : When the teacher ask the same question from other pupil for comparison .
D) Redirecting Questions: Questions which are directed to more than one learner to answer, are called redirected questions.  

3. Skill of Explanation: To present the subject-matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable is known as Explanation Skill. It involves a ability of the teacher to describe logically ‘How’, ‘Why’ and ‘What’ of concept, event etc.
Components of this skill are:
  • Clear beginning statement: Before starting any explanation, the teacher should make the pupils aware of what he is to teach on that day through a clear beginning statement.
  • Lack of Irrelevant Statement:   While presenting the subject matter, only the concerned statements should be used.
  • Fluency in Language: The teacher should use such fluent language that the pupils may listen and understand the thoughts of the teachers.
  • Connecting Links: This technique is used primarily to explain the links in statements with ‘so’, ‘therefore’, ‘because’, ‘due to’, ‘as a result of’, ‘in order to’ etc.
  • Use of Proper Words: The teacher should use proper words for enplaning an object or an event otherwise he would be in a state of confusion.
Precautions for skill of Explaining:
  • It should be in simple language.
  • It should not be given the shape of an advice.
  • The thoughts included in it should be in a sequence.
  • Irrelevant things should not be included in it.
  • It should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils.
4. Skill of Stimulus Variation: Stimulus variation is described as deliberate change in the behaviors of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of his learners throughout the lesson. Stimulus variation  determines teacher liveliness in the classroom. The components of this skill are:
  • Body Movement: The physical movements of the teacher in the class is to attract the attention of the learners. Sudden body movement and suddenly stopping the same helps in gaining learner’s attention at high level. The teacher without these activities is like a stone-idol. Excess  movement is undesirable.
  • Gestures:  Gesture involves the movements of the head, hand, and facial gestures (laughing, raising eyebrows, emotions, etc) signals. This technique helps the teacher to be more expressive and dynamic in presenting his lesson in the class Change in Voice: Teacher should bring fluctuations in his voice. The pupils feel boredom with the speech at the same pitch, and pupils get deviated from the lesson.
  •  Focussing: Focussing implies drawing the attention of the learners towards a particular point which the teacher wishes to emphasize. Such technique involves verbal focusing, gestural focusing, or verbal-gestural focusing.
  • Eye-contact and eye-movement: Both the eye-contact and eye-movement play very important role in conveying emotions and controlling interaction between the teacher and taught. In a classroom situation, this technique implies that the teacher should maintain eye-contact with the learners in order to sustain the attention of the latter.
5. Skill of Black-board Writing: Blackboards, being the visual aids, are widely used in all aspects of education and training, and are most suitable for giving a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds variety to the lesson.
The components of the skill of blackboard writing are:
  • Legibility ( Easy to read )
  • Size and alignment ( In a straight line )
  • Highlighting main points
  • Utilization of the space
  • Blackboard summary
  • Correctness
  • Position of the teacher and
  • Contact with the pupils.
  • The duration of teaching as well as number of students are less.
  • The content is divided into smaller units which makes the teaching easier.
  • Only one teaching skill is considered at a time.
  • There is a provision of immediate feedback.
  • In micro teaching cycle, there is facility of re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation.
  • It puts the teacher under the microscope
  • All the faults of the teacher are observed.
  • The problem of discipline can also be controlled.
1) Orientation lectures are to be given on each skill followed by the discussion with student teacher.

2) A model presentation of one of the skills at a time is given by the supervisor the pupil teachers are given    opportunity to criticize the model.

3) A time schedule of micro lessons is prepared for each pupil teacher.

4) Each pupil teacher prepare a plan for micro lesson with the help of his supervisor.

5) Each pupil teacher then deliver the micro lesson under controlled conditions.

6) The lesson delivered by the pupil teacher is supervised by the supervisor.

7) The lesson is then discussed and the supervisor gives feedback that is suggested improvement.

8) Each trainee incorporates the suggestions and prepares again to re teach the lesson.

9) The trainee teaches after an interval of time the same lesson to another small group of students.

10) The lesson is again discussed and feedback given.


 In micro teaching the pupil teacher tries to complete the following 5 R’s-
A) Recording
B) Reviewing
C) Responding
D) Refining
E) Redoing

  • The  principle of practice and drill.
  • The principle of evaluation
  • The principle of experimentation
  • The principle of microscopic supervision
  • The principle of continuity
  • It is an effective feedback device for the modification of teacher behaviour.
  • The knowledge and practice of teaching skills can be given by the use of microteaching.
  • It is useful for developing teaching efficiency in pre-service and in-service teacher education programs.
  • The specific teaching skills are developed by the microteaching experiences.e.g.reinforcement skill, probing question etc.
  • It is real teaching.
  •  It lessons the complexities of normal classroom size time subject matter.
  •  It focuses on training for accomplishment of specific task.
  •  It allows for increased control of practice.
  •  It expands the normal knowledge of results of feedback dimensions in teaching.
  •  It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors.
  •   It enables understanding of behaviors important in class-room teaching.
  •  It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.
  •  It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior teachers.
  •  It provides experts supervision  and constructive feedback.
  • Putting total skills is difficult in microteaching.
  • 5-10 min not sufficient to give full lesson.
  • It is not feasible actual practice 50-60 students in class not 4-10.
  • It is costly, needs tape recorder, video tape, CCTV.

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