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Thursday, August 8, 2013

PPT On Hydrogen Energy


Hydrogen Energy Presentation Transcript:
1.Hydrogen Energy The "forever fuel"

How can we get Hydrogen
Hydrogen storage
How can we get energy?
Hydrogen energy integration with renewable sources
Sustainability and Hydrogen energy

3.Why Hydrogen?


5.Hydrogen StoragePressure Storage
Easiest and most economical way
Tanks can hold up to 350 times of the gas (750 in the future)
Mainly used for indoor and stationary applications
Liquid Hydrogen storage
High energy storage density per volume and mass
Used in limited space
Evaporation losses
Huge energy needed to liquefy Hydrogen (1/3 of stored energy)

6.Metal Hydride Storage
Hydrogen is pumped into a storage medium to bond with a metal (alloy)
High energy storage density per volume
High energy storage density per mass
Carbon Nano-fiber Storage
Under research (promising)
Very high energy storage density per volume and mass
Viable option for automobiles

7.Fuel Cells Development

8.Honda FCX Clarity

9.Hydrogen energy and renewable sources
Supply and demand don’t coincide with renewables
Hydrogen is a way to store and transport regenerative energy
Using excess energy to get hydrogen then using it with fuel cells
Making other renewable sources more reliable

10.Is it sustainable?

11.Infinite energy source
Clean source
Pollution free……….No CO2 is produced when burned only vapor
Reducing greenhouse effect
Safe energy source
mixing hydrogen and oxygen together, reduces the risk of having many large-scale accidents in the production of power.
It is not toxic

PPT On Peer to Peer Networks


Peer to Peer Networks Presentation Transcript:
1.Peer-to-peer networks

2.A peer-to-peer network, P2P, is consider any type of network architecture composed of contributors that make a part of their resources available to other contributors on the same network without the need for a server

3.Unstructured p2p networkIn an unstructured P2P network, if a peer wants to find a desired piece of data in the network, the query has to be flooded through the network in order to find as many peers as possible that share the data.
The main disadvantage with such networks is that the queries may not always be resolved.

4.Structured P2P networks overcome the limitations of unstructured networks by maintaining a Distributed Hash Table (DHT).
whenever a peer wants to search for some data, it uses the global protocol to determine the peer(s) responsible for the data and then directs the search towards the responsible peer(s).

5.Classification of unstructured p2p
P2P networks can be roughly classified into two types — “pure P2P networks”, and “hybrid P2P networks”
A pure p2p system is a distributed system without any centralized control. All participating peers are equal, and each peer plays both the role of client and of server. Gnutella and Freenet  are examples of a pure P2P network.
There are two kinds of hybrid systems: centralized indexing and decentralized indexing.

6.In centralized indexing a central server maintains an index of the data or ?les that are currently being shared by active peers.
In decentralized indexing, some of the nodes assume a more important role than the rest of nodes. They are called ” SuperNodes”. Queries are sent to supernodes, not to other peers.

7.Famous p2p networks

It was used primarily for file sharing
 hybrid p2p network
Ways of action:
Client sends server the query, server responds to client
Client gets list of clients from server
All Clients send ID?s of the data they hold to the server and when client asks for data, server responds with specific addresses
peer downloads directly from other peer(s)

9.Napster subscribers also receive access to more than fifty commercial-free radio stations. Users can pause, play, fast-forward and rewind the radio stations at any time.

10.Advantages and drawbacks
Efficient search
Limited bandwidth usage
No per-node state
Central point of failure
Limited scale

Gnutella is a file sharing protocol.
When a user wishes to find a file, the user issues a query for the file to the Gnutella users about which it knows. Those users may or may not respond with results, and will forward the query request to any other Gnutella nodes they know about.
A query contains a Time-To-Live (TTL) field and will be forwarded until the TTL has been reached.

12.Advantages and drawbacks
Fault tolerant
No single point of failure
High bandwidth usage
Long time to locate item
No guarantee on success rate

Freenet represents the purest form of P2P system.
The primary mission of Freenet is to make use of the system anonymous.
Each file in the Freenet system is identified by a key. These are typically generated using the hash function. Typically a user starts by providing a short text description of the file. This description is then hashed to generate a key pair.

14.Freenet is able to optimize searches by creating routing tables. When a file is successfully located by a search, the file's key is inserted into a local routing table.
When a search is received by a node that contains the desired file, it returns the entire file as a successful result.

15.Advantages and drawbacks
complete decentralization
fault tolerance
scalability (to some degree)
questionable efficiency & performance
rare keys disappear from the system

PPT On Introduction to Classes and Objects


Introduction to Classes and Objects Presentation Transcript:
1.Introduction to Classes and Objects

In this Lecture you will learn:
What classes, objects, methods and instance variables are.
How to declare a class and use it to create an object.
How to declare methods in a class to implement the class’s behaviors.
How to declare instance variables in a class to implement the class’s attributes.
How to call an object’s method to make that method perform its task.
The differences between instance variables of a class and local variables of a method.
How to use a constructor to ensure that an object’s data is initialized when the object is created.
The differences between primitive and reference types.

3.    Introduction
    Classes, Objects, Methods and Instance Variables
    Declaring a Class with a Method and Instantiating an     Object of a Class
    Declaring a Method with a Parameter
    Instance Variables, set Methods and get Methods
    Primitive Types vs. Reference Types
    Initializing Objects with Constructors
    Floating-Point Numbers and Type double
    (Optional) GUI and Graphics Case Study: Using     Dialog Boxes
    (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study:     Identifying the Classes in a Requirements Document

Floating-Point numbers

5.Classes, Objects, Methods and Instance Variables
Class provides one or more methods
Method represents task in a program
Describes the mechanisms that actually perform its tasks
Hides from its user the complex tasks that it performs
Method call tells method to perform its task

6.Classes contain one or more attributes
Specified by instance variables
Carried with the object as it is used

7.Declaring a Class with a Method and Instantiating an Object of a Class
Each class declaration that begins with keyword public must be stored in a file that has the same name as the class and ends with the .java file-name extension.

8.Class GradeBook
keyword public is an access modifier
Class declarations include:
Access modifier
Keyword class
Pair of left and right braces

9.Method declarations
Keyword public indicates method is available to public
Keyword void indicates no return type
Access modifier, return type, name of method and parentheses comprise method header

10.Common Programming Error 3.1
Declaring more than one public class in the same file is a compilation error.

11.Java is extensible
Programmers can create new classes
Class instance creation expression
Keyword new
Then name of class to create and parentheses
Calling a method
Object name, then dot separator (.)
Then method name and parentheses

12.Compiling an Application with Multiple Classes
Compiling multiple classes
List each .java file in the compilation command and separate them with spaces
Compile with *.java to compile all .java files in that directory

13.UML Class Diagram for Class GradeBook
UML class diagrams
Top compartment contains name of the class
Middle compartment contains class’s attributes or instance variables
Bottom compartment contains class’s operations or methods
Plus sign indicates public methods

14.Declaring a Method with a Parameter
Method parameters
Additional information passed to a method
Supplied in the method call with arguments

15.Scanner methods
nextLine reads next line of input
next reads next word of input




2.Advanced Machining Processes

Mechanical energy process
Ultrasonic Machining
Water & Abrasive Jet
Electrochemical Machining( Deburring, Grinding)
Thermal Energy Process
Electric Discharge
Electron Beam
Laser Beam
Arc Cutting
Oxyfuel cutting
 Chemical Machining
Mechanics and Chemistry of Chemical Machining
CHM Processes
 Application Considerations

The need to machine newly developed metals and non-metals.
These materials often have special properties (e.g., high strength, high hardness, high toughness) that make them difficult or impossible to machine by conventional methods.
The need for unusual and/or complex part geometries that cannot easily be accomplished and in some cases are impossible to achieve by conventional machining.
The need to avoid surface damage that often accompanies the stresses created by conventional machining.
Many of these requirements are associated with the aerospace and electronics industries.

5.Classification of non traditional Machining
The classification is based on principal form of energy used

Several of the nontraditional processes that use mechanical energy other than a sharp cutting tool:
ultrasonic machining,
water jet processes,and
other abrasive processes.

7.Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Used for Hard and Brittle Materials like Ceramics and glass
Abrasive particles impacts on workpiece to achieve metal removal
The tool drives the abrasives contained in a slurry
The tool oscillates perpendicular to work surface at high frequency(20,000 HZ) and low amplitude(0.075mm) and fed slowly in the work surface
Tool Material is normally soft steel & Stainless Steel
Abrasive slurry includes boron nitride, boron carbide, Aluminum Oxide etc mixed with water(20% ~60%) and the grit size is propotional to amplitude
Tool and work both undergo abrasion with a ratio of 100:1 to 1:1.

8.Abrasives contained in a slurry are driven at high velocity against the work by a tool vibrating at low amplitude and high frequency.
The amplitudes are around 0.075 mm , and the frequencies are approximately 20,000 Hz.
The tool oscillates perpendicular to the work surface, and is fed slowly into the work,
the shape of the tool is formed in the part.
It is the action of the abrasives, impinging against the work surface, that performs the cutting.
Common tool materials are soft steel and stainless steel.

9.Abrasive materials in USM include
boron nitride,
boron carbide,
aluminum oxide,
silicon carbide, and
Grit size ranges between 100 and 2000.
The vibration amplitude should be set approximately equal to the grit size,
the gap size maintained at about twice grit size.
To a significant degree, grit size determines the surface finish on the new work surface.
the material removal rate increases with increasing frequency and amplitude of vibration.

10.The slurry consists of a mixture of water and abrasive particles.
Concentration of abrasives in water ranges from 20% to 60%.
The slurry must be continuously circulated to bring fresh grains into action.
It also washes away chips and worn grits.
The cutting action operates on the tool as well as the work.
As the abrasive erode the work surface, they also erode the tool.
It is therefore important to know the relative volumes of work material and tool material removed.
This ratio varies for different work materials,
100:1 for cutting glass
1:1 for cutting tool steel.

11.Used for
hard, brittle work materials, such as ceramics, glass, and carbides.
stainless steel and titanium.
Shapes obtained by USM
Shapes obtained include
non-round holes,
holes along a curved axis, and
coining operations,
in which an image pattern on the tool is imparted to a flat work surface.

12.Water Jet Cutting (WJC)
Hydrodynamic or Water Jet cutting (WJC)
High Pressure (400 MPA)
High Velocity stream(900 m/s) from  a nozzle opening of 0.1 to 0.4 mm diameter
The nozzle unit consists of
a holder made of stainless steel, and
a jewel nozzle made of sapphire, ruby, or diamond
Filtration systems is used to separate the swarf produced during cutting.
Preferred cutting fluids are polymer solutions,
because of their tendency to produce a coherent stream.

13.Water Jet Cutting (WJC)

14.Standoff distance: the separation between the nozzle opening and the work surface.
generally desirable to be small to minimize dispersion of the fluid stream ( typically 3.2 mm). 
size of nozzle orifice affects the precision of cut;
smaller openings are used for finer cuts on thinner materials.
thicker jet streams and higher pressures are required to cut thicker stock.
Typical feed rates range from 5 to 500 mm/s, depending on work material and its thickness
Used for plastics, leather, textiles, composites, tile, carpet, cardboard etc

15.Applications / advantages include:
no crushing or burning of the work surface typical in other mechanical or thermal processes,
Minimum material loss because of the narrow cut slit,
no environmental pollution, and
ease of automating the process.
A limitation of the process -- not suitable for cutting brittle materials (e.g., glass)
because of their tendency to crack during cutting.

PPT On Management of Hypertension


Management of Hypertension Presentation Transcript:
1.Management of hypertension

2.What is hypertension?
The heart pumps blood to various parts of the body
As blood passes through the blood vessels or arteries it pushes against the walls of the arteries. This is called blood pressure.
Sometimes, due to certain causes, this pressure remains high for a sustained period causing what is called hypertension or high blood pressure
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the normal adult blood pressure is 120 mm Hg when the heart beats (systolic) and 80 mm Hg when the heart relaxes (diastolic).
Anything above 120mm Hg and 90 mm Hg is high blood pressure

3.    The exact cause is not known yet but the conditions which are highly associated with hypertension are
Genetics, stress & aging
Smoking, alcohol & tobacco consumption
Obesity, Diabetes, adrenal and thyroid problems or tumors & chronic kidney disease
Sedentary lifestyle & physical inactivity
High levels of salt intake & low levels of calcium, potassium, and magnesium intake; Vitamin D deficiency
Certain drugs

4.How to manage high BP?
High blood pressure may be managed by altering the following

5.Whole grain foods (like oatmeal)
Fruits - Blue berries, bananas, apricots
Flax and pumpkin seeds
Vegetables - Potatoes (not fried), Broccoli, Garlic
Cashew nuts (a small serving)
Oily fish
Honey, skimmed milk & dark chocolate
Canned food
Processed foods
Bakery products and confectionaries
Fatty food
Soft drinks

It is mandatory to avoid the following bad habits to maintain blood pressure at a reasonable range

7.Lifestyle changes
Losing weight combining physical activity and diet
Healthy choice of food & drinks
Reducing salt intake in all forms
Regular monitoring
Reducing stressful work

8.Currently available conventional drugs to treat hypertension
Diuretics or water pills (helps excrete salt and water from the body)
Beta-blockers (works on the heart and reduces its workload, output of blood and rate)
ACE inhibitors (reduces production of angiotensin, which narrows the arteries)
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (blocks the effects of angiotensin by blocking the binding of angiotensin to its receptor)
Calcium channel blockers (It blocks the calcium (forcefully contracts the heart) from entering the smooth muscle cells of the heart)

9.Alpha blockers (works on the resistance of the arteries, relaxing them)
Alpha-2 receptor agonist (decreases the sympathetic portion activity of involuntary nervous system)
Combined alpha and beta blockers
Central agonists (reduces blood pressure through a different nerve pathway than the alpha and beta-blockers)
Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors (works on the brain neurotransmitters reducing signals which command to constrict)
Blood vessel dilators or vasodilators (relaxes or widens the blood vessel walls)

10.Alternative medicine for hypertension
Yoga, Tai chi & Qigong
    These are proven techniques, used in the management of hypertension, which enhances breathing and posture

11.Meditation & Relaxation
Meditation calms the body and soul and relaxation techniques such as massaging relieves stress

A traditional Chinese technique which acts on the heart meridian to lower blood pressure

13.Herbs & spices
Different systems of medicine such as Ayurveda and Siddha use medicinal herbs to treat hypertension
Snakeroot, ginseng, hawthorn and licorice are some of the herbs used
Few of the spices are Cinnamon, garlic, oregano, cardamom and olives

14.Nutritional supplements
The following nutrients when taken in small amounts has helped in management of high blood pressure
Vitamins E, C & B complex
Omega 3 – fatty acids &
Fish oil

Spirituality is an essential dimension in the treatment of hypertension

PPT On Why You Need a Life Insurance Cover


Why You Need a Life Insurance Cover Presentation Transcript:
1.Why Do WE NEED


3.What happens when you get
   a sales call to buy
   life insurance?
What is your first reaction?
Why do you react in this fashion?

4. Is it because of the agents style of approach?
Is it because of incessant tele- calling?
Is it because of lack of professionalism?

5.However it is very
Necessary to be aware of what
Life Insurance Cover is all about?

6.What does life insurance actually do?
 IT Compensates Financial Loss

7.Life Insurance Cover for :

  Primary responsibility of every parent to ensure the best education of child.
Child prepares academically,
     parent has to be prepared
Rising cost of education world
     wide particularly in India

 Consequences if not provided for?
 Our own needs and age at that time

Present Scenario in india:
14% still working
54% dependent on others
4% wealthy and self dependent

 How would you like your retirement to be?
 You have to be mentally agile and physically active.
 Financially you have to analyze and prepare yourself.

 What options does one have to help save for retirement?
 The role Life Insurance would play during deferment period.

 While paying premiums your premium amount is directly deducted from your taxable income under sec 80C of IT Act.
 When you receive the maturity amount it is totally TAX FREE under sec 10/10D of the IT Act.

 Additional tax benefits available
 Key Man Insurance
 Employer Employee Insurance
 Tax Exemption under sec 37 of the IT Act.

Helps inculcate compulsory savings habit.
Helps protect the family in unfortunate situations.
Helps save on taxes while helping save for the future. 

PPT On Solar PV System Design


Solar PV System Design Presentation Transcript:
1.Solar PV & Diesel GENERATOT Hybrid System Design

2.System Sizing

3.System Calculations:
Load:         2.5 KW
Anatomy:    48 hrs (continued)

Whr    =    watt (load) x hrs
        25000 x 48
    =    120,000  x 1.3 (losses)
    =    156,000

PV Panels Required:

Panel Size:    =    156,000/5.5
        =    28363.6363 Watts
        =    28.36 KW  or 29 KW

System available with Client is 35 KW

4.PV Panels Required for 35 KW systemSystem     =    35000/ 230
    =    152.17  or 153
Recommended     154 Panel

5.Battery Calculations
Battery Sizing :
0.85 for battery loss
0.8 for depth of discharge

Battery Capacity (Ah) =   Total Watt-hours per day used by appliances x Days of autonomy                                                     (0.85 x 0.8 x nominal battery voltage)

        =    60,000  x  2

        =    3676.47 Ah

No. of Batteries Required    =  24  batteries (2 volt and 4000 Ah)
6.Solar Charge Controller:
According to standard practice, the sizing of solar charge controller is to take the short circuit current (Isc) of the PV array, and multiply it by 1.1 for MPPT and 1.3 for PWM

Charge controller        =    8 x 8.25 x 1.1
            =    72.6 Ampere
Therefore  10 , 80A (T80  charge controller will be required  for system to fulfill the 600 A) .

7.Inverter Sizing
An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input rating of the inverter should never be lower than the total watt of appliances. The inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery.
For stand-alone systems, the inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of Watts you will be using at one time. The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total Watts of appliances. In case of appliance type is motor or compressor then inverter size should be minimum 3 times the capacity of those appliances and must be added to the inverter capacity to handle surge current during starting.
Client –Energy has 20 KW inverter which is more than requirements.

8.Battery Selection:
¦ Utility (stations and substations)
¦ Power Distribution
¦ Switchgear
¦ Telecom Equipment
¦ Solar/Photovoltaic
24 batteries will be connected in series  to obtain 48 volts and  capacity will remains constant 4000 Ah which is Client requirement

9.Equipment Selection

Single Phase bidirectional dual mode hybrid  inverter for mini grid system
Pure sine wave out put
Single phase configuration
High efficiency more than 94%
Automatic/manual generator control

11.System  layout 

PPT On Photovoltaic System


Photovoltaic System Presentation Transcript:

2.PV System Overview

3.Harnessing the Sun
Commonly known as solar cells, photovoltaic (PV) devices convert light energy into electrical energy
PV cells are constructed with semiconductor materials, usually silicon-based
The photovoltaic effect is the basic physical process by which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity
When light shines on a PV cell, it may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through. But only the absorbed light generates electricity.

4.Grid-Tied System
Easy to install
    (less components)

Grid can supply power
No power if grid goes down

5.Solar Modules

6.Photovoltaic (PV) Hierarchy  

7.Available Cell Technologies   
Single-crystal or Mono-crystalline Silicon
Polycrystalline or Multi-crystalline Silicon
 Thin film
Ex. Amorphous silicon or Cadmium Telluride

8.Monocrystalline Silicon Modules
Most efficient commercially available module (11% - 14%)
Most expensive to produce
Circular (square-round) cell creates wasted space on module

9.Polycrystalline Silicon Modules
Less expensive to make than single crystalline modules
Cells slightly less efficient than a single crystalline (10% - 12%)
Square shape cells fit into module efficiently using the entire space

10.Amorphous Thin Film   
Most inexpensive technology to produce
Metal grid replaced with transparent oxides
Efficiency = 6 – 8 %
Can be deposited on flexible substrates
Less susceptible to shading problems
Better performance in low light conditions that with crystalline modules

11.PV efficiencies in world

12.Selecting the Correct Module
Practical Criteria
Mounting Characteristics
Cost (per watt)

13.Current-Voltage (I-V) Curve

14.Effects of Temperature 
As the PV cell temperature increases above 25ยบ C, the module Vmp decreases by approximately 0.5% per degree C

15.As insolation decreases amperage decreases while voltage remains roughly constant 

PPT On Solar Cell Technologies


Solar Cell Technologies Presentation Transcript:
1.Solar Cell Materials & Structures

2.Solar Cells Background
1839 - French physicist A. E. Becquerel first recognized the photovoltaic effect.

Photo+voltaic = convert light to electricity

1883 - first solar cell built, by Charles Fritts, coated semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions.

1954  - Bell Laboratories, experimenting with semiconductors, accidentally found that silicon doped with certain impurities was very sensitive to light. Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson, invented the first practical device for converting sunlight into useful electrical power. Resulted in the production of the first practical solar cells with a sunlight energy conversion efficiency of around 6%.

1958 - First spacecraft to use solar panels was US satellite Vanguard 1
3.Solar Cell Technologies
A)    Crystalline Silicon
B)    Thin Film
C)    Group III-IV Cells

4.Crystalline Silicon
Most common for commercial applications
Well known standard processing
Silica is very abundant
Requires expensive highly pure silicon
Competes for silicon with electronics industry

5.Types of Crystalline Silicon
Carefully made Silicon forms crystals. Different levels of crystal structure may exist ranging from single  crystal to totally non-crystalline
Single crystal silicon (Mono crystal silicon)
Multi-crystal silicon
Ribbon silicon
Amorphous silicon
The main difference between each is the crystal grain size and their growth technique

6.Single crystal silicon (Mono crystal silicon)
Monocrystalline silicon or single-crystal Si, or mono-Si is the base material of the electronic industry. It consists of silicon in which the crystal lattice of the entire solid is continuous, unbroken (with no grain boundaries) to its edges. It can be prepared intrinsic, i.e. made of exceedingly pure silicon alone, or doped, containing very small quantities of other elements added to change in a controlled manner its semiconducting properties. Most silicon monocrystals are grown by the Czochralski process, in the shape of cylinders up to 2 m long and 30 cm in diameter (figure shown), which, cut in thin slices, give the wafers onto which the microcircuits will be fabricated.

7.Different Forms of Silicon

8.Single Crystal Growth Techniques
Czochralski Growth (Cz)
Most single crystal silicon made this way
Lower quality silicon than FZ with Carbon and Oxygen present
Cheaper production than FZ
Produces cylinders and circular wafers
Float Zone (FZ)
Better Quality than Cz
More Expensive than Cz
Produces cylinders and circular wafers

9.Czochralski Method
Pure Silicon is melted in a quartz crucible under vacuum or inert gas and a seed crystal is dipped into the melt
The seed crystal is slowly withdrawn and slowly rotated so that the molten silicon crystallizes to the seed (Rock Candy)
The melt temperature, rotation rate and pull rate are controlled to create a ingot of a certain diameter

10.Czocharlski Technique
Spinning rod with “Seed” Crystal lowered into the molten silicon
Slowly pulled up to allow silicon to crystallize on the seed layer
Once to the size desired, the crystal is pulled faster to maintain the needed diameter

11.Czochralski Growth
Entire ingots of silicon produced as one big crystal
Very high quality material with few defects
No boundaries between crystals because it is one crystal in one orientation
Si crystal inevitably contains oxygen impurities dissolved from the quartz crucible holding the molten silicon

12.Float Zone Method
Produced by cylindrical polysilicon rod that already has a seed crystal in its lower end
An encircling inductive heating coil melts the silicon material
The coil heater starts from the bottom and is raised pulling up the molten zone
A solidified single crystal ingot forms below
Impurities prefer to remain in the molten silicon so very few defects and impurities remain in the forming crystal

13.Slicing into Wafers
Ingots are cut into thin wafers for solar cells (200-300 mm)
Two Techniques
Wire sawing
Diamond blade sawing
Both results in loss of silicon from “kerf losses” ? silicon saw dust
Time consuming
Water Cooled, Dirty

14.Single Crystal Silicon
What we are using
Currently supplies a significant but declining solar cell market share
Produced for electronics industry
Allows for higher efficiency solar cells
Requires higher quality of feed stock
More expensive and slower to produce
Circular shape leads to lower packing density in panels or larger waste of silicon

15.Ribbon Silicon
Ribbon silicon is a technique used to grow multi-crystalline silicon
Two graphite filaments are placed in a crucible of molten silicon
The molten silicon is grown horizontally through capillary action along the filaments
Produces a ribbon-like sheet of multi-crystalline silicon which is already a long wafer ? no kerf losses

PPT On Why Renewable Energy


Why Renewable Energy Presentation Transcript:

2.Outline    Why Renewable Energy?
The Science of Photovoltaic
System Configurations
Principle Design Elements
Energy Efficiency
Solar laboratories visit (walking tour)

3.What’s wrong with this picture?
Pollution from burning fossil fuels leads to an increase in greenhouse gases, acid rain, and the degradation of public health.

4.The world’s current energy system is built around fossil fuels
Fossil fuel reserves are ultimately finite
Two-thirds of the world' s proven oil reserves are locating in the Middle-East and North Africa (which can lead to political and economic instability)
5.Projection of Long term World Energy Supplies
Issues of availability and  security

6.Pakistan’s Energy Demand Projections

7.Why Sustainable Energy Matters
Detrimental environmental impacts
Extraction (mining operations)
Global warming (could lead to significant changes in the world' s climate system, leading to a rise in sea level and disruption of agriculture and ecosystems)

8.Making the Change to Renewable Energy

9.Today’s Solar Picture
10.Solar Energy Potential in Pakistan
11.All Pakistan, especially Baluchistan, Sindh and Southern Punjab, receives abundant Solar radiation about 3000hours/year. This is on the highest side of global averages. Exploitable potential of Solar energy at country level is of the order of 100,000MW. Some remote villages have been electrified by off-grid solar installations.

12.Development status of Grid-Connected Solar Power Projects
AEDB and NTDC are developing Energy Purchase Agreement for Solar Power Projects.
NTDC, through its Grid Code Review Panel, is bringing modifications of existing Grid Code for grid integration of Solar Power Projects
2Nos. IPPs have got issued LOIs from AEDB for installation of Solar Power Projects.

Punjab Government, with co-operation of Government of Japan, is installing a 2MW PV Solar Power Project at Bahawal pur city at fast track basis.
M/s Akhtar Solar, a private company, has started assembling PV Solar panels at their factory near Islamabad.

14.Overhaul required in top-down manner
Step 1 (Policy)
Change the way progress is measured
Progress will not be measured by projects initiated
 Progress will be measured in terms of number of megawatts of energy produced

15.Step 2 (Policy)
Identify a Vision
Produce at least 5% of the total electricity generating capacity of the country (i.e. 9,700 MW) by alternative energy sources by the year 2030 [Vision 2030, 85]; AND
Use renewable energies to decrease pollution and help
improve social and economical lives of rural

PPT On Full Wave Rectifier


Full Wave Rectifier Presentation Transcript:
1.The Full Wave Rectifier

2.The Full Wave Rectifier

3.The Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
The bridge rectifier is the most commonly used  rectifier circuit for the following reasons:
No centre - tapped transformer is required.
The bridge rectifier produces almost double the output voltage as a full wave C-T transformer rectifier using the same secondary voltage.

4.The Basic Filter Capacitor

5. The Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
 This circuit is simplified to show the circuit conditions during the positive half cycle. The load  & ground connections are removed because we are concerned with the diode conditions only. Using the ideal diode note:
Diodes D 1 and D 3 are forward biased & act like closed switches. They are replaced with wires.
Diodes D2 and D4  are reverse biased and act like open switches. 

PPT On Fashion


Fashion Presentation Transcript:

2.What is fashion actually?Simply, A life style


Hair styles




3.Simply, A life style


Hair styles




PPT On Football Academy


Football Academy Presentation Transcript:
1.Falcons Academy

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

3.Football is the most popular game in the world
Many people see football as the gate of fame and fortune
Large number of talented young players who can’t find the appropriate chance
The number of football Academies in Egypt isn’t parallel with the size of this market

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

5.What I propose to do
Creating an integrated environment (Practical & Theoretical)
Powerful infrastructure
 2 Football piches        Equipped GYM        Fitting Rooms
 Clinic            Hostels            Lecture rooms  
Professional Staff
 Technical Manager        2 Trainers        Nutrition
 Sports Doctor            Fitness Coach        Scouting Team
Applying advanced training techniques and strategies

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

8.Marketing Plan
Targeted customers are middle class and high class families, highly talented players
The marketing campaign will consist of the following items:
Facebook campaigns
Advertisements in football websites such Yallakora, Filgoal, Korabia.
Using a famous footballer such as Hazem Emam
Advertisements in sports newspapers and magazines
Fliers in schools and clubs

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

The expected costs of this project are a bit high.
Infrastructure:             1.78 million  pounds.
Salaries:                1.25 million pounds per year
Marketing                1.5 million  pounds per year
Signing with talented players        470,000  pounds
Total costs = 5,000,000 pounds

2 ways of getting profit (subscription fees & selling players)
Expected applicants in the first year = 120 applicant
Fees per person = 12,000  per year
Expected players to be sold in the first year = 5 players
Expected price of one player = 100,000 pounds
Profit in the first three years = (1,440,000 + 1,500,000 ) * 3  =  5820000  pounds
This covers the costs and makes a profit margin of 820,000 pounds.

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

By all means, establishing a football academy is a very profitable project if it was done in the proper way. That’s because of its huge market and shortage in the number of football academies in Egypt. It only needs a large capital and some time.

An example of an investment in young players
What I propose to do
Expected design of the academy
Marketing Plan
Estimated costs and Expected revenue

(A Community Football Academy in the Bolivian Andes, 2011)
(El-Kader,, 2010)
(, 2011)

PPT On Ethical Dilemma


Ethical Dilemma Presentation Transcript:
1.What is an Ethical Dilemma

When may an ethical dilemma happen?
How to resolve an ethical dilemma?

What is an Ethical Dilemma?
Cases where conflict occur
A single person
Different people (ideologies)
Workplace (diversity)

4.When may an ethical dilemma occur?
Conflicts between the professional and personal values of a person.
Example : Family duty   vs.   Job duty

5.When may an ethical dilemma happen?
Conflict between two professional values
Example: A patient refusing a certain treatment

6.Conflict between a person’s moral values and perceived role.
Example: The idea of abortion

7.Unavoidable alternatives
Example: Manipulating reports for the benefit of the company Employee’s ethics vs. Need for money

8.How to resolve an ethical dilemma?
Think of the consequences
Ask your self these four questions
Who will be benefited?
Who will be hurt?
What are the benefits?
What are the harms?

9.Consider the right course of action?
    (which principles are you ready to breach and which are     the ones you’d never let go)

Make your decision and stick to it

Ethical dilemma is an unpleasant situation which all of us experience at different times in life I hope this presentation can help you overcome the helplessness and mental pressure that comes with such a situation.

PPT On Energy Efficiency


Energy Efficiency Presentation Transcript:
1.Energy Efficiency Improvement

What is energy efficiency
What energy efficiency offers
Concerns addressing energy efficiency
Energy efficiency organizations
IEA/Increasing efficiency
7 sectors to improve energy efficiency

3.Economical sector
Energy triangle of terror
Increasing energy efficiency at the supply/demand side (Sectoral)

4.What is energy efficiency?
It is a way of managing and restraining the growth in energy consumption.
When a compact florescent lamp(CFL) uses less energy than an incandescent bulb to produce the same amount of light, thus the CFL is considered to be more energy efficient.

5.What energy efficiency offers?
It offers cost-effective tool for achieving a sustainable energy future.
It improves:
Need for investment in energy infrastructure
Cut energy bills
Improve health
Increase competitiveness
Improve consumer welfare

Environmental benefits:
Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.
Reduces local air pollution.
Decreases the reliance on imported fossil fuels.

7.Energy efficiency concerns
Lack of consumer demand.
Lack of qualification.
Perception of reliability of products.
Technological sophistication.

8.Energy Efficiency Organizations
International Energy Agency

9.IEA – International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous organization which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. IEA promotes energy efficiency policy and technology in:
Cross Sectoral
Appliances and equipment

10.IEA – Objective
Providing policy makers and industrial energy efficiency policy implementers with actionable guidance on how to develop and improve programs including supporting measures.

11.IEA role is to assist and coordinate countries efforts through collaboration with other international organizations.

12.IEA – Four main areas focus
Energy security
Economic development
Environmental awareness
Engagement worldwide

13.IEA – Members
Republic of Korea
The Netherlands 
United Kingdom
United States

14.IEA – Energy Indicators
Energy indicators are an important tool for analyzing the interactions among economic and human activity, energy use and CO2 emissions.

15.Increasing Efficiency
To help its member countries achieve the benefits of energy efficiency, the IEA developed a set of 25 energy policy recommendations for seven priority areas:
Cross Sectoral
Appliances and equipment



DRUG TRANSPORT MECHANISMS Presentation Transcript:



Passive diffusion is the process by which molecules spontaneously diffuse from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
e.g. Propranolol, Ketoprofin

Transcellular process
Requires no energy and carrier
Not saturable
Depends on lipid solubility
Small mol.wt and lipophilliic molecules are primarily transported by this mechanism.

6.Hydrophilic drug (ionized or polar) is readily absorbed via aqueous channels or pores in cell membrane.
Lipophilic  soluble drug (nonionized or non polar) is readily absorbed via cell membrane itself.

7.Passive diffusion across GI-blood barrier can be described by Fick’s First law of diffusion:
dC/dt = Rate of drug diffusion
D = Diffusion Coefficient of the drug
A= Surface area of the membrane
k =Partition coefficient of the drug
Cgi =Concentration of drug in GI lumen
Cb= Concentration of drug in blood
h= Thickness of GI membrane

8.The passively absorbed drug enters the blood, gets diluted and distributed into a larger volume of body fluids.
Hence, the concentration of drug at absorption site Cgi is maintained greater than the concentration in the plasma (Cgi>>Cb). Such a condition is called sink condition for drug absorption.

9.If D, A and h are kept constant and Cgi>>Cb  (sink condition), the equation of fick’s law can be reduced as follows

10.Most of the drugs are weak electrolyte and exist in aqueous solution as ionized and unionized species.
The ionization of the drug is determined by pKa of the drug and pH of the environment, according  to Henderson Hasselbalch equations for weak acids and bases.
The nonionized species is more lipid soluble than the ionized species, and it partitions more readily across cell membranes.

Involves a carrier which reversibly binds to the solute molecules and forms a solute-carrier complex.
This molecule transverse across the membrane to the other side and dissociates, yielding the solute molecule.
The carrier then returns to the original site to accept a new molecule. 

12.MECHANISM  Carrier molecules within the cell membrane are involved in carrier-mediated transport mechanisms. The molecule to be transported binds to the carrier molecule, the three-dimensional shape of the carrier molecule changes, and the transported molecule is moved to the opposite side of the cell membrane. the transported molecule is then released by the carrier molecule, which resumes its original shape and is available to transport another molecule. EXAMPLE: large, water-soluble molecules or electrically charged ions across the cell membrane.

Specificity for single molecules (substrate)
Competition among substrates for transport carrier
Saturation when all carriers are occupied
This is called Tm (transport maximum)

There are two types of
carrier mediated transport
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport

     Facilitated diffusion is a carrier-mediated transport process that moves substances into or out of cells from a higher to a lower concentration of that substance. Because movement is with the concentration gradient, metabolic energy in the form of ATP is not required.

PPT On Digoxin


Digoxin Presentation Transcript:
1.Digoxin  , also known as digitalis, is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata .Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin, and its acetyl derivative is acetyldigoxin. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication. Digoxin preparations are commonly marketed under the trade names Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps.

2.Basics of kinetics:
60 to 80% (Oral)
Protein binding capability
Hepatic (16%)
    36 to 48 hours(patients with normal renal function) 3.5 to 5 days(patients with impaired renal function)
Routes:Oral, Intravenous

Digoxin binds to a site on the extracellular aspect of the a-subunit of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the membranes of heart cells (myocytes) and decreases its function. This causes an increase in the level of sodium ions in the myocytes, which leads to a rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions. This occurs because of a sodium/calcium exchanger on the plasma membrane, which depends on a constant inward sodium gradient to pump out calcium. Digoxin decreases sodium concentration gradient and the subsequent calcium outflow, thus raising the calcium concentration in myocardiocytes and pacemaker cells.
Increased intracellular calcium lengthens Phase 4 and Phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, which leads to a decrease in heart rate. Increased amounts of Ca2+ also leads to increased storage of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, causing a corresponding increase in the release of calcium during each action potential. This leads to increased contractility, the force of contraction, of the heart.
There is also evidence that digoxin increases vagal activity, thereby decreasing heart rate by slowing depolarization of pacemaker cells in the AV node. . This negative chronotropic effect would therefore be synergistic with the direct effect on cardiac pacemaker cells. Digoxin is used widely in the treatment of various arrhythmias

4.Today, the most common indications for digoxin are probably atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, but beta- or calcium channel- blockers should be the first choice.High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves owing to improved filling.
The use of digoxin in heart problems during sinus rhythm . In theory the increased force of contraction should lead to improved pumping function of the heart. Digoxin is no longer the first choice for congestive heart failure, but can still be useful in patients who remain symptomatic despite proper diuretic and ACE inhibitor treatment. It has fallen out of favor because it was proven to be ineffective at decreasing morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure

Patients with more severe heart failure, a third heart sound gallop, left ventricular enlargement and a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction are more likely to respond to digoxin therapy.
Many compensatory mechanisms, including the sympathetic nervous system and salt- and water-retaining systems, become activated in the setting of a depressed cardiac output. The compensatory systems can maintain left ventricular function for days to months. However, when patients become overtly symptomatic, they begin to experience a striking increase in morbidity and mortality. The transition to symptomatic heart failure is accompanied by further activation of the neurohormonal system, including the sympathetic nervous system and a series of adaptive changes in the myocardium.
Digoxin-Induced Neurohormonal Modulation
In the past, digoxin was considered to be solely a positive inotropic agent. In patients with heart failure, digoxin exerts its positive inotropic effect by inhibiting sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Inhibition of this enzyme in cardiac cells results in an increase in the contractile state of the heart.  it has been shown that digoxin exerts a positive inotropic effect at higher dosages (0.25 mg or more per day); however, at lower dosages (less than 0.25 mg per day), this drug exerts a mainly neurohormonal effect and has little inotropic activity.21
The neurohormonal effect of digoxin  showed that digoxin reduced plasma norepinephrine levels; these results were validated in other studies.The explanation for this effect was that digoxin improves impaired baroreceptor reflexes in heart failure.
Digoxin may also lower plasma renin levels, either because of a direct renal effect or secondary to inhibition of sympathetic activity. By inhibiting sodium-potassium ATPase in the kidney, digoxin decreases renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, thereby increasing delivery of sodium to the distal tubules and suppressing renin secretion.

Digoxin has been shown to improve morbidity without any benefit on mortality.
Digoxin may act by decreasing sympathetic activity.
Digoxin may not be effective in patients who have normal left ventricular systolic function.
The benefits of digoxin therapy are greatest in patients with severe heart failure, an enlarged heart and a third heart sound gallop.
Digoxin may be used in patients with mild to moderate heart failure if they do not respond to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a beta blocker.
Low dosages of digoxin can be effective.
Renal function and possible drug interactions must be considered in deciding on an appropriate dosage of digoxin.
In general, digoxin therapy should be avoided in the acute phase after myocardial infarction.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of heart arrhythmia. An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.
Atrial fibrillation occurs when rapid, disorganized electrical signals cause the atria to fibrillate (contract very fast and irregularly). When this happens, the heart's upper and lower chambers don't work together as they should.

Atrial flutter refers to rapid and regular contractions (usually in the range of 120 to 350 times each minute) that is characterised on the ECG by a saw-tooth appearance. Not all atrial contractions are necessarily conducted to the ventricles due to a variable block within the atrioventricular node. When conduction to the ventricles does occur, the QRS complex morphology is regular but RR intervals may be random or follow a specific pattern.

9.DOSING AND TDM of Digoxin:



12. DOSING :
Digoxin may be taken with or without food. Digoxin is primarily eliminated by the kidneys; therefore, the dose of digoxin should be reduced in patients with kidney dysfunction. Digoxin blood levels are used for adjusting doses in order to avoid toxicity. The usual starting dose is 0.0625-0.25 mg daily depending on age and kidney function. The dose may be increased every two weeks to achieve the desired response.

13.Usual pediatric dose in atrial fibrillation:

If patients are switched from intravenous to oral formulations, allowances must be made for differences in bioavailability when calculating maintenance dosages. When changing from oral formulations to IM or IV therapy, dosage should be reduced by 20% to 25%.
Divided dosage of the capsule formulation is preferred in patients that require a daily dose greater than 300 mcg, those with a previous history of digitalis toxicity, and in patients who may be more likely to become toxic.

Calculate doses based upon lean (ideal) body weight.
Consider the differences in bioavailability between digoxin injection, tablets, and oral solution when changing patients from one dosage form to another.
For IV administration, digoxin injection may be diluted (4-fold or more) with normal saline, dextrose 5% in water, or sterile water for injection. Infuse slowly, 5 min or longer.
IM injection can lead to severe pain at the injection site. If the drug must be administered IM, inject it deeply into the muscle and follow with massage. Do not inject more than 2 mL (500mcg) into a single site.

PPT On Business Intelligence


Business Intelligence Presentation Transcript:
1.Putting Data to work for mid-market companies

Microsoft and Dell believe that data warehousing, BI and analytics should not be exclusive to large enterprises; that they should be easy to use and cost-effective enough for all organizations. To make that view a reality, they have partnered to bring to market a data warehouse appliance designed for mid-market and departmental users.

3.Context for mid market BI
The fuel of the information economy is data. We use data to describe products and services and their fate in the marketplace.
The profits derive largely from how the company collect, organize, display, manage and analyze data about things.

4.Data-driven companies use data to

5.Business Intelligence
Business intelligence (BI) is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes.

6.Benefits of BI
Tactical Benefits : At a tactical level, employees at data-driven companies spend less time looking for data and reports.
Strategic Benefits : At a strategic level, leading adopters of BI use information to transform their businesses and gain a competitive advantage.

7.Layers of BI
Most of the work involved in building a BI solution stems from sourcing, integrating, cleaning and aggregating data.
The dirtier and more fragmented an organization’s data, the longer it takes to piece together a uniform view of the enterprise for business consumption.

8.BI Components
At a component level, mid-market solutions typically provide a subset of the following:
 Hardware (server and storage)
 A relational database management system (RDBMS)
 A data model
 A variety of data integration tools and source data   connectors
 A metadata repository
 A variety of reporting and analysis tools.

9.From a software perspective, packaged mid-market BI solutions typically provide a subset of functionality compared with enterprise BI solutions, which is one reason they are priced more affordably.
Mid-market BI packages focus on delivering basic functionality that companies need most.

10.Catalog of Mid-Market Tools
    Perhaps the easiest way a mid-market company can deploy a BI solution is to purchase a data warehousing appliance to run its new existing BI software.
2.Packaged Analytical Software Solutions
    Another option, that is very complementary  to an appliance, is to purchase a packaged software solution, which can be deployed on an analytical appliance or an existing server

11.3.Cloud Solutions
Cloud-based BI solutions eliminate the need for companies to purchase and maintain hardware and software.
Instead, customers pay a monthly subscription fee, usually based on the number of users.  
Most cloud BI vendors offer packaged  solutions to get customers up and running quickly.

PPT On Overweight and Obesity


Overweight and Obesity Presentation Transcript:
1.Overweight and Obesity

2.What do you mean “overweight” and “obesity”?

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, minimizing the life expectancy and the life quality of patients. Obese are people whose body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of the person's height in metres, exceeds 30 kg/m2.

4.Causes of obesity
They are a combination of:
excessive food energy intake,
lack of physical activity,
genetic susceptibility,
    Although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness.

5.BMI is defined as the subject's mass divided by the square of their height, expressed kilograms per square meter and calculated as:

6.Classification of bmi

7.Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular bodies. The surgical literature breaks down "class III" obesity into further categories whose exact values are still disputed.
Any BMI = 35 or 40 is severe obesity
A BMI of = 35 and experiencing obesity-related health conditions or =40–44.9 is morbid obesity
A BMI of = 45 or 50 is super obesity

Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. Generally, mortality is lower in BMI of 20-25kg/m2 in non smokers and 24-27kg/m2 . A BMI above 32 kg/m2 has been associated with a doubled mortality rate among women.
In the United States obesity is estimated to cause 111,909 to 365,000 deaths per year, while 1 million (7.7%) of deaths in Europe are attributed to excess weight. On average, obesity reduces life expectancy by six to seven years, a BMI of 30–35 kg/m2 reduces life expectancy by two to four years, while severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) reduces life expectancy by ten years.

9.Diseases associated with obesity
heart disease,
 type 2 diabetes,
obstructive sleep apnea,
certain types of cancer,
and osteoarthritis.

PPT On Heart Anatomy and Physiology


Heart Anatomy and Physiology Presentation Transcript:
1.Heart Anatomy and Physiology

2.The heart is a hollow muscle that pumps blood
throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. It is found in all animals with a circulatory system(including all vertebrates)

3.The average human heart, beating at 72 beats per minute, will beat approximately 2.5 billion times during an average 66 year lifespan. It weighs approximately 250 to 300 grams (9 to 11 oz) in females and 300 to 350 grams (11 to 12 oz) in males.

4.The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart" and comes from the Greek ?a?d??, kardia, for "heart".
The vertebrate heart is principally composed of cardiac muscle and connective tissue. Cardiac muscle is an involuntary striated muscle tissue found only in this organ and responsible for the ability of the heart to pump blood.

It is enclosed in a double-walled protective sac called the pericardium. The superficial part of this sac is called the parietal pericardium. The inner pericardium layer is called the visceral pericardium. Together they are usually called the serous pericardium because they contain the pericardial fluid. Outside the parietal pericardium there is a fibrous layer which depends from the mediastinal fascia and is called the fibrous pericardium.[13] The pericardium sac protects the heart, anchors its surrounding structures, but has no effect over the heart function in normal individuals.[14]
The double membrane of pericardium contains the pericardial fluid which provides a smooth lubricated sliding surface within which the heart organ can move in response to its own contractions and to movement of adjacent structures such as the diaphragm and lungs.[15]

6.The outer wall of the human heart is composed of three layers. The outer layer is called the epicardium, or visceral pericardium since it is also the inner wall of the (serous) pericardium. The middle layer of the heart is called the myocardium and is composed of muscle which contracts. The inner layer is called the endocardium and is in contact with the blood that the heart pumps.[16] Also, it merges with the inner lining (endothelium) of blood vessels and covers heart valves.[17]

7.The human heart has four chambers, two superior atria and two inferior ventricles. The atria are the receiving chambers and the ventricles are the discharging chambers.
The pathways of blood through the human heart are part of the pulmonary and systemic circuits. These pathways include the tricuspid valve, the mitral valve, the aortic valve, and the pulmonary valve.[18] The mitral and tricuspid valves are classified as the atrioventricular (AV) valves. This is because they are found between the atria and ventricles. The aortic and pulmonary semi-lunar valves separate the left and right ventricle from the pulmonary artery and the aorta respectively. These valves are attached to the chordae tendinae (literally the heartstrings), which anchors the valves to the papilla muscles of the heart.
The interatrioventricular septum separates the left atrium and ventricle from the right atrium and ventricle, dividing the heart into two functionally separate and anatomically distinct units.

Blood flows through the heart in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles, and out of the great arteries, or the aorta for example. Blood is prevented from flowing backwards by the tricuspid, bicuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves.
The heart acts as a double pump. The function of the right side of the heart (see right heart) is to collect de-oxygenated blood, in the right atrium, from the body (via superior and inferior vena cavae) and pump it, via the right ventricle, into the lungs (pulmonary circulation) so that carbon dioxide can be dropped off and oxygen picked up (gas exchange). This happens through the passive process of diffusion.

9.    The left side (see left heart) collects oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium. From the left atrium the blood moves to the left ventricle which pumps it out to the body (via the aorta).
10.On both sides, the lower ventricles are thicker and stronger than the upper atria. The muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation. Atria facilitate circulation primarily by allowing uninterrupted venous flow to the heart, preventing the inertia of interrupted venous flow that would otherwise occur at each ventricular systole.[19]

11.    Starting in the right atrium, the blood flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Here, it is pumped out of the pulmonary semilunar valve and travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. From there, blood flows back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. It then travels through the mitral valve to the left ventricle, from where it is pumped through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta and to the rest of the body. The (relatively) deoxygenated blood finally returns to the heart through the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava.

12.Lifestyle and heart health
Obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol can increase the risk of developing heart disease. However, half the number of heart attacks occur in people with normal cholesterol levels. Heart disease is a major cause of death.
It is generally accepted that factors such as exercise or the lack of it, good or poor diet, and overall well-being, including both emotional and physiological components, affect heart health in humans

PPT On Formation and Nutritional Aspects of Alcohol


Formation and Nutritional Aspects of Alcohol Presentation Transcript:
1.Formation and Nutritional Aspects of Alcohol

2.Organic Compound
-OH                     C
Acylic Alcohol (CnH2n+1OH)
Ethanol (C2H5OH)

Sugar          Acids, gases or Alcohol
Absence of the electron transport chain
Reduced carbon source, such as glucose, and makes products like lactic acid or acetate.

4.Alcoholic Fermentation:
Ethanol fermentation
Sugars        Cellular Energy+Ethanol+CO2
Anaerobic Process.
Beverages , Ethanol Fuel and Bread dough

5.Chemistry ? Sucrose (C12H22O11)         Ethanol (C2H5OH)
1sucrose           4 ethanol + 4 CO2  + 2ATP

C12H22O11 + H2O + invertase ? 2 C6H12O6

C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ ? 2 CH3COCOO- + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 H+

6.Effect of Oxygen
Pyruvate                    Ethanol
Kluyveromyces lactis or Kluyveromyces lipolytica (anaerobic)

     Pyruvate              O2 +water

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (can work in O2)

7.Alcoholic  Beverages
Wine         The natural sugars present in grapes and other kinds of fruit.
Mead          The natural sugars present in honey.
Beer, whiskey, and vodka           
   Grain starches          Sugar
Rum Sugarcane.

8.Spirits ?
Distillation process        Fermented grains, Fruits, or Vegetables.       
Malted, distilled, aged or distilled, filtered and aged.
25% to 85%

9.Gin :Colorless
By distilling /redistilling rye /other grain spirits
 Adding juniper berries/aromatics such as anise, caraway seeds/angelica root as flavoring.

10.Vodka :
Originally distilled      Fermented wheat mash
 Now        Mash of rye, corn, or potatoes.
Clear in form ,clean tasting and clear looking.

Distilled       Cane juice/scummings of the boiled juice/treacle /molasses /lees of former distillations.
Used colloquially      intoxicating liquor.
Clear or dark in form.

12.Whiskey :
Distilled from grain, potatoes
Scotland, Ireland, and the United States.
Generally distilled from maize, rye, or wheat.
But in Scotland and Ireland it is often made from malted barley.
Brown or dark.

Fermented juice of the Central American century plant Agave tequilana.
Brown (Gold) or clear (silver, white, Blanco) in color.
Originates from one specific location in Mexico.

Distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice.
Prominent in France.

15.Liquors ?
Flavored spirits
By infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers, in either water or alcohol, and adding sugar, etc.
Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents.



ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY Presentation Transcript:

2.ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (AAS)    concerns the absorption of radiation by the atomised analyte element in the ground state.
Only applicable for the detection of trace metals.

3.    In atomic emission spectrometry, atoms are thermally excited so that they emit light and the radiation emitted is measured.
Only applicable to determination of alkali and alkaline earth metals.


In an atom, electrons have specific and discrete energies in which electron are arranged in definite energy levels. When an electronic transitions (‘jumps’) from one energy level to another (by an electric arc ,temperature or flame), it emits or absorbs  light – a photon – with a discrete, specific wavelength, the collection of all these specific wavelengths ( spectral lines) form the spectrum of the atom and it will be the characteristic of particular atom…so atomic spectra are the spectra of atoms.


7.Atomic absorption spectra
Atomic emission spectra

 When an electron is excited to a higher energy level it must absorbed energy.
The energy absorbed as an electron jump from an orbit of low energy to one of the higher energy is characteristic of that transition.
This mean that the excitation of electron in a particular element result in energy absorption at specific wavelength it will be the characteristic of particular atom thus in addition to emission spectrum every atom possess a characteristic   absorption spectrum.

9.When a sodium salt is heated in a flame the outer electron in the volatilized  atoms are excited and returned to ground state with emission of energy, which appears as a yellow light (wavelength 589.5)
The major line in the sodium emission spectrum is due to an electron falling from 3p excited state to 3s ground state.
 Common  atom which give their bands in the  emission spectrum are Ca, Ba , Na, Li, k.



The absorption of energy by ground state atoms in the gaseous state forms the basis of atomic absorption spectroscopy.
    By the help of atomic absorption spectroscopy, one can determine the amount of light absorbed

13.Atoms of a metal are volatilized in a flame
    and their absorbance of a narrow band of
    radiation produced by a hollow cathode
    lamp, coated with the particular metal
    being determined is measured.
Absorption will be proportional to the density of atoms in flame.

14.  Once absorption is known the concentration of the metallic element can also be known        because absorption is proportional to     concentration of atoms in the flame. Mathematically, the total amount of light     absorbed is given by:

15.  Once absorption is known the concentration of the metallic element can also be known  because absorption is proportional to concentration of atoms in the flame. Mathematically, the total amount of light     absorbed is given by:

10 Most Shocking Things Found In People's Stomachs PPT


10 Most Shocking Things Found In People's Stomachs Presentation Transcript:
1.  10 Most Shocking things found In people's stomachs.

2.A 10-Pound Hairball 

3.On November 2007 10-pound hairball from a 18-year-old woman came to the hospital with pain in her abdomen for about five months and a 40-pound weight loss. Doctors found a mass there,  a 10 pound hairball, which was taking up nearly her entire stomach. She was diagnosed also with trichotilomania, a condition in which patients eat their own hair.

4.Live frogs and rats

5.Yang Dingcai has been swallowing tree frogs and rats. He claims that it helped him avoid intestinal complaints and made him strong. Jiang Musheng, 66, in Jiangxi province, suffered from frequent abdominal pains and coughing since the age of 26, until Yang suggested tree frogs as a remedy.

6.20 cobblestones

7.In 2006, a girl from China, swallowed down 20 cobblestones after a big quarrel with her boyfriend. She thought the stones would be flushed out, but unfortunately they remained intact within her body for the next few days and she constantly felt that the stones were knocking against each other within her stomach causing pain and discomfort.
After taking an X-ray, she was advised to undergo. To avoid complications, doctors have advised her to undergo treatment as soon as possible, at first through the non-painful gastroscope for extracting stones.

8.A Plane, a Bike, and so on…

9.Michel Lotito, or as also known, Mangetout (Eat it all) is a French entertainer, famous as the consumer of undigestables, whose  performances are the consumption of metal, glass, rubber and so on. He even ate an aircraft, that took him 2 years to finish (1978-1980). His “eating habits”  began in his early childhood and he performs publicly since 1966. The weird thing is that he is not usually suffering  pain or illness from what he consumes, even if it’s poisonous.
When performing he consumes around a kilogram of material daily, preceding it with mineral oil and drinking considerable quantities of water during the 'meal'. He apparently possesses a stomach and intestine with walls of twice the expected thickness, and his digestive acids are, allegedly, unusually powerful, allowing him to digest a certain portion of his metallic meals.

10.Magnetic pieces of a block

11.This X-ray shows a boy who swallowed magnetic pieces of a block one at a time. When they reached his stomach, they reconnected.

12.Bed springs, batteries and so on

13.X-rays from Central Prison in Raleigh, N.C., show items such as bed springs and batteries that prisoners swallowed to gain trips to outside hospitals. 


15.Car key…

PPT On 10 Rights of Medication Administration


10 Rights of Medication Administration Presentation Transcript:
1.10 Rights of Medication Administration

2.Right Medication.

3.Nursing Responsibility:
Check three times for safe administration.
Read the medication administration record (MAR) and compare the label of the medication against it.
Check the expiration date of the medication.
If the dosage does not match the MAR, determine if you need to do a math calculation.
While preparing the medication, look at the medication label and check against the MAR.
Recheck the label on the container before returning to its storage place.

4.Right Amount /     Dose.

5.Nursing Responsibility:
Give special attention if the calculation indicates multiple pills/tablets or a large quantity of a liquid medication.  This can be a cue that the math calculation may be incorrect.
Double check calculations that appear questionable.
Know the usual dosage range of the medication.
Question a dose outside of the usual dosage range

6.Right Patient/     Client.

7.The Joint Commission’s National Patient Safety Goal requires a nurse to use at least two client identifiers whenever administering medications. Neither identifier can be the client’s room number. Acceptable identifiers may be the person’s name, assigned identification number, photograph, or other person-specific identifier. Check the clients identification band with each administration of medication.
Know the agency’s name alert procedure when clients with the same or similar last names are on the nursing unit

8.Nursing Responsibility
Make certain that the route is safe and appropriate for the client. Clients may require physical assistance in assuming positions for intramuscular injections.

9.Right Time and Manner

10.Medication given within 30 minutes before or after the scheduled time are considered to meet the right time standard.
The nurse should also check institutional policy concerning administration of medications.
Hospitals often have standardized interpretations for abbreviations.
The nurse must memorize and utilize standard abbreviations in interpreting, transcribing, and

11.Right client education

12.Clients may need guidance about measures to make medication more effective or prevent complications.
Some clients covey fear about medication. Nurses should listen carefully to their concerns and give them the correct information

13.Right documentation  
14.Document medication administration after giving it, before.
If time of administration differs from prescribed time, note the time on the MAR and explain reason and follow-through activities (e.g.’ pharmacy states medication will be available in 2 hours) in nursing notes.
 If a medication is not given, follow the agency’s policy for documenting the reason why.

15.Right to refuse the medication
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