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Thursday, July 26, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Products and Services

PPT On Products and Services

Presentation Transcript:
1.Products and Services

2.Product development process
Broad set of tools, techniques and concepts that provide a firm with a capability to provide distinctiveness in the offerings by rolling out new products and services faster and at a lower cost

3.Why to think of product development process ?
So that, the organization will be in better position to bring products and services to the market ahead of the competition


5.Customer Dimensions
Provides unique benefits and features
Meeting customer expectations better than existing products
Provides better quality as perceived by customers
Results in innovative offerings to the customers


7.Sustained performance
Simplifies products use and maintenance
Reduces cost of use over product lifetime
Addresses environmental issues


9.Operational advantages
Simplifies the manufacturing process
Simplifies the assembly process
Minimizes the need for revisions and changes after introduction


11.Strategic Advantages
Enables faster new product introduction
Reduces the cost of the product
Provides capabilities for mass customization

12.Product development process
Concept generation

13.Tools for efficient product development
Understanding customer needs (Market research/competitor analysis)
Quality function deployment
Value engineering
Design for manufacturability
Tools for mass customization

14.Performance measures
Cost based measures
Design effectiveness
Strategic measures
Market impact

15.1. Cost based measures
Target costs achieved status
Quantum of value engineering efforts
Cost of first production run
Cost overrun of product development project

16.2. Design effectiveness
Percentage of standard parts and processes
Time to return to normal quality
Number of revisions in the product design
Cost of field/service during first year after introduction
Time overrun of product development project

17.3. Strategic measures
Time to market
Concept to market
Number of new products introduced
percent of new products in the overall product portofolio

18.4. Market impact
Total product cost
Market share of new product
Total product sales in the first two years after introduction

Friday, July 20, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Total Quality Management

PPT On Total Quality Management

Presentation Transcript:
1. TQM

2. Quality without exception
 We are in the new era of competition . TQM will be the norm rather than the exception . We are in a battle for survival and total quality is going to sort out the winners from the losers ...... Lex Trotman . CEO . Ford.

A competitive world has two possibilities for you . You can lose . Or , if you want to win , you can change. Lester C. Thurow Management writer.

3. 21 st . century winners
Total quality - focused. Information technology based. Vision directed. Flatter and empowered. Customer driven. Flexible and adaptive. Time based. Innovative. Global. Networked.

4. From small “q” to big “Q”
Quality management covers all facets of business and aims to improve the overall quality of work by every one in the organization for achieving greater customer satisfaction and higher returns ( the big “Q”). It is not just confined to quality control or quality assurance ( the small “q” ) .

5. Sellers Beware Satisfaction with status -quo and absence of continuous improvement Obsession with short term results including profits, market share, costs, budgets & schedules. Indiscriminate cost cutting that lead to sacrificed quality. Underpowered, poorly motivated and paid personnel and disregard for their ideas and suggestions.

6. Sellers Beware Hands-off relationship with suppliers, with contracts being awarded to the lowest bidder. Crisis management, Rushing operations , fire-fighting oriented activities, impractical deadlines . Emphasis on correction and inspection rather than preventive and proactive approach . Unreliable processes and systems . Centralized and bureaucratic decision making.

7. TQM -Philosophy

8. TQM Origin
In the 1950’s American industry was enjoying a boom. Whatever was made could be sold. Few industrialists needed the work of this man called Deming and his ideas about Total Quality. In Japan, however, things were different. The Japanese economy was depressed. Goods stamped made in Japan were known for poor quality and high price. Japanese industrialists were very receptive to the ideas of Deming on TQM and set about implementing them. By the mid - 1970’s Japan was beginning to seriously undermine its American and other western competitors. First in cars , then in the whole range of goods including videos, Hi-fi and computers. The rest is a history.

9. Why TQM
Global competition, downtrend , bottom line pressures - Rejoice. All problems come with change . Change is necessary characteristic of growth, and no company ever achieved peak performance without continuous improvement -- the philosophy of TQM.

10. Before we proceed further, it would be interesting to know exactly --- “where is your organization placed” on the corporate lifecycle.

11. Growing Organization
Growing Organization: A healthy organizational growth is characterized by the culture of continuous improvement.The organization during its process of continuous improvement never loses flexibility or control. The growing organization consistently meets its customers’ changing needs and improves. New organizations sprout up, and they are decentralized to provide new lifecycle opportunities. For a growing organization even the latest quality manual is outdated .

12. Declining Organization
Stability : Instead of getting what it wants, the organization wants what it gets. Members welcome new ideas but without the excitement in the growing stages . The financial people begin to impose controls for short - term results. The emphasis on marketing and R & D wanes.

13. Declining Organization
Aristocracy: Not making waves becomes a way of life. Outward signs of respectability i.e. office decoration, dress and titles take an enormous importance. The organization acquires companies instead of starting them . Recrimination: The company witch - hunts to find out who did something wrong rather than trying to discover what went wrong and how to correct it. Cost reduction takes precedence over efforts to increase revenues . Backstabbing and infighting rule.

14. Declining Organization
Bureaucracy: There are systems for everything. Employees play by book. Time is forgotten. The numbers are more important than the quality. The organization is the world in itself. The organization survives in an overly regulated environment .

15. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thank You.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Marketing Mix 4P’s of Marketing

PPT On Marketing Mix 4P’s of Marketing

Presentation Transcript:

1.Marketing Mix :
 4 P’s of Marketing

2.Developing the Marketing Mix
Marketing mix involves creating a combination of product, price, promotion, and distribution, to the greatest extent possible, in order to match the needs of customers in the chosen target market segment(s)
The marketing manager evaluates all strategy options in light of the firm's mission, goals and objectives, strengths and weaknesses, and opportunities and threats to craft a marketing strategy that produces the best overall strategic fit.
A good fit allows the firm to make the most of the potential capabilities that the internal and external environment combination provides.
The best marketing strategy will be differentially advantageous, sustainable, timely, feasible, and affordable.

The product is at the core of the marketing strategy.
Products refer to more than tangible goods and are usually some combination of goods, services, ideas, and even people.
Products in and of themselves are of little value.
The real value a product provides is derived from its ability to deliver benefits that enhance the buyer's situation.
From a customers point of view the product has three levels – Basic, Enhanced and Augmented.
Organizations that keep their sights set on developing products, systems, and processes that identify and meet needs of the target market are more likely to be successful.

4.Marketing Strategy Options Related to the Newness of Products
Innovation involves the firm in a pioneering effort; innovations of this type can even result in new product categories.
New product lines allow a firm to enter new markets with a new group of closely related product items that are considered a unit based on technical, or end-use, considerations.
Product line decisions –
Line Stretching Decision
Line Filling Decision
Line Pruning Decision
Improvements or changes in existing products offer customers improved performance or greater perceived value; this option also includes changes to make an existing product "new and improved."
Repositioning involves the modification of existing products (either real or through promotion) so that they can be targeted at new markets or segments.
Cost reductions involve modified products that offer similar performance at a lower price.

5.Life Cycle: Development Stage
A firm has no sales revenue during this stage.
The firm experiences a net cash outflow due to the expenses of product invention and development.
Although marketing activities do not typically occur in this stage, planning efforts at this point can greatly influence marketing activities in later stages of the life cycle.
In creating a new product or product line, a group of closely related product items is desired because of the scale economies that are created, along with increased efficiency in operations and marketing.
The development stage usually begins with a product concept and ends with the commercialization of the product.

6.New Product Development  
New Product Development involves –
Idea Generation
Idea Screening
Concept Development and testing
Marketing Strategy Development
Business Analysis
Product Development
Test Marketing

7.Development: Components of Product Concept
An understanding of the specific uses and benefits that target customers seek in a new product.
A description of the product, including its potential uses and benefits.
The potential for creating a complete product line that can produce synergies in sales and income and place the firm in a strong market position.
An analysis of the feasibility of the product concept, including such issues as anticipated sales, required return on investment, time of market introduction, length of time to repay investment, etc.

8.Life Cycle: Introduction Stage
The introduction stage begins when development is complete and ends when sales indicate that target customers are widely accepting the product.
The marketing strategy devised during the development stage should be fully implemented during the introduction stage, and should relate to issues that arose during the SWOT analysis.
Good promotion and distribution are essential to make customers aware that the new product is available, how to use it, and where to purchase it.
After the product is introduced, the marketing manager should employ the firm's marketing information system to determine market share, revenues, store placement/channel support, costs, and rate of product usage to assess whether the new product is paying back the firm's investment.

9.Introduction: Marketing Strategy Goals
Attract customers by raising awareness of and interest in the product through advertising, public relations, and publicity efforts that stress key product features and benefits.
Induce customers to try and buy the product through the use of various sales tools and pricing activities.
Strengthen or expand channel relationships to gain sufficient product distribution to make the product accessible for target consumers/customers.
Build on the availability and visibility of the product through trade promotion activities.
Engage in customer education activities that teach target market members how to use the new product and convince them to repurchase the product.

10. For More Info Please Refer Our PPT.
Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Right To Information Act

PPT On Right To Information Act

Presentation Transcript:
1. Right to information act
As a tool to improve Transparency in public affairs

RTI stands for "Right to Information". Right to Information is a fundamental right that every citizen has. The Act extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. [S.(12)] Under the provisions of the Act, any citizen (excluding the citizens within J&K) may request information from a "public authority"

3. History of RTI Act, 2005 
Information disclosure in India was previously restricted by the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act now relaxes. It was passed on 15th June 2005 by the Parliament of India and came fully into force on 12 October 2005. The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir - which is covered under a State-level law.

 4. What does Right to Information mean?
It includes the right to - Take notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records. Obtain information in form of printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts. Inspect works, documents, records Take certified samples of material.

 Simply because if you go into a Govt. office and demand that they tell you why your work has not been done, they will not entertain you or might even throw you out. If it’s a law, Then it becomes harder to do this. If they do not give you the information you want, they ill have broken a law and can be punished for it.

Transparency & Accountability in the working of every public authority The duty of Govt. to pro-actively make available key information to all (Sec 4). A responsibility on all sections: citizenry, NGOs, media. The right of any citizen of India to request access to information and the corresponding duty of Govt. to meet the request, except the exempted information (Sec. 8/9).

7. What Does Information mean?
Any material held in any form including :- Records Documents Memos Opinions & advices Press releases Circulars, orders & logbooks Contracts Reports, papers samples & models

8. What does a "public authority" mean?
It means any authority or body or institution of self-government established or constituted: [S.2(h)] by or under the Constitution; by any other law made by Parliament; by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government. and includes any- body owned, controlled or substantially financed non-Government organization substantially financed  directly or indirectly by the appropriate Government.

9. What is not open to disclosure?
The following information is exempted from disclosure (S.8) Which would prejudicially affect the independence and integrity of India. Security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State. Relation with foreign State. Lead to incitement of an offence. Information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party

10. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thank You.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Google Nexus One

PPT On Google Nexus One

Presentation Transcript:
1. Google Nexus One

2. I’ll Google that…
Android OS SeAndroid 4.0 Android 4.0, Ice Cream Sandwich brings an entirely new look and feel to Android. The lock screen, widgets, notifications, multi-tasking and everything in between has been rethought and refined to make Android simple, beautiful, and beyond smart. Nexus YouTube Channel arch Engine Maps, reviews, and more! And now…

3. Android 4.0
Android 4.0, Ice Cream Sandwich brings an entirely new look and feel to Android. The lock screen, widgets, notifications, multi-tasking and everything in between has been rethought and refined to make Android simple, beautiful, and beyond smart.

4. Android Beam
Android Beam With Galaxy Nexus you can now easily share contacts, websites, apps, maps, directions and YouTube videos to other people close by. Simply hold two NFC enabled Android phones close to each other and touch to beam and share. An interesting shift in the wireless market

5. Face Unlock
With Face Unlock on Galaxy Nexus you can now unlock your phone with a smile. No complicated passwords to remember, just switch on your phone and look into the camera to quickly unlock your phone.

6. Voice typing
Watch text instantly appear as you speak with voice input. Touch the microphone on the keyboard and use your voice to instantly type your emails, SMS, or anywhere you want to enter text.

7. Single-Motion Panoramic Camera
With Galaxy Nexus you get a high-end camera with zero shutter-lag, automatic focus, top notch low-light performance and a simple, intuitive way to take panoramic pictures. No stitching needed. Take amazing photos or 1080p videos, edit and then share them right from your phone.

 8. Vibrant high-definition display
Galaxy Nexus is the world's first phone with a 4.65" high-definition sAMOLED display making text, videos & games look crisp, vibrant and rich. With an edge-to-edge 720p screen high-definition, videos look amazing and the unique Contour Display curves nicely to the shape of your face and makes it easier to hold.

9. Threats Phone companies Carrier contracts Potential failure

10. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Mesothelioma Treatment Options

PPT On Mesothelioma Treatment Options

Presentation Transcript:
1. Mesothelioma Treatments

2. Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma is a rare lung cancer that begins in the mesothelium. The mesothelium is made up of mesothelial cells which line the chest and abdominal cavities as well as the cavity around the heart. The mesotheium also produces a lubricating fluid that allows the organs to move easily.

3. Mesothelioma - aetiology
Asbestos n u All varieties u 62-85% patients asbestos exposure u Dose response u Latent period decades U Reports well documented by 1960 f Lethal Work, Johnston & McIvor

4. About the cancer
Mesothelioma is most often a cancer associated with large amounts of exposure to asbestos. This cancer affects about 2,000 to 3,000 Americans every year. Tumors found in the mesothelioma can be both benign or malignant. Malignant tumors are often called malignant mesothelioma or just mesothelioma.

5. Mesothelioma - investigation
CT thorax and abdomen Biopsy
CT guided Thoracoscopic aspiration

 6. Types of Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma can be divided into three different types. Epithelioid- which has the best prognosis out of the three types. Sarcomatoid- which has about a 7 – 20% survival rate. Mixed/biphasic- which has about a 20 –35% survival rate. Since symptoms of mesothelioma, which can include pain in the lower back and shortness of breath, are often mistaken for other problems, mesothelioma is most frequently not diagnosed until it is in an advanced stage.

7. Treatments
Treatment options for all three types of mesothelioma are the same. Until recently there was no effective treatment for mesothelioma. A new drug, Alimta, was recently approved by the FDA.

8. Alimta
In a clinical study of 448 patients Alimta was successful in increasing survival time of patients by approximately 30%. Alimta is administered in one ten minute infusion every three weeks. It has also shown great results in conjunction with cisplatin, a standard chemotherapy drug.

 9. Side Effects
Alimta has also improved lung function in many patients. Side effect include low white blood cell counts, vomiting, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and rash. However, taking folic acid and the vitamin B12 helps reduce the intensity of side effects.

10. Surgery
Surgical removal is possible in some cases but in many cases removal of the tumor alone is not enough. There are also many cases in which surgery is not an option.

11. Prognosis
Mesothelioma patients prognosis in large part depends on which type of mesthelioma they have. With the new drug Alimta and chemotherapy, as well as surgery mesothelioma patients are beginning to live longer than they could have hoped for in the past.

12. Thank You

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Breast Cancer

PPT On Breast Cancer


Presentation Transcript:
1. Breast Cancer

2. Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths in American women One out of every seven women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in 2007 Fortunately, radical mastectomy (surgical removal) is rarely needed today with better treatment options

3. Breast Cancer
Every three minutes, a woman in the United States is diagnosed with breast cancer.
Every twelve minutes a woman dies from breast cancer.
This year, approximately 182,800 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Approximately 40,800 women will die from breast cancer.
No one dies of cancer in the breast, only of cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

4. Outline
Female Breast Anatomy
Breast Cancer Mammography
Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

5. Female Breast Anatomy
Breasts consist mainly of fatty tissue interspersed with connective tissue There are also less conspicuous parts lobes ducts lymph nodes

6. Breast Gland
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes) arranged like the petals of daisy Inside each lobe are many smaller structures called lobules At the end of each lobule are tiny sacs (bulbs) that can produce milk

7. Blood Vessels
Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining nourishment are delivered to breast tissue by the blood in the arteries and capillaries.

8. Lymphatic System
Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that carries white blood cells (that fight disease) from the breast tissues into lymph nodes under the armpit and behind the breastbone Lymph nodes: Filter harmful bacteria and play a key role in fighting off infection

9. Noncancerous Conditions (1)
Fibrocystic changes: Lumpiness, thickening and swelling, often associated with a woman’s period Cysts: Fluid-filled lumps can range from very tiny to about the size of an egg Fibroadenomas: A solid, round, rubbery lump that moves under skin when touched, occuring most in young women Infections: The breast will likely be red, warm, tender and lumpy Trauma: a blow to the breast or a bruise can cause a lump

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Monday, July 9, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On NASA's new Mars picture

PPT On NASA's new Mars picture

Presentation Transcript:
1. NASA's amazing new view of Mars

2. A full-circle scene combining 817 images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The US space agency NASA is calling it the "next best thing to being" on the Red Planet.

3. In this undated image provided by NASA, Mars Rover Opportunity catches its own late-afternoon shadow in a view eastward across Endeavour Crater on Mars. The rover used a panoramic camera between about 4:30 and 5:00 p.m. local Mars time to record images taken through different filters and combined into this mosaic view. Most of the component images were recorded during the 2,888th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars, which corresponds to March 9, 2012 on Earth. The view is presented in false color to make some differences between materials easier to see, such as the dark sandy ripples and dunes on the crater's distant floor. Opportunity has been studying the western rim of Endeavour Crater since arriving there in August 2011.

4. This image provided by NASA on Thursday, April 26, 2012 shows lava flows in the shape of coils located near the equatorial region of Mars. Analyzing high-resolution images of the region, researchers have determined the area was sculpted by volcanic activity in the recent geologic past. This is the first time such geologic features have been discovered outside of Earth.

5. A Martian dust devil roughly 12 miles (20 kilometers) high was captured winding its way along the Amazonis Planitia region of northern Mars on March 14, 2012 by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

6. This image mosaic taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera shows a new slice of martian real estate southwest of the rover's landing site. The landscape shows little variation in local topography, though a narrow peak only seven to eight kilometres away is visible on the horizon. A circular depression, similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow, can be seen in the foreground. Compared to the Viking and Pathfinder landing sites, the terrain at Gusev Crater, Spirit's landing site, is flat and speckled with a sparse array of rocks. The picture was released by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California Janaury 10, 2004.

7. A view of Eberswalde crater containing a rare case of a martian delta, with well preserved channels which fed the lake in the crater, located in the southern highlands of Mars, seen in this handout photograph acquired by Mars Express at approximately 25S / 326E during orbit 7208 on August 15, 2009 and released September 2, 2011. The delta deposits and channels together provide a clear indication of liquid surface water during the early history of Mars.

8. A close-up of the sunset on Sol 24 as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder was released by the Jet Propulsion Labratory August 27. The red sky in the background and the blue around the Sun are approximately as they would appear to the human eye but the color of the Sun itself is not correct -- the Sun was overexposed in each of the 3 color images that were used to make the picture. The true color of the Sun itself may be near white or slightly bluish.

9. Mars' Victoria Crater at Meridiani Planum is seen in this image taken by NASA's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera in this picture released October 6, 2006. NASA officials gave conflicting views during a meeting of space scientists on December 13, 2006, on whether the construction of a moon base will mark a great leap in planning for a manned mission to Mars or prove a wasteful diversion of funds.

10. A portion of the west rim of Endeavour crater sweeps southward in this color view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity released by NASA August 10, 2011. This crater has a diameter of about 14 miles (22 km). This view combines exposures taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) of the rover's work on Mars August 6, 2011. Opportunity arrived at the rim during its next drive on August 9, 2011. Endeavour crater has been the rover team's destination for Opportunity since the rover finished exploring Victoria crater in August 2008. Endeavour offers access to older geological deposits than any Opportunity has seen before. The lighter-toned rocks closer to the rover in this view are similar to the rocks Opportunity has driven over for most of the mission. However, the darker-toned and rougher rocks just beyond that might be a different type for Opportunity to investigate. The ground in the foreground is covered with iron-rich spherules, nicknamed "blueberries," which Opportunity has observed frequently since the first days after landing. They are about 0.2 inch (5 millimeters) or more in diameter.

11. A handout of the European Space Agency ESA shows a visualisation of Mars, created from spacecraft imagery. ESA's first mission to the Red Planet is Mars Express. It comprises an orbiter carrying seven scientific instruments to probe the planet's atmosphere, structure and geology, including a search for evidence of hidden water. The main spacecraft will also release the UK's small Beagle 2 lander to gather and test rock and soil samples on the surface. British space probe Beagle 2 failed to broadcast a signal on December 25, 2003, to confirm it had landed on Mars, but scientists said they were waiting for a second contact opportunity later on Thursday.

12. In this image released January 19, 2005, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity": has found an iron meteorite on Mars, the first meteorite of any type ever identified on another planet. The pitted, basketball-size object is mostly made of iron and nickel. This composite combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer (red), 530-nanometer (green), and 480-nanometer (blue)

13. Thank You

Sunday, July 8, 2012



Presentation Transcript:

2. For text books :
 pls. refer Syllabus Suggested readings : A course in Electronic and electrical measurements and Instrumentation by J.B. Gupta A course in Electrical and electronic Measurements and Instrumentation by A.K. Sawhney

3. Electronics:
deals with motion of electrons

4. Measurement :
man uses his imaginative skills to identify a physical phenomena Developed & utilized a means to understand this.

5. To measure = to determine the magnitude or extent or degree of the condition of system in terms of some standard. All measuring systems- based on laws of nature. Eg. Venturimeter- flow measurement – Bernoulli's theorem

6. Meter :
instrument used to indicate or record measured value Measurand : variable under measurement Metrology : science dealing with precise and accurate measurements

7. Instrument :
tool or equipment for Sensing Detecting Measuring Recording Controlling Communicating measurand Can be manual or automatic

8. Instrumentation
Deals with Science and technology of measurement of large no. of variables Uses principles in physics , chemistry & Appld. Science(Engg),Electrical. Electronics, Mech,computer, commn. etc. I.e., parameters measured need to be txd, stored, may be processed (for control applns.)

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Saturday, July 7, 2012



Presentation Transcript:

2. What is stress ?
Stress can be defind as any change in environmental condition that reduce the plant growth.

3. Types of stress
Biotic stress- The stress in plant is caused by any living ;disease causing organism, is called abiotic stress. Abiotic stress- The stress in plant is caused by non living factors, is called abiotic stress.

4. Salinity stress
Salinity is defind as the occurrence various concentration of salts in soil or water that may interfere the normal growth of the plant. Presence of salts in lower concentration results in relatively lower growth rate, however presence in higher amounts may result in complete death of the plant. The problem of salinity is present in the high temperature area ( arid and semi arid region).

5. Benefits of abiotic factors
Stress as a positive point in plant’s life , it is a situation where abiotic stress plays a constructive role in ecosystem. Stress resistance mechanism can be grouped into two general categories- Avoidance mechanism Tolerance mechanism

In the desert area of Rajasthan, the two major environmental factors that currently reduce the plant growth that are drought and salinity. So our aim was to study the influence of salinity on germination and growth of Subabul seeds (Leucaena leucocephala ) and onion bulb (Aillum cepa) at the different concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl).

7. Plant material
Seeds of subabul (Leucaena leucocephala ) Root tips of onion bulb (Aillum cepa)

8. Morphological parameters
In the morphological parameters, we analyzed the morphological growth of subabul seeds under different salt concentration. SEED GERMINATION ROOT SHOOT LENGTH

9. Biochemical parameters
In the biochemical parameters, analyzed the protein estimation using Bradford’s dye binding method. The Bradford method is a colorimetric protein binding assay, it is based on absorbance in the dye commassie brillent blue G- 250 (CBBG- 250). In this method, the commassie dye is previously in red color but when it binds to protein it changes its color to blue.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Recombinant DNA

PPT On Recombinant DNA

Presentation Transcript:
1. Recombinant DNA

2. What is recombinant DNA?
Recombinant DNA is an artificial strand of DNA created by combining DNA segments from two or more sources. It is the basis for all sorts of genetic engineering.

3. Uses of recombinant DNA
Genetically modified crops (Roundup Ready)‏ Genetically modified animals for research (Oncomouse)‏ Genetically modified micro-organisms to produce pharmaceuticals (insulin)‏ Gene therapy (Cystic Fibrosis)‏ To isolate and study a particular gene (subcloning)‏ Creating transgenic organisms or chimeras.

4. In vitro recombination A restriction enzyme “cuts” both DNA strands. The cut creates single-stranded sections known as the “sticky ends.” If cut with the same enzyme, they are complimentary. Complimentary sticky ends pair with each other. DNA ligase “seals” the two strands together, forming one strand of DNA. Once created, the recombinant DNA must be replicated either in vitro through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or inside various cells.

5. Marker genes
A marker gene, which produces a distinctive phenotype is added to the genome. It is necessary to identify recombinant organisms from unaffected organisms. For example, the gene for ampicillin resistance (an antibiotic) is often added to the bacterial genome. When the culture is treated with ampicillin, only the recombinant bacteria remain. Other marker genes, usually for eukaryotes, include fluorescence (a gene from jellyfish).

6. Transformation methods
Microinjection: a needle directly injects the DNA into nuclei of embryonic cells. Particle bombardment: tiny gold or tungesten particles are coated w/ DNA and shot into cells. Administered with a gene gun. Electroporation: cells are shocked, creating holes in membrane for DNA to enter. Transformation is the process of a cell altering its genome by uptake of foreign DNA. Recombinant DNA must be inserted into host organism to be of use.

7. Cloning Vectors
The recombinant DNA sequence can also be introduced into the host by a vector. For bacteria: Plasmids—round extra-chromosomal self-replicating DNA Bacteriophages—viruses that infect bacteria The most efficient vectors for uptake of DNA into eukaryotes are viruses: Retroviruses—single RNA strand infects by reverse transcription, where RNA is transcribed into DNA. Adenoviruses—able to infect most cells with no toxic effects. Parvoviruses—suppresses cancer genes; used for gene therapy against tumors. Herpesviruses—able to infect many types of cells, including neurons. Poxviruses—triggers strong immune response. Used against tumors for cancer gene therapy.

8. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thank You.

Friday, July 6, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Biofilms and Quorum Sensing

PPT On Biofilms and Quorum Sensing

Presentation Transcript:
1. Biofilms and Quorum Sensing

2. Biofilms
Biofilms are organised microbial systems consisting of cells associated with surfaces - Likely the most wide-spread mode of growth for bacteria in nature

3. Biofilms In the natural world most bacteria aggregate as biofilms -
they form when bacteria adhere to surfaces in aqueous environments and begin to excrete a polysaccharide that can anchor them to all kinds of material. The biofilm is held together and protected by the polysaccharide matrix. This matrix protects the cells within it and facilitates communication among them through biochemical signals. Bacteria living in a biofilm usually have significantly different properties from free-floating bacteria of the same species, as the dense and protected environment of the film allows them to cooperate and interact in various ways.

4. Biofilms
A biofilm can be formed by a single bacterial species, but more often biofilms consist of many species of bacteria, as well as fungi, algae, protozoa, debris and corrosion products. Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a variety of detrimental or beneficial reactions (by human standards), depending on the surrounding environmental conditions.

 5. Advantages for Bacteria
♦ Creation of habitable niches
♦ Protection against: - Physical forces (e.g. in flowing systems) - Phagocytosis by immune cells - Grazers (e.g. ciliates, amoeba) - Viruses
♦ Barrier against toxic substances
♦ Facilitates intercellular communication
♦ Close proximity of cells enables genetic exchange

6. Disadvantages for mankind:
♦ Immune system can not attack biofilms
♦ Antibiotics/antimicrobial agents fail
♦ Slow the flow of liquids or clog pipelines
♦ Accelerate corrosion of pipelines
♦ Risk for drinking water supply via pipes

7. Effects of Biofilms
Microbial biofilms on surfaces result in billions of dollars in losses yearly due to equipment damage, product contamination, energy losses and medical infections. Conventional methods of killing bacteria (such as antibiotics, and disinfection) are often ineffective with biofilm bacteria. The huge doses of antimicrobials required to rid systems of biofilm bacteria are environmentally undesirable  and medically impractical. Conversely, microbial processes at surfaces also offer opportunities for positive industrial and environmental effects, such as bioremediating hazardous waste sites, biofiltering industrial water, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. 

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PowerPoint Presentation On Plants in response to stress

PPT On Plants in response to stress

Presentation Transcript:
1. Plants in response to stress

2. introduction
Stress is any change in environmental conditions. External conditions that adversely affect growth, development, or productivity. Stresses trigger a wide range of plant responses: altered gene expression cellular metabolism changes in growth rates and crop yields

3. Types of stress Biotic
- imposed by other organisms. Abiotic - arising from an excess or deficit in the physical or chemical environment. Biotic and abiotic stresses can reduce average plant productivity by 65% to 87%, depending on the crop. Resistance or sensitivity of plants to stress depends on: the species the genotype development age

4. Environmental conditions
 that can cause stress water-logging Drought high or low temperatures excessive soil salinity inadequate mineral in the soil too much or too little light

5. Stress resistance mechanisms
 Avoidance mechanisms prevents exposure to stress Tolerance mechanisms permit the plant to withstand stress Acclimation alter their physiology in response stress

6. Leucaena leucocephala
Tropical leguminous tree. Grows better in soil having basic pH . Used in wood production, soil improvement, reforestration, for fodder purposes. Tolerant to salinity and non-tolerant to water logging. Known to be significantly affected in response to external salt content( NaCl).

7. For More Info Please Refer Our PPT.
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PowerPoint Presentation On Control of Microbial Growth

PPT On Control of Microbial Growth

Presentation Transcript:
1. Control of Microbial Growth

2. Control of Microbial Growth:
Introduction Early civilizations practiced salting, smoking, pickling, drying, and exposure of food and clothing to sunlight to control microbial growth. Use of spices in cooking was to mask taste of spoiled food. Some spices prevented spoilage. In mid 1800s Semmelweiss and Lister helped developed aseptic techniques to prevent contamination of surgical wounds. Before then: Nosocomial infections caused death in 10% of surgeries. Up to 25% mothers delivering in hospitals died due to infection

3. Control of Microbial Growth:
Definitions Sterilization: Killing or removing all forms of microbial life (including endospores) in a material or an object. Heating is the most commonly used method of sterilization. Commercial Sterilization: Heat treatment that kills endospores of Clostridium botulinum the causative agent of botulism, in canned food. Does not kill endospores of thermophiles, which are not pathogens and may grow at temperatures above 45oC.

 4. Control of Microbial Growth:
Definitions Disinfection: Reducing the number of pathogenic microorganisms to the point where they no longer cause diseases. Usually involves the removal of vegetative or non-endospore forming pathogens. May use physical or chemical methods. Disinfectant: Applied to inanimate objects. Antiseptic: Applied to living tissue (antisepsis). Degerming: Mechanical removal of most microbes in a limited area. Example: Alcohol swab on skin. Sanitization: Use of chemical agent on food-handling equipment to meet public health standards and minimize chances of disease transmission. E.g: Hot soap & water.

5. Control of Microbial Growth:
Definitions Sepsis: Comes from Greek for decay or putrid. Indicates bacterial contamination. Asepsis: Absence of significant contamination. Aseptic techniques are used to prevent contamination of surgical instruments, medical personnel, and the patient during surgery. Aseptic techniques are also used to prevent bacterial contamination in food industry.

6. Control of Microbial Growth:
Definitions Sepsis: Comes from Greek for decay or putrid. Indicates bacterial contamination. Asepsis: Absence of significant contamination. Aseptic techniques are used to prevent contamination of surgical instruments, medical personnel, and the patient during surgery. Aseptic techniques are also used to prevent bacterial contamination in food industry.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Pedigree Analysis

PPT On Pedigree Analysis


Presentation Transcript:
1. Pedigree Analysis

2. Why do Pedigrees?
Punnett squares and chi-square tests work well for organisms that have large numbers of offspring and controlled matings, but humans are quite different: 1. small families. Even large human families have 20 or fewer children. 2. Uncontrolled matings, often with heterozygotes. 3. Failure to truthfully identify parentage.

3. Goals of Pedigree Analysis
1. Determine the mode of inheritance: dominant, recessive, partial dominance, sex-linked, autosomal, mitochondrial, maternal effect. 2. Determine the probability of an affected offspring for a given cross.

4. Y-Linked Inheritance
We will now look at how various kinds of traits are inherited from a pedigree point of view. Traits on the Y chromosome are only found in males, never in females. The father’s traits are passed to all sons. Dominance is irrelevant: there is only 1 copy of each Y-linked gene (hemizygous).

5. Mitochondrial Genes
Mitochondria are only inherited from the mother. If a female has a mitochondrial trait, all of her offspring inherit it. If a male has a mitochondrial trait, none of his offspring inherit it. Note that only 1 allele is present in each individual, so dominance is not an issue.

6. Outsider Rules
In any pedigree there are people whose parents are unknown. These people are called “outsiders”, and we need to make some assumptions about their genotypes. Sometimes the assumptions are proved wrong when the outsiders have children. Also, a given problem might specify the genotype of an outsider. Outsider rule for dominant pedigrees: affected outsiders are assumed to be heterozygotes. Outsider rule for recessive pedigrees: unaffected (normal) outsiders are assumed to be homozygotes. Both of these rules are derived from the observation that mutant alleles are rare.

7. Maternal Effect Genes
The maternal effect rule: “Mother’s genotype determines offspring’s phenotype.” Assume that the trait is recessive, in a complete dominance situation. Also assume all “outsiders” (people with unknown parents) are homozygous for the allele they are expressing : the dominant allele if they are unaffected, and the recessive allele if they are affected.

 8. Sex-Influenced Trait
Assume that the trait is dominant in males but recessive in females. Assume all outsiders are homozygotes. Thus: DD is always affected dd is always normal Dd is affected in males, but normal in females

9. Sex-Limited Trait
There are several possibilities for dominance, but for this problem assume the trait is dominant but only expressed in males. Affected outsider males are heterozygous; unaffected males are homozygous normal Assume that outsider females are homozygous normal.

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Thursday, July 5, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On INDIA



Presentation Transcript:
1. INDIA Mera Bharath Mahaan

2. The subcontinent of India lies in south Asia, between Pakistan, China and Nepal. To the north it is bordered by the world's highest mountain chain, where foothill valleys cover the northernmost of the country's 26 states. Further south, plateaus, tropical rain forests and sandy deserts are bordered by palm fringed beaches .

3. 5,000 year old civilization
    325 languages spoken
    – 1,652 dialects
   18 official languages
   29 states, 5 union territories
  3.28 million sq. kilometers
  - Area 7,516 kilometers
  - Coastline 1,000,000,000 people in 2000

India's history goes back to 3,200 BC when Hinduism was first founded. Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism. Judaism. Zoroashtrianism, Christianity and Islam all exist within the country today.

5. THE TRINITY Generates-Brahma Observes-Vishnu Destroys-Shiva

6. Indus Valley Civilization- one of the world’s first great urban civilizations. Harappa Civilization- 2700BC

7. World’s first university in Takshila –700 B.C Ayurveda- earliest school of medicine known to humans Sanskrit Language –most suitable for computer software

8. India is,the cradle of the human race,the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history,the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition.Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. -Mark Twain We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. -Albert Einstein

9. Jai Hind Thanks.



Presentation Transcript: 

 2. Nitrogen Fixation-
Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beigerinck. Natural processes fix about 190×1012 g yr-1 of nitrogen through the following processes-

3. Types of nitrogen fixation
Lightning 2.Photochemical Reaction 3.Industrial Nitrogen Fixation

4.Biological Nitrogen Fixation

5. Types of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation- In symbiotic nitrogen fixation the plant and bacteria depend on each other. Rates of nitrogen fixation are highly variable and are dependent on the bacterial strain-legume cultivar used, soil and other environmental conditions. 100kg of nitrogen are reported to be derived from symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

 6. Continue………………
The highest amount of nitrogen fixed by the legumes takes place either the flowering stage or during pod fill stage. Legume symbioses- eg- rhizobium species Associations with Frankia- Frankia is a group termed Actinomycetes-filamentous bacteria that are noted for their production of air-borne spores. They form nitrogen fixing root nodules with several woody,sea buckthorn. Cyanobacterial associations-The photosynthetic cyanobacteria often live as free-living organisms in pioneer habitats such as desert soils or as symbionts with lichens in other pioneer habitats.they form nitrgen fixing nodulation.

7. Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation In nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation the bacteria not associated with plant but they fix nitrogen into the plant. Azotobacter and Azospirillum fix nitrogen into the plant by the nonsymbiotic process. Azospirillum is not only capable of nitrogen fixation but also codes for plant growth hormones auxins and cytokinins. These bacteria are the free living bacteria that fix nitrogen.

8. Mechanism of Nitrogen fixation The biological process of nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme, an enzyme complex containing the nitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase. Nif genes forming a gene cluster of 24 kb nucleotides which are located between the genes encoding for histidine and shikimic acid. The cluster is organized in 7 operons i.e. transcription units (QB AL FM VSUX NE YKDH J). Nif HDKY operon encodes nitrogenase.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

PPT On Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

Presentation Transcript:
1. Molecular diagnostic techniques for identification and characterization of microorganisms

2. In past Indian microbial diversity reached foreign repositories free of cost. Today import of single microbial culture costs Rs 8,000. Excellent research done by Indians. Nevertheless, not even 10% cultures deposited in any gene Bank.

3. Mushrooms reproduce through spores in nature.

4. Mushrooms are invariably stored as mycelial cultures. Fruit body morphology is highly variable and has caused taxonomic chaos. Microscopic characters are homogeneous throughout a given taxon. Insufficient to designate a taxon up to species level.

 5. Recent DNA fingerprinting techniques were employed for molecular identification and strain differentiation. Recently direct sequencing of conserved genes: 28S, 18S, 5.8S rDNA are being used for molecular identification up to species level. Instead of depositing the cultures now gene sequences are deposited in world data bases for claiming authenticity of an organism.

 6. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thanks.
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