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Friday, November 15, 2013



PALESTINIAN CITIES Presentation Transcript: 











PALESTINIAN OLIVE TREES Presentation Transcript: 

2.The olive tree is considered one of the main crops in Palestine.

3.More than 10 million olive trees are planted in an area of more than 900 thousand acres that constitute 50% of the cultivated area, mostly in mountains.

4.The olive tree is one of the seven types of fruit that the holy land was blessed by. The Lord has said " stokes from a blessed olive tree neither eastern nor western".  35 from Al-Nure

5.Compared to other fruit trees, this tree is the most widespread constituting 80% of the area allotted for fruitful trees.

6.Different botanists and agriculturists have disaccorded about the original home of the olive tree. Some believe that its home was in E. Asia while others argue it`s in the Mediterranean countries. Our country is one of those countries that have planted olives since ancient times. 

PPT On Financial Analysis for PalTel


Financial Analysis for PalTel Presentation Transcript: 
1.Financial Analysis for PalTel

2.Financial Statement Analysis
Any item reported in a financial statement has significance if its inclusion indicates that the item exists at a given time and in a certain quantity. 
Financial Statement amounts must be compared with other financial  amounts to provide more information. 

3.There are three types of comparisons to provide decision usefulness of financial information:
Intracompany Basis
Comparisons within a company are often useful to detect changes in financial relationships and significant trends.
Intercompany Basis
Comparisons with other companies provide insight into a company's competitive position
Industry Averages 
Comparisons with industry averages provide information about a company's relative position within the industry. 

4.Palestine Telecommunications Company P.L.C. (PALTEL) is:
Limited liability public shareholding company.
Registered and incorporated in Nablus in 1995 but it started their operations in 1997.
Engaged in providing, managing, and rendering wireline and wireless services.
The consolidated financial statements of PalTel for the year ended December 31, 2009 were authorized for issuance in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Directors on March 10, 2010.
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of PALTEL and its subsidiaries (the Group) as of December 31, 2009. PALTEL’s direct and indirect ownership in its subsidiaries’ subscribed capital was as follows:
   PALCEL      HADARA       PALMEDIA       HULUL      REACH        AYLA 
(Ownership % 100) 

Three basic TOOLS are used in financial statement analysis :
    Horizontal analysis
    Vertical analysis
    Ratio analysis

6. Horizontal Analysis
Is a technique for evaluating a series of financial statement data over a period of time.
Purpose is to determine whether an increase or decrease has taken place.
The increase or decrease can be expressed as either an amount or a percentage($,%).

7. Vertical Analysis
Is a technique for evaluating financial statement data that expresses each item in a financial statement as a percent of a base amount.
Total assets is always the base amount in vertical analysis of a balance sheet.

8.Ratio Analysis
Three types:
Liquidity ratios
Solvency ratios
Profitability ratios
Single ratio by itself is not very meaningful.

9.Liquidity ratios Measure the short-term ability of the enterprise to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash.
Who Cares?
Short-term creditors such as bankers and suppliers

10.Solvency Ratios
Measure the ability of the enterprise to survive over a long period of time
  WHO CARES? Long-term creditors and stockholders

11.Profitability Ratios
Measure the income or operating success of an enterprise     for a given period of time
WHO CARES? Everybody
WHY? A company’s income affects:
its ability to obtain debt and equity financing
its liquidity position
its ability to grow




2.Payroll &Time Management
A. Main Existing Procedures
A personal file is maintained for each employee.
Time sheets are not maintained.
Severance pay are accrued for but not maintained in a separate bank account.
Salaries are not declared to income tax department.
Salaries are paid through cheques.

3.B.Identified Weaknesses
No time sheets are prepared by each employee and therefore, time can not be properly allocated to projects.
Payroll income taxes are not deducted and paid to tax department.
No bank account is maintained for severance pay and provident fund.  

Payroll expenses may not be properly allocated to various projects.
Weakened controls over the time of employees.
Difficulty in reasonably allocating overhead expenses to projects.
Non-compliance with prevailing tax laws and therefore penalties may be imposed on the entity.
Physical cash may not be available to finance the employees’ severance pay and provident fund. 

Time sheets should be prepared by each employee on regular basis (monthly or by-weekly), which should be reviewed and approved by the employees supervisor.
Payroll income taxes should be calculated, withheld and paid to the tax department on monthly basis.
Funds for employees’ severance pay and provident fund should be maintained in a special bank account and should not be used for any other purposes.     

6.Fixed Assets
A.Main Existing Procedures
Fixed assets are expended at the time of purchase.
No fixed assets register is maintained.

7.B.Identified Weaknesses
Fixed assets are expended at the time of purchase.
No fixed assets register is maintained.
No insurance is maintained for fixed assets.     

Fixed assets may be lost in case of fire or theft.
Financial periods of the entity will not be reasonably charged with the cost of fixed assets.
Loose control over fixed assets.

Fixed assets should be capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.
Fixed assets register should be maintained.
Fixed assets should be insured against fire and theft.
Fixed assets tags should be used to control location and responsibility of each fixed assets item. 

PPT On Porter’s 5 Forces


Porter’s 5 Forces Presentation Transcript:
1.Porter’s 5 forces

2.Threat of new entrants
Rivalry among existing firms
Threat of substitute products
Bargaining power of buyers
Bargaining power of suppliers

3.Threat of new entrants-
new entrants to an industry bring new capacity, a desire to gain market share and substantial resources

Entry barrier- an obstruction that makes it difficult for a company to enter an industry
Economies of scale
Product differentiation
Capital requirements
Switching costs

Rivalry Among Existing Firms- new entrants to an industry bring new capacity, a desire to gain market share and substantial resources
Number of competitors
Rate of industry growth
Product or service characteristics
Amount of fixed costs

6.Threat of Substitute Products or Services-
products that appear different but can satisfy the same need as another product

Bargaining Power of Buyers- ability of buyers to force prices down, bargain for higher quality, play competitors against each other
Large purchases
Backward integration
Alternative suppliers
Low cost to change suppliers
Product is unimportant to buyer

Bargaining Power of Suppliers- ability of suppliers to raise prices or reduce quality
Industry is dominated by a few companies
Unique product or service
Substitutes are not readily available
Ability to forward integrate

PPT On Creative Advertising


Creative Advertising Presentation Transcript:
1.Creative Advertising

2.Objectives of advertising
Outdoor advertising increases brand awareness by reminding consumers of a  product as they travel through their day.
Unlike radio, TV, newspaper, and Internet advertising, outdoor is hard to ignore.

3.Street Furniture
Bicycle racks
Bus benches
Bus shelters
Shopping malls

Golf carts

PPT On Laws of Supply and Demand


Laws of Supply and Demand Presentation Transcript: 

2.Aggregate Demand
The relationship between the quantity of aggregate output demanded and the price level when all other variables are held constant

Based on the quantity theory of money
        Determined solely by the quantity of money
Based on the components parts:
        Consumption, investment, government spending and net exports

4.Factors that Shift Aggregate Demand
An increase in the money supply shifts AD to the right because it lowers interest rates and stimulates investment spending
An increase in spending from any of the components C, I, G, NX, will also shift AD to the right

5.Long-run aggregate supply curve
It is determined by amount of capital and labor and the available technology
It is vertical at the natural rate of output generated by the natural rate of unemployment

6.Short-run aggregate supply curve
Wages and prices are sticky
Stickiness generates an upward sloping SRAS as firms attempt to take advantage of short-run profitability when price level rises

7.Factors that Shift SRAS
Costs of production:
1) Tightness of the labor market
2) Expected price level
3) Wage push
4) Change in production costs unrelated to wages (supply shocks)

8.Self-Correcting Mechanism
Regardless of where output is initially, it returns eventually to the natural rate
1) Wages are inflexible, particularly downward
2) Need for active government policy
1) Wages and prices are flexible
2) Less need for government intervention

Shift in aggregate demand affects output only in the short run and has no effect in the long run
Shifts in aggregate demand affects only price level in the long run
Shift in short run aggregate supply affects output & price in the short run & has no effect in the long run

PPT On Fraudulent Financial Statement


Fraudulent Financial Statement Presentation Transcript: 
1.Fraudulent Financial Statement

2.What is Financial Statement Fraud?
Deliberate misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures of financial statements to deceive financial statement users, particularly investors and creditors.

3.Indications of Financial Statement Fraud
Falsification, alteration, or manipulation of material financial records, supporting documents, or business transactions
Material intentional omissions or misrepresentations of events, transactions, accounts, or other significant information.
Misapplication of accounting principles & procedures.
Intentional omissions of disclosures or presentation of inadequate disclosures regarding accounting principles.

4.Costs of Financial Statement Fraud
More than 50% of U.S. corporations are victims of fraud with losses of more than $500,000 (Albrecht & Searcy 2001)
Enron lost about $70 billion in market capitalization to investors, employees, and pensioners
Enron, WorldCom, Quest,Global Crossing, and Tyco’s loss to shareholders was $460 billion (Cotton 2002)

5.Other Costs of Fraud
Other fraud costs  are legal costs, increased insurance costs, loss of productivity, adverse impacts on employee morale, customers’ goodwill, suppliers’ trust, and negative stock market reactions

6.Impacts of Financial Statement Fraud
Undermines the reliability, quality, transparency, and integrity of the financial reporting process
Jeopardizes the integrity and objectivity of the auditing profession.
Diminishes the confidence of capital markets, in the reliability of financial information
Makes the capital markets less efficient

7.Other impacts of Financial Statement Fraud
Adversely affects the nation’s economic growth and prosperity
Results in huge litigation costs
Destroys careers of individuals involved in financial statement fraud.
Causes bankruptcy or substantial economic losses

8.Financial Statement Fraud also:
Encourages regulatory intervention
Causes devastation in the normal operations and performance of alleged companies
Raises serious doubt about the efficacy of financial statement audits
Erodes public confidence and trust in the accounting and auditing profession 

Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine


Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine Presentation Transcript:
1.Factors that Increase Insurance Customer Satisfaction in Palestine

2.Literature review
Trust and integrity have found to be essential in selling insurance (Slattery, 1989).
Beeson (2010) stated that responding to customer complaints consumes significant resources because they are time intensive.
A study conducted by the Development Innovations Group in 2009 revealed that:
There are no clear rules for insurance companies to handle complaints in the West Bank.
Insurers are not required to advise their customers to complain to the PCMA.
Insurance companies comply with the Insurance Law related to keeping records of their consumers.

3.The quality of after sales services lead to customer loyalty (Taylor, 2001).
Previous studies of Wells & Stafford (1995), confirmed widespread customer dissatisfaction in insurance industry, from poor service design & delivery.
National Association of Life Underwriters found other important factors  for customer satisfaction such as:
 financial stability of the company,
reputation of the insurer,
agent integrity and
the quality of information and
guidance from the agent.

4.Problem Statement
Based on our review of previous studies, the problem statement of our study is:
What are the factors that can increase customer satisfaction from insurance services?

5.Theoretical FRAMEWORK
Independent variables:
A clear & understandable Palestinian Law.
PCMA defends insurance consumer rights.
Existence of a consumer complaint unit.
High number of Insurance coverage services.
Font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Competitive prices.
Time to pay insurance compensation.
Discrimination among consumers.
Follow up with consumers
Raising awareness among consumers.
True advertising
Employee treatment to consumers
Social responsibility of insurance companies
Honesty of employees
Previous experience with insurance companies

6.Theoretical FRAMEWORK

Our population consists of the Palestinian insurance customers in the West Bank and Gaza.
We distributed 45 questionnaires on a sample of insurance customers in Ramallah, Nablus and Hebron.
44 were answered and one not answered.
We analyzed the data through SPSS.

8.SPSS Analysis

9.By looking at the results it is clear that sig = 0.039 > .05 without using the sex, education, career, and living area variables; which implies that the null hypotheses is rejected and there is a significant relationship between the dependent and independent variables. And when using the other variables the sig becomes 0.78 which is > 0.05 and this accepts the null hypotheses which means these variables are not significant variables.

10.Based on the above Coefficient analysis, we conclude that only 8 variables out of 15 affect the dependent variable (customer satisfaction). These variables are:
 Variable 3: The existence of a consumer complaint unit.
Variable 4: High number of Insurance coverage services.
Variable 6: Insurance service competitive prices
Variable 7: Time to pay insurance compensation
Variable 9: Follow up with consumers
Variable 10: Providing brochures and raising awareness among consumers
Variable 11: True advertising
Variable 14: Honesty of insurance company employees
The other seven variables have no relationship with the dependent variable.  
Variable 1: The existence of a clear and understandable Palestinian Insurance Law.
Variable 2: PCMA defends insurance consumer rights.
Variable 5: The font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Variable 8: Discrimination among consumers.
Variable 12: Employee treatment to consumers
Variable 13: social responsibility of insurance companies
Variable 15: previous experience with insurance companies

Accept the null hypothesis for variables  1,2, 5, 8, 12, 13 and 15 and therefore:
No relation exists between a clear Insurance Law and Customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between defending consumer rights by PCMA and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between the existence of a clear font size used in the documents of insurance co. and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between discrimination among consumers and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between employee treatment to consumers and customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between social responsibility of insurance co.s & customer satisfaction.
No relation exists between prior experience with insurance co. and customer satisfaction.
Reject the null hypothesis for variables  3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 14 and therefore:
The existence of a consumer compliant unit increases customer satisfaction.
Following up with consumers increases customer satisfaction.
Short time to pay consumer compensation increases customer satisfaction.
The existence of competitive prices increases customer satisfaction.
The existence of a high number of insurance services increases customer satisfaction.
Raising awareness among consumers increases customer satisfaction
True advertising increases customer satisfaction
Honesty of insurance company employees increases customer satisfaction.

 In order to achieve customer satisfaction insurance co. should focus on :
The existence of a consumer complaint unit.
High number of insurance coverage services.
Insurance service competitive prices
Time to pay insurance compensation
Follow up with consumers
Providing brochures and raising awareness among consumers
True advertising
Honesty of insurance company employees
 The above issues will achieve customer satisfaction and, therefore, customers will be loyal to insurance companies and increase their profits.
 On the other hand, we recommend insurance companies not to concentrate on:
The existence of a clear and understandable Palestinian Insurance Law.
The font size used in the documents of insurance companies
Social responsibility of insurance companies

PPT On Statement of Retained Earnings


Statement of Retained Earnings Presentation Transcript:
1.The Statement of Retained Earnings

2.Statement of Retained Earnings
The Statement of Retained Earnings reports how net income and dividends affected a company’s financial position during the period.

3.It is one of the main financial statements that are issued in the audited financial statements of any entity on annual basis.

4.The format of the statement is:
Beg. balance, retained earnings
+  Net income
-   Dividends
    End. balance, retained earnings

5.Note that the Income Statement must be prepared before the Statement of Retained Earnings.
This is because you have to know the amount of net income in order to compute the ending balance of retained earnings.

6.The amounts reported in the Retained Earnings are carried to the Balance Sheet. Therefore, certain amounts in the Balance Sheet are derived from this statement.

PPT On Education in Palestine


Education in Palestine Presentation Transcript:

2.Students in Palestine

3.Students in Palestine - University

4.Notes about education in schools

5.International Indicators

6.Local Indicators

7.Help/Support/Aid ..  Is needed

8.Mission of Saned

9.Teachers, from Where?


11.Volunteer?, Teaching

PPT On SFAS 116 and 117


SFAS 116 and 117 Presentation Transcript:
1.Not-for-Profit Organizations: SFAS 116 and 117

SFAS #116 – Accounting for Contributions Received and Contributions Made
SFAS #117 – Financial Statements for Not-for-Profit Organizations

3.Key Definitions
Contribution: An unconditional transfer of cash or other assets to an entity or a settlement or cancellation of its liabilities in a voluntary nonreciprocal transfer by another entity acting other than as an owner.
Promise to Give ("pledge"): A written or oral agreement to contribute cash or other assets to another entity. A promise to give may be either conditional or unconditional.

4.Donor-Imposed Condition: A donor stipulation that specifies a future and uncertain event whose occurrence or failure to occur gives the promisor a right of return of the assets it has transferred or releases the promisor from its obligation to transfer its assets.
Donor-Imposed Restriction: A donor stipulation that specifies a use for the contributed asset that is more specific than broad limits resulting from the nature of the organization, the environment in which it operates, and the purposes specified in its articles of incorporation or bylaws or comparable documents for an unincorporated association. A restriction on an organization’s use of the asset contributed may be temporary or permanent.

Significant source of revenue for most nonprofits.
Defined as: an unconditional transfer of cash or other assets to an entity or a settlement or cancellation of its liabilities in a voluntary nonreciprocal transfer by another entity acting other than as owner.

6.Recognizing Contribution Revenue
In period received or unconditionally promised
Reported in appropriate net asset category

Revenues recognized when unconditional pledge is received
Conditional pledges & transfers recognized as revenues when conditions are met
Unconditional pledges due in future years reported as restricted support unless donor specifies it is for current operations

8.Pledges – Unconditional Promises to Give
Recognize receivable if pledges are unconditional promises to give
Does not have provisions that release donor based on future and uncertain event
Conditional promise may be unconditional if occurrence of event is remote

9.Pledges – Conditional Promises to Give
Not reported as receivables
Note disclosure only
Support from conditional promises to give recognized when conditions are met

10.Classes of Net Assets
Unrestricted Net Assets
Temporarily Restricted Net Assets
Permanently Restricted Net Assets

11.Required Financial Statements
Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)
Statement of Activities
Statement of Cash Flows

12.Statement of Financial Position
No specific format required
Fund reporting not prohibited
Aggregated totals for assets, liabilities, and net assets is required, as is reporting the three classes of net assets
Some accounts do have specific requirements

13.Example on Presentation of Net Assets in Statement of Financial Position

14.Statement of Activities
Revenues and gains reported by source
Reported by function
Classified as either
Program expenses
General & Administrative expenses
Changes in classes of net assets reported separately

15.Example for a Statement of Activities

An Organization Strategic Plan PPT


An Organization Strategic Plan Presentation Transcript:
1.An organization Strategic Plan

Vision Statement
Mission statement
Core Values


4.Vision Statement
     “A State of Justice and Rule of Law in Palestine”

5.Mission statement
Strives for the Rule of Law and the Prevalence of Justice in Palestine by Monitoring the Violations and Non-Compliance to the Law, Documentation and Follow-up, as well as Influencing Policy Legislation, Promoting Public Awareness and Building the Legal Capacity in the Palestinian Society.

6.Core Values
Integrity and Accountability
      A legal organization will strive for openness & honesty internally & towards the public.
Independent and SELF-GOVERNING
       A legal organization will remain Independent & Impartial, working in the Rule of Law.
 A legal organization is dedicated to delivering & developing high quality programs and activities with measurable results.
       A legal organization values teamwork by hearing different perspectives & approaches, guided by empathy & tolerance.





11.GOAL 4: Institutional sustainability

12.SWOT ANALYSIS OF A legal organization
Clearly a non-partisan, neutral, and completely independence from political influence.
Clear historical records that reflects some accumulated experience in the field of its work.
Developed programs that including its publications that become “a point of reference” within the legal & judicial environment in Palestine.
A legal organization’s work, as reflected by its vision/mission is very relevant to Palestinian society.
High respect from stakeholders including relevant governmental organizations as well as those of civil society.
A legal organization’s financial system, policies and procedures are transparent and effective.
A legal organization encourages new initiatives and in a way, is a pioneer in promoting the independence of judiciary and the legal profession.

13.A legal organization’s Mission Statement has to be translated into a set of some concrete goals that direct actions and set the priorities, within an institutional approach.
Management policies and procedures, though present, do not seem to be well communicated to all those concerned particularly the staff.
Employees’ turnover rate is high by many measures prompting the need for a more effective human resources management.
Technical skills of staff need continuous improvement; there is need for more consistent plans and a directive policy for human resources development.
Employees’ satisfaction and general work conditions including job security could be improved.
Absence of long term financial planning creating a risk on the financial sustainability of the organization.
Synergy between and among the various activities and programs within A legal organization could be enhanced and more effectively utilized.

14.Low number of Palestinian organizations that provide such services.
New donors and grants
Palestinian needs for such organizations.
The PA support to such organizations since it is the beneficiary.

15.Unstable political conditions in Palestine.
Bad economic conditions in Palestine.
Lack of expertise in such fields.
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