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Tuesday, February 28, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Principles of Spectroscopy UV and IR

PPT On Principles of Spectroscopy UV and IR

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Identification of Compounds
by UV, IR, NMR AND MASS SPECTROMETRIES

2. SPECTROMETRIC IDENTIFICATION
I. Introduction of Spectrometric Analyses
II. Ultra Violet Spectrometry
III. Infrared Spectrometry
IV. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
V. Mass Spectrometry

3. I. Introduction of Spectrometric Analyses
The study how the sample interacts with different wavelength in a given region of electromagnetic radiation is called spectroscopy or spectrochemical analysis.

The collection of measurements signals (absorbance) as a function of electromagnetic radiation is called a spectrum.

4. Energy Absorption
The mechanism of absorption energy is different in the Ultraviolet, Infrared, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance regions. However, the fundamental process is the absorption of certain amount of energy.

The energy required for the transition from a state of lower energy to a state of higher energy is directly related to the frequency of electromagnetic radiation that causes the transition.

5. Quantum Numbers and Orbitals
Principal quantum number (n): The average distance of the electron from the nucleus. 1, 2, and so on.

Azimuthal quantum number (Momentum quantum number) (l): The shape of the orbital. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, etc

Magnetic quantum number (Orientational quantum number) (ml): The orientation of orbital in the space. 2px 2py, 2pz x, y and z are orientational quantum number

Electron spin quantum number (ms)= The two possible orientation of the electron in a magnetic field. 1/2 or –1/2

6. II. Ultra Violet Spectrometry
The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by molecules is dependent upon the electronic structure of the molecule. So the ultraviolet spectrum is called electronic spectrum.

7. Electronic Excitation
The absorption of light energy by organic compounds in the visible and ultraviolet region involves the promotion of electrons in , , and n-orbitals from the ground state to higher energy states . This is also called Energy Transition. These higher energy states are molecular orbitals called antibonding.

8. Electronic Molecular Energy Levels
The higher energy transitions ( *) occur a shorter wavelength and the low energy transitions (*, n *) occur at longer wavelength.

9. III. Infrared Spectrometry
Radiation energy in the infrared region is absorbed by the organic compound and converted into energy of molecular vibration.

The energy absorption pattern thus obtained is commonly referred to as an infrared spectrum which has the plot of intensity of radiation absorption versus wavelength of absorption.

10. Thanks.

Monday, February 27, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Number Systems

PPT On Number Systems

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Number Systems

2. Common Number Systems

3. Binary to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 2n, where n is the “weight” of the bit
The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right
Add the results

4. Octal to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 8n, where n is the “weight” of the bit
The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right
Add the results

5. Hexadecimal to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 16n, where n is the “weight” of the bit
The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right
Add the results

6. Decimal to Binary
Technique
Divide by two, keep track of the remainder
First remainder is bit 0 (LSB, least-significant bit)
Second remainder is bit 1
Etc.

7. Octal to Binary
Technique
Convert each octal digit to a 3-bit equivalent binary representation

8. Hexadecimal to Binary
Technique
Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-bit equivalent binary representation

9. Decimal to Octal
Technique
Divide by 8
Keep track of the remainder

10. Decimal to Hexadecimal
Technique
Divide by 16
Keep track of the remainder

11. Binary to Octal
Technique
Group bits in threes, starting on right
Convert to octal digits

12. Binary to Hexadecimal
Technique
Group bits in fours, starting on right
Convert to hexadecimal digits

13. Octal to Hexadecimal
Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

14. Hexadecimal to Octal
Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

15. Thank You.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Saturday, February 25, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Introduction to Sales and Distribution Management

PPT On Introduction to Sales and Distribution Management

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Introduction to Sales and Distribution Management

2. Learning Objectives
To understand evolution, nature and importance of sales management
To know role and skills of modern sales managers
To understand types of sales managers
To learn objectives, strategies and tactics of sales management
To know emerging trends in sales management
To understand linkage between sales and distribution management

3. Evolution, Nature and Importance of Sales Management
Evolution of Sales Management
Situation before industrial revolution in U.K. (1760AD)
Situation after industrial revolutions in U.K., and U.S.A.
Marketing function splits into sales and other functions like market research, advertising, physical distribution

4. What is Sales Management?
One definition: “The management of the personal selling part of a company’s marketing function.”
Another definition: “The process of planning, directing, and controlling of personal selling, including recruiting, selecting, equipping, assigning, supervising, paying, and motivating the personal sales force.

5. Importance of Personal Selling and Sales Management
The only function / department in a company that generates revenue / income
The financial results of a firm depend on the performance of the sales department / management
Many salespeople are among the best paid people in business
It is one of the fastest and surest routes to the top management

6. Roles and Skills of a Modern Sales Manager
Some of the important roles of the modern sales manager are:
A member of the strategic management team
A member of the corporate team to achieve objectives
A team leader, working with salespeople
Managing multiple sales / marketing channels
Using latest technologies (like CRM) to build superior buyer-seller relationships
Continually updating information on changes in marketing environment

7. Skills of a Successful Sales Manager
People skills include abilities to motivate, lead, communicate, coordinate, team-oriented relationship, and mentoring
Managing skills consist of planning, organizing, controlling and decision making
Technical skills include training, selling, negotiating, problem-solving, and use of computers

8. Emerging Trends in Sales Management
Global perspective
Revolution in technology
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Salesforce diversity
Team selling approach
Managing multi-channels
Ethical and social issues
Sales professionalism

9. For more info please refer our PPT
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PowerPoint Presentation On Channel Institutions Retailing

PPT On Channel Institutions Retailing

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Channel Institutions - Retailing

2. Learning Objectives
Understand what retailing is all about
Global retail scene and trends
Indian retail scene and trends
Types of retailers
Trade and retail formats, trading area
Retail management strategies and operations
Measuring retail performance
Franchising and e-tailing
FDI in retail in India

3. What is Retailing?
Any business entity selling to consumers directly is retailing – in a shop, in person, by mail, on the internet, telephone or a vending machine
Retail also has a life cycle – newer forms of retail come to replace the older ones – the corner grocer may change to a supermarket
Includes all activities involved in selling or renting products or services to consumers for their home or personal consumption

4. Retailing
Term retail derived from French word ‘retaillier’ meaning ‘to break bulk’
Characteristics:
Order sizes tend to be small but many
Caters to a wide variety of customers. Keeps a large assortment of goods
Lot of buying in the outlet is ‘impulse’- inventory management is critical
Selling personnel and displays are important elements of the selling process
Strengths in ‘availability’ and ‘visibility’
Targeted customer mix decides the marketing mix of the retailer

5. Retailing
Retail stores are independent of the producers – not attached to any of them
A survey shows that only 35% of supermarket purchases are pre-planned. The rest are ‘impulse’- greatly influenced by quality of the merchandising efforts

6. Functions of Retailers
Marketing functions to provide consumers a wide variety
Helps create time, place and possession utilities
May add form utility (alteration of a trouser bought by a customer)
Helps create an ‘image’ for the products he sells

7. Functions of Retailers
Add value through:
Additional services – extended store timings, credit, home delivery
Personnel to identify and solve customer problems
Location in a bazaar to facilitate comparison shopping

8. For more info please refer our PPT.
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Tuesday, February 21, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Marketing Channels

PPT On Marketing Channels

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Marketing Channels

2. Learning Objectives
Understand channel structure and how channels manage discrepancies
Understand concept of channel flows
Relationship of channel flows to service levels
Understand channel formats and levels
Understand what channel systems are expected to deliver
Prominent marketing and channel systems

3. Channel Functions
Information gathering
Consumer motivation
Bargaining with suppliers
Placing orders
Financing
Inventory management
Risk bearing
After sales support

4. Direct Distribution
Company to consumers or retailers without use of intermediaries. Also includes reaching Institutional buyers.
Selling on the Internet
If products are technically complex, this system is preferred
Cost is a major consideration to adopt this mode

5. Direct Distribution - Examples
Banking services
Credit cards
Petrol / diesel – company own outlets
Land line phone connections
Health services
Utilities – electricity, water
Subsidized ration
Education

6. Indirect Distribution
Goods may move through a set of intermediaries
Most FMCG companies follow this route
The intermediary has a far better reach than the company
The cost of operations of an intermediary like a wholesaler / retailer is shared with many businesses.

7. Indirect Distribution - Examples
All FMCG, consumer durables and pharmaceutical
Petrol / diesel / cooking gas - franchisees
Insurance
Mobile phones
All kinds of passenger transport

8. Marketing Channel Systems
Vertical:
Corporate
Administered
Contractual
Horizontal
Multi-channel

9. Vertical Marketing System
Various parties like producers, wholesalers and retailers act as a unified system to avoid conflicts
Improves operating efficiency and marketing effectiveness
3 types:
Corporate
Administered
Contractual

10. For more info please refer our PPT
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Saturday, February 18, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Distribution Management and The Marketing Mix

PPT On Distribution Management and The Marketing Mix

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Distribution Management & The Marketing Mix

2. Learning Objectives
Role of distribution management in the marketing mix
Why distribution channels are required
Distribution channel strategy
Overview of distribution channel members
Intensity in the distribution effort

3. The Marketing Mix
Product
Place
Price
Promotion
Distribution channels help in the ‘place’ aspect of the marketing mix
Distribution provides place, time and possession utility to the consumer

4. Example
Consumer wants to buy a tube of toothpaste
Made available at a retail outlet close to her residence – place
Made available at 8 pm on a Tuesday evening when she wants it – time
She can pay for the toothpaste and take it away – possession
The company distribution function has made all this possible.
The situation would be similar if a customer wants to buy a refrigerator or medicines or even an electric motor

5. Players Involved
The company and its distribution network
Direct company to consumer
Company to a C&FA / distribution center to distributors to retailers
Distributor to wholesaler to retailer
All these intermediaries help the process of ‘exchange’ of the product or service.

6. Distribution Management
Management of all activities which facilitate movement and co-ordination of supply and demand in the creation of time and place utility in goods
The art and science of determining requirements, acquiring them, distributing them and finally maintaining them in an operationally ready condition for their entire life.

7. Distribution Channels Defined
Are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption – Stern & Ansary
Whether selling products or services, marketing channel decisions play a role of strategic importance in the overall presence and success a company enjoys in the marketplace.

8. Distribution Channels
Are intermediaries or middlemen
Exist because producers cannot reach all their consumers
Multiply reach and provide efficiency to the marketing process
Facilitate smooth flow and create time, place and possession utilities
Have the core competence and reach
Provide contact, experience, specialisation and scales of operation

9. Types of Channels
Sales: motivates buyers, shares information between company and its consumers, negotiates fair bargains for consumers and finances the transactions
Delivery channel meant only for physical part of the distribution
Service channel – performs after sales service

10. For more info please refer our PPT
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Friday, February 17, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Training, Motivating, Compensating, and Leading the Salesforce

PPT On Training, Motivating, Compensating, and Leading the Salesforce

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Training, Motivating, Compensating, and Leading the Salesforce

2. Learning Objectives
To understand sales training process
To learn importance, theories, and tools of motivation
To know objectives and designing of sales compensation plan
To understand views, styles, and skills of sales leadership
To know the methods used to supervise salespeople

3. Sales Training
Proper training can prepare salespeople to meet with customer expectations
New salespeople spend a few weeks to several months in training
Companies view sales training important for protecting their investments in their salesforce
Sales Training Process consists of:
Assessing sales training needs
Designing and executing sales training programs
Evaluating and reinforcing sales training programs

4. Assessing Sales Training needs
Sales training needs are assessed both for
Newly hired sales trainees, and
Experienced / existing salespeople
Methods used for assessing training needs are:
First level sales managers’ observation
Survey of salesforce and field sales managers
Customer survey
Performance testing of salespersons
Job description statements
Salesforce audit (as a part of marketing audit)

5. Designing and Executing Sales Training Programme
For this, sales manager takes five decisions, called:
ACMEE: Aim, Content, Methods, Execution, Evaluation
First three words and organisational decisions relate to designing of sales training
Examples of Aims / Objectives of sales training:
Increase sales, profits, or both
Increase sales productivity
Improve customer relations
Prepare new salespeople for assignment to territories

6. Content of Training Programme
Content for new sales trainees is broader. It includes:
Company knowledge
Product knowledge
Customer knowledge
Competitor knowledge
Selling skills / sales techniques
Examples of specific content for experienced salespersons are:
New product knowledge
Introduce change in sales organisation
Negotiating skills
Content depends on the aims of training programme

7. Sales Training Methods
Selection of suitable methods for a training programme depends upon the topic and audience
Training methods are grouped into five categories:
Class room / Conference training
Behavioural learning / Simulations
Online training
Absorption training
On-the-job training
We shall briefly review the training methods

8. For more info please refer our PPT
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Wednesday, February 15, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Organizing and Staffing the Sales Force

PPT On Organizing and Staffing the Sales Force

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Organizing and Staffing the Sales Force

2. Learning Objectives
To understand the concepts of the sales organisation, and the basic types of sales organisations
To know specialization within the sales organisation, and alternative organizational approaches for major accounts
To determine the size of the salesforce by using various methods
To understand the major stages of salesforce staffing process, consisting of planning, recruiting, selecting, hiring, socialisation and assimilation
To realise the importance of the various steps included in planning, recruiting, and selection stages

3. Concepts of Sales Organisation
A sales organisation assists the sales manager to carry out needed tasks efficiently and effectively to achieve results
The basic concepts of the sales organisation are:
Degree of centralisation
Degree of specialisation
Line or staff positions
Market orientation
Effective co-ordination

4. Basic Types of Sales Organisations
Sales organisations are generally classified into four basic types:
Line Organisation
Line and staff organisation
Functional organisation
Horizontal organisation
We shall discuss main characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each type of sales organisation

5. Characteristics: All managers have line authority to direct and control subordinates. Used in small firms / departments
Advantages: Simple organisation, clear authority, quick decisions, low cost
Disadvantages: No support to line managers from subordinates who have specialised knowledge / skills. Less time for planning / analysis

6. Characteristics: Specialist staff managers are available for senior marketing / sales managers. Staff managers’ role is to assist / advise line managers. Used in medium and large size organisations
Advantages: Better marketing decisions, superior sales performance
Disadvantages: High cost and coordination, slower decision making, conflict may arise if staff managers’ role is not clear

7. Characteristics: Each functional specialist has line responsibility over salespeople. Used by a large firm with many products / market segments, minimising line authority to functional managers
Advantages: Qualified specialists guide salesforce, simple to administer
Disadvantage: confusion due to more managers giving orders to salesforce

8. Characteristics: Removes management levels & departmental boundaries. Except planning team, all others are members of cross-functional teams. Used by firms having partnering relationships with customers.
Advantages: Reduction in supervision, unnecessary tasks, & cost; Improved efficiency and customer responses.

9. Specialisation within Sales Organisation
Needed to increase effectiveness of salesforce
Done by expanding basic sales organisation
Basis of specialisation
Geography
Type of product
Market
Combination of above
Criteria for selection – (1) nature of product, (2) salesforce abilities, (3) demands of selling job, (4) customer and market facts

10. For more info please refer our PPT
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Tuesday, February 14, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Management of Sales Territories and Quotas

PPT On Management of Sales Territories and Quotas

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Management of Sales Territories and Quotas

2. Learning Objectives
To understand the concept of and reasons for sales territories
To learn designing sales territories and assigning salespeople
To know territory coverage, including routing, scheduling, and time management
To understand objectives and types of sales quotas
To learn the methods of setting sales quotas
To get insight into setting and administration of sales quotas

3. Sales Territories
A sales territory consists of existing and potential customers, assigned to a salesperson
Most companies allot salespeople to geographic territories, consisting of current & prospective customers

Major Reasons / Benefits of Sales Territories
Increase market / customer coverage
Control selling expenses and time
Enable better evaluation of salesforce performance
Improve customer relationships
Increase salesforce effectiveness
Improve sales and profit performance

4. Procedure for Designing Sales Territories
Select a control unit*
Find location and potential of present and prospective customers within control units**
Decide basic territories by using
Build-up method,
Or
Break-down method
*A control unit is a geographical territorial base
**Unnecessary & expensive for consumer products

5. Procedure in Build-up Method
Decide customer call frequencies
Calculate total customer calls in each control unit
Estimate workload capacity of a salesperson
Make tentative territories
Develop final territories
Objective is to equalise the workload of salespeople

6. Procedure in Breakdown Method
Estimate company sales potential for total market
Forecast sales potential for each control unit
Estimate sales volume expected from each salesperson
Make tentative territories
Develop final territories
Objective is to equalise sales potential of territories

7. Assigning Salespeople to Territories
Sales Manager should consider two criteria:
Relative ability of salespeople
Based on key evaluation factors:
(1) Product knowledge, (2) market knowledge, (3) past sales performance, (4) communication, (5) selling skills
(B) Salesperson’s Effectiveness in a Territory
Decided by comparing social, cultural, and physical characteristics of the salesperson with those of the territory
Objective is to match salesperson to the territory

8. Management of Territorial Coverage
It means: How salesperson should cover the assigned sales territory
It includes three tasks for a sales manager:
Planning efficient routes for salespeople
Scheduling salespeople’s time
Using time-management tools

9. Routing
Routing is a travel plan used by a salesperson for making customer calls in a territory
Benefits of or Reasons for routing:
Reduction in travel time and cost
Improvement in territory coverage
Importance of routing depends on the application:
Nature of the product – Important for FMCG
Type of jobs of salespeople – Important for driver-cum-salesperson job, but creative selling job needs a flexible route plan

10. For more info please refer our PPT
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Tuesday, February 7, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Planning, Sales Forecasting, and Budgeting

PPT On Planning, Sales Forecasting, and Budgeting

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Planning, Sales Forecasting, and Budgeting

2. Learning Objectives
To understand strategic planning, its linkage to strategic marketing and marketing management
To know how sales strategy is developed from marketing strategy
To learn basic terms used in forecasting, forecasting approaches, and methods of sales forecasting
To understand purposes and the process of sales budget

3. Strategic Planning
Planning is deciding now what, how, and when we are going to do
Strategic planning is deciding about the organisation’s long-term objectives and strategies
In a large organisation, planning is done at three or four organisational levels, as shown in the figure (in the next slide)

4. Planning In A Large Organisation
For effective planning, operations, and control, a large multi-product / multi-business firm divides its major products / services into divisions / strategic business units ( SBUs)
Each SBU has a separate business, a set of competitors and customers, and a manager responsible for strategic planning, performance, and control ( Ex. TATA, Reliance)

5. Components of Sales Strategy
Classifying market segments and individual customers within a target segment
Each firm should first decide on target market segments and if possible, to classify customers into high, medium, low sales & profit potentials
Sales strategy is developed accordingly
Relationship strategy
Whether a selling firm should use transactional, value-added, or collaborative relationship depends on both the seller and the customer
Each selling firm to decide which segments and individual customers respond profitably to collaborative relationship

6. Components of Sales Strategy (Continued)
Selling Methods
These are: (1) Stimulus response, (2) formula, (3) need-satisfaction, (4) team selling, (5) consultative
Selection of appropriate selling method depends on relationship strategy
Channel Strategy
There are many sales / marketing channels. For example: company salesforce, distributors, franchisees, agents, the internet, brokers, discount stores
Selection of a suitable channel depends on both the buyer and the seller, products / services, and markets

7. Basic Terms Used in Sales Forecasting
Market demand for a product or service is the estimated total sales volume in a market (or industry) for a specific time period in a defined marketing environment, under a defined marketing program or expenditure. Market demand is a function associated with varying levels of industry marketing expenditure.
Market (or industry) forecast (or market size) is the expected market (or industry) demand at one level of industry marketing expenditure

8. Basic Terms (Continued)
Market potential is the maximum market (or industry) demand, resulting from a very high level of industry marketing expenditure, where further increases in expenditure would have little effect on increase in demand
Company demand is the company’s estimated share of market demand for a product or service at alternative levels of the company marketing efforts (or expenditures) in a specific time period

9. Basic Terms (Continued)
Company sales potential is the maximum estimated company sales of a product or service, based on maximum share (or percentage) of market potential expected by the company
Company sales forecast is the estimated company sales of a product or service, based on a chosen (or proposed) marketing expenditure plan, for a specific time period, in a assumed marketing environment
Sales budget is the estimate of expected sales volume in units or revenues from the company’s products and services, and the selling expenses. It is set slightly lower than the company sales forecast, to avoid excessive risks

10. For More Info Please Refer Our PPT
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Friday, February 3, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Personal Selling

PPT On Personal Selling: Preparation and Process

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Presentation Transcript:
1. Personal Selling: Preparation and Process

2. Learning Objectives
To understand psychology in selling, buying decision process and buying situations
To learn communication skills, sales knowledge, and sales related marketing policies
To understand personal selling process
To learn about negotiation

3. Psychology in Selling
If a sales person makes a presentation, the prospect may or may not buy
The above “buyer behaviour model” does not tell us the reasons of buying or not buying
To understand the psychological aspects of selling or buying, salespeople should study consumer or buyer behaviour, including buying process and situations

4. Buying Process of Consumers and Business Buyers

5. Buying Situations Faced By
Buying process and situations differ for household consumers and business buyers.
Consumers / Buyers may skip or reverse some stages in buying process. E.G. A consumer buying toothpaste

6. Knowledge of Sales and Sales-related Marketing Policies
Major reasons for giving above information / knowledge through training programmes to salespeople are:
increase their self-confidence
Meet customers’ expectations
Increase sales
Overcome competition

7. The Sales Process
As a part of selling activities, if salespeople follow the steps or phases shown below, their chances of success are far better.
The sequence of above steps may change to meet the sales situation in hand.
Some of the above steps may not be applicable for selling to the trade
We now discuss application of above steps to industrial selling

8. Prospecting
It is identifying or finding prospects i.e. prospective or potential customers.
Methods of prospecting or sales lead generation are: (1) referrals from existing customers, (2) company sources (website, ads., tradeshow, teleprospecting), (3) external sources (suppliers, intermediaries, trade associations), (4) salespersons’ networking, (5) industrial directories, (6) cold canvassing

Qualifying
Companies qualify sales leads by contacting them by mail or phone to find their interests (or needs) and financial capacity.
Leads are categorized as: Hot, Warm, and Cool

9. Preapproach
Information gathering about the prospect.
Sources of information: the Internet, industrial directories, government publications, intermediaries, etc.
Precall planning
Setting call objectives
Tentative planning of sales strategy: which products, features and benefits may meet the customer needs

10. Approach
Make an appointment to meet the prospect
Make favourable first impression
Select an approach technique:
Introductory
Customer benefit
Product
Question
Praise
The approach takes a few minutes of a call, but it can make or break a sale

11. Presentation and Demonstration
There are four components:
Understanding the buyer’s needs
Knowing sales presentation methods / strategies
Developing an effective presentation
Using demonstration as a tool for selling
We will examine each of the above points

12. Understanding the buyer’s needs
Firms and consumers buy products / services to satisfy needs
To understand buyer’s needs, ask questions and listen
In business situations, problem identification and impact questions are important
E.G.
Have you experienced any problems on quality and delivery from the existing supplies?
What impact the quality and delivery problems will have on your costs and customer satisfaction?

13. Knowing Sales Presentation Methods/Strategies
Firms have developed different methods / styles / strategies of sales presentation
Stimulus response method / canned approach.
It is a memorised sales talk or a prepared sales presentation.
The sales person talks without knowing the prospect’s needs. E.G. Used by tele-marketing people
Formula method / formulated approach.
It is also based on stimulus response thinking that all prospects are similar.
The salesperson uses a standard formula – AIDA (attention, interest, desire, and action).
It is used if time is short and prospects are similar.
Shortcomings are: prospects’ needs are not uncovered and uses same standard formula for different prospects.

14. Sales Presentation Methods (Continued)
Need – satisfaction method
Interactive sales presentation
First find prospect’s needs, by asking questions and listening
Use FAB approach: Features, Advantages, Benefits
Effective method, as it focuses on customers
Consultative selling method / Problem-solving approach
Salespeople use cross-functional expertise
Firms adopt team selling approach
It is used by software / consulting firms

15. Developing an Effective Presentation
Some of the guidelines are:
Plan the sales call
Adopt presentation to the situation and person
Communicate the benefits of the purchase
Present relevant and limited information at a time
Use the prospect’s language
Make the presentation convincing – give evidence
Use technology like multi-media presentation

16. Using Demonstration
Sales presentation can be improved by demonstration
Demonstration is one of the important selling tools EGs: Test drive of cars; demonstration of industrial products in use
Benefits of using demonstration for selling are:
Buyers’ objections are cleared
Improves the buyer’s purchasing interest
Helps to find specific benefits of the prospect
The prospect can experience the benefit

17. Overcoming Sales Objections / Resistances
Objections take place during presentations / when the order is asked
Two types of sales objections:
Psychological / hidden
Logical (real or practical)
Methods for handling and overcoming objections: (a) ask questions, (b) turn an objection into a benefit, (c) deny objections tactfully, (d) third-party certificate, (e) compensation

18. Trial close and Closing the sale
Trial close checks the attitude or opinion of the prospect, before closing the sale (or asking for the order)
If the response to trial close question is favourable, then the salesperson should close the sale

19. Follow-up and Service
Necessary for customer satisfaction
Successful salespeople follow-up in different ways: For example,
Check order details
Follow through delivery schedule
Visit when the product is delivered
Build long-term relationship
Arrange warranty service

20. Negotiation
Salespeople, particularly in business to business selling, need negotiating skills
When to negotiate?
(a) When the buyer puts certain conditions for buying to the seller, (b) When agreement between the buyer and the seller is needed on several factors, (c) When the product is customised, (d) When the final price is to be decided
How to prepare for negotiation?
(a) planning, (b) building relationship, (c) purpose
Styles of negotiation
(a) I win, you lose, (b) Both of us win (or win-win style), (c) You win, I lose, and (d) Both of us lose

21. Key Learnings
For understanding psychology in selling, study consumer or buyer behaviour, buying process and situations
Salespeople are given knowledge of sales and relevant marketing policies in order to increase their self-confidence and sales, and meet customers’ expectations
Typical steps in the sales process include prospecting and qualifying, preapproach, approach, presentation and demonstration, overcoming objections, trial close / closing the sale, follow-up and service
Salespeople should know when to negotiate, how to prepare for negotiation and which style of negotiation to use
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