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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

PPT On Linear Equations

Presentation On Linear Equations

Linear Equations Presentation Transcript:

2.Solve linear equations
Solve quadratic equations by factoring, quadratic formula or completing the square
Use discriminant to study the nature of the roots
Other types of equation

The most basic equation in algebra is the linear equation, defined in the next chart, where a and b denote real numbers.

4.Solve the equation


To find the solution of the quadratic equations, the following methods can be used
By factoring
By completing the squares
By quadratic formula

To use the method of factoring, it is essential that only the number 0 appear on one side of the equation. Thus, we proceed as follows:

7.A Special Quadratic Equation

8.Example 3
Solve the equations:
(a)         (b)

9.Completing the square
To complete the square for         :

10.Solve the quadratic equation by completing the squares

11.None of you can be a perfected believer so long as you do not wish for your brother what you wish for yourself.
     The Prophet Mohammed (may God bless him and grant him peace)

12.Quadratic Formula

The number under the radical sign in the quadratic formula is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation.
The discriminant can be used to determine the nature of the roots of the equation, as in the following chart:

14.Example 5 (2 unequal real roots )
Solve the equation by using quadratic formula

15.Example 5 (2 equal real roots )

PPT On 3D Technology

Presentation On 3D Technology

3D Technology Presentation Transcript:

CG Workflow
Tools & Techniques
CG Industry
Pre-requisites & Resources
Professional Education
3Ds MAX Foundations Course


4.WHAT IS 3D ?
With 3d space, the virtual canvas in which you create 3d objects, you have a simulation of space that is divided into three axes, X,Y, & Z



BUSINESS  AREAS   Architecture   Commercial/ TV   Engineering   Film   Government   Gaming / Simulation   I.T   Medical   Product Design   Web
INDUSTRY   Film Studios   Games Studios   3D Studios
  VFX Studios
  CG Studios

  Shrek 2                $70 Million         $1.35 Billion
  Finding Nemo             $94 Million         $1.2 Billion
  The Incredibles             $92 Million         $892 Million 
  Monsters Inc             $115 Million         $781 Million
  Shark Tale             $75 Million         $524 Million

3D  SPECIALIZATIONS   Concept Artist   3D Modeler Texture Artist Environment Artist Architecture (Interior / Exterior) Character Artist
 Game Designer VFX Artist Compositor Lighting Specialist Animator




HARDWARE   EXPERT             Rs . 1Lac  – 6Lacs     Processor     Xeon 2x-4x (Quad Core / Extreme / i7 / Opteron)     RAM         8GB – 16 GB (ECC)
    HD        500GB – 1TB (10kRM+)
    VGA        Quadro / FireGL (2x-4x SLI)
    OS        Windows 7/Vista/XP x64
  SUPER EXPERT         Rs . 25Lacs – 80Lacs
    Processor     Xeon 8x-30x (Quad Core / Extreme / i7 / Opteron)     RAM         64GB – 256 GB (ECC)
    HD        1TB + (15kRM+)
    VGA        Quadro / FireGL (8x-16x SLI)
    Display        Dual
    OS        Windows 7/Vista/XP x64


   ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART, UK             RS. 28 LACS 1yr
   FULL SAIL UNIVERSITY, USA                 RS. 30 LACS 1yr
   ESCAPE STUDIOS, UK                 RS. 10 LACS 12wks
   GNOMON SCHOOL, USA                RS. 36 LACS 1yr
   ANIMATION MENTOR (online), USA            RS. 14 LACS 1.5yr

PPT On 4G Technology

Presentation On 4G Technology

4G Technology Presentation Transcript:

4G is the term used to describe the next level of evolution in the field of wireless communication
4G , the fourth generation technology is the mobile or cellular based technology
It is the latest and ultra fast technology
 4G is a step up from 3G, which is currently the most widespread, high-speed wireless service.

3.4G, the successor of 3G, will soon become the standard for cellular wireless
   The technology is currently available in some countries but it is still being perfected

The aim is to achieve “ultra broadband speed” – to be counted in gigabytes per second
4G Technology and its predecessors 3G, 2G and 1G are all from the same family of cellular communication standards, which are verified by the ITU.

The earlier telephone systems, which were the original ones, are now called 1G.
Definition: In the world of cell phones, 1G signifies first-generation wireless analog technology standards
The technologies supported were AMTS, TACS, NMT
1G was introduced as the analog standard for cell phones in the 1980s.

Definition: In the world of cell phones, 2G signifies second-generation wireless digital technology.
2G utilized various digital technologies including CDMA, TDMA  etc.
And used RISC processor 
2G wireless technology replaced 1G and is all digital.

7.Also Known As: second-and-a-half generation cell phone technology
Alternate Spellings: 2.5-G
2.5G wireless technology is a stepping stone that bridged 2G to 3G wireless technology.

8.3G is 3rd generation cell-phone technology
  The first pre-commercial 3G network launched in May 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Japan.
It is fully digital multimedia technology.
It established its roots in late 2000
Third Generation technology now can easily be found all over the world on nearly all standard  technologies CDMA,W-CDMA etc
Extension to higher data rates is difficult due to excessive interference between services.

It is difficult to provide a full range of multirate services, all with different QoS and performance requirements ie, it is not a fully integrated system.

10.As far as mobility is concerned, the speed of data rate decreases when we move from one point to another

  With WCDMA based 3G, as the data speed increases the coverage area of the cell become smaller and smaller. For data rates of 2 Mbps and above, a WCDMA cell can cover only an area of 10 meter radius

11.Why 4G?
The 3G-4G transition  will of course be accompanied by ongoing evolution of already anticipated 3G services, such as:
send/receive e-mail
Internet browsing (information)
on-line transactions (e-business)
location-dependent information
large-file transfer.

12.4G will need to be highly dynamic in terms of support for
The users’ traffic
Less air interferences
Quality-of-service types
Mobility patterns.

Definition: 4G wireless is the term used to describe the fourth-generation of wireless service.
Provides data transfer rates up to 100mbps
For stationery users it aims to the highest speed of 1Gbps
The goal is to have data rates up to 20 Mbps, even when used in such scenarios as a vehicle traveling 200 kilometers per hour.

15.Different wireless phone companies uses different technologies for its 4G network
For ex: Sprint uses WiMAX technology while Verizon wireless uses LTE technology
All these technologies aims to provide highest transfer rate of data
4G wireless technology is 4 to 10 times faster than today’s 3G network

PPT On A Case Study On Olympic Products

Presentation On A Case Study On Olympic Products

A Case Study On Olympic Products Presentation Transcript:
1. A  Case Study On Olympic Products :  Athens 2004

2.Topics Covered  by
Buyer Satisfaction
Purchasing Decision
Promotional  Tools

Over the past years ,sports
marketing has received increased attention from academics & professionals .It is now accepted into the generic framework of marketing of services /products & the environment in which they are produced . Customers buy sports offerings consisting of goods, services , information ,personal attention & other components.

4.The fundamental principles of
the OLYMPIC spirit aims to
Contribute to a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport practiced without discrimination of any kind.
   Olympic licensing programs are targeted to market officially licensed products & merchandise from the Olympic family . Visitors buy and consume Olympic souvenirs & goods with Olympic logos & symbols that remind them of the games and Organizing City.

5.Athens 2004 Olympic products
were more than simple souvenir
products .They bore the Athens 2004   emblem & its characteristics , representing the visual identity of the Athens 2004 Olympic games .They expressed the return of the games to their country of origin & communicate their timeless values.
   Thus the scope of this case study is to analyze the attitude of consumers ,purchasing decision towards Olympic products.

6.Previous sport Marketing
Researches have focused on
different marketing issues like

?Quality Principles
?Values & Satisfaction
?Marketing & Promotion
?Sport consumption
?Globalization effects

7.Despite the aforementioned findings marketing research on the role of product  , price & intended usage situation on Olympic Products seems to have fallen behind . The Beijing organizing committee for the games therefore, has urged consumers to buy Olympic products from licensed  stores .

8. Research  Methodologies                     
It is an Exploratory  Quantitative
  Research conducted during the spring of 2003 , one year before the Athens Olympic games . Data collection is based on a Structured Questionnaire of a sample of 170 people.
The scope of this research is to examine consumer attitude towards Olympic Products , their purchasing behaviors ,the impact of various promotional activities on  their attitude.

9.This study is divided into 3 stages .
The first two stages refers to the collection of data and  the third two statistical analysis .
 Based on the existing literature review & preliminary qualitative research a questionnaire was compiled , which was used in the 1st & 2nd stages .In order to the measure the attitude of Olympic products’ consumers , 5-level Likert scales where used (strongly agree =5,strongly disagree=1)

10.The 2nd stage of data collection was baesd on a structured questionnaire  & refers  to the quantitative market research.
  The 3rd stage involved a series of detailed statistical analysis of data, from which findings emerged & lead to several conclusions.

11.In the research 90 men & 80 women consumers participated, representing 57% & 43% respectively.

12.Of the participants 63% are 18 – 29 yrs of age , while the remaining 27% of are 30 – 50 yrs of age.

13.34% of the participants declaration of income is up to €600 , while 605 declared income above €600 .

14.Out of 170 participants only 49 persons   claimed to have purchased an Olympic product , corresponding to 29% of total sample.

15.Consumer expectations  on  Olympic  products                      


Presentation On ADR And GDR

ADR And GDR Presentation Transcript:
1.What is a Depository Receipt?
A Depositary Receipt (DR) is a type of negotiable (transferable) financial security that is traded on a local stock exchange but represents a security, usually in the form of equity, that is issued by a foreign publicly listed company. The DR, which is a physical certificate, allows investors to hold shares in equity of other countries.
  One of the most common types of DRs is the American Depositary Receipt (ADR), which has been offering companies, investors and traders global investment opportunities since the 1920s.

An American depositary receipt (ADR) is a stock that trades in the United States but represents a specified number of shares in a foreign corporation. ADRs are bought and sold on American markets just like regular stocks, and are issued/sponsored in the U.S. by a bank or brokerage.


4.About ADR
The first ADR was introduced by JPMorgan in 1927, for the British retailer Selfridges Co. The largest depositary bank is the Bank of New York Mellon.
The stock of many non US companies, traded on US exchanges through the use of ADRs.
The shares of the non-US corporation trade on a non-US exchange, while the ADRs trade on a US exchange.

5.Types Of ADR
Unsponserd  Shares
Sponsered  shares
Level  I
Level  II
Level  III
Restricted programs
Regulation S

6.The price of an ADR is often close to the price of the foreign stock in its home market
Depository banks have numerous responsibilities to an ADR holder and to the non-US company the ADR represents

7.Steps Towards ADR
U.S. banks simply purchase a bulk lot of shares from the company.
They bundle the shares into groups, and reissues them on either the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), American Stock Exchange (AMEX) or the Nasdaq. In return, the foreign company must provide detailed financial information to the sponsor bank.
The depositary bank sets the ratio of U.S. ADRs per home-country share. This ratio can be anything less than or greater than 1.

8.Why ADR
ADRs were introduced as a result of the complexities involved in buying shares in foreign countries.
 The difficulties associated with trading at different prices and currency values.
Each ADR represents several real shares


The advantages of ADRs are twofold.
For individuals, ADRs are an easy and cost-effective way to buy shares in a foreign company. They save money by reducing administration costs and avoiding foreign taxes on each transaction.
Foreign entities like ADRs because they get more U.S. exposure, allowing them to tap into the wealthy North American equities markets.

11.Specimen Of ADR

12.Indian ADRs

Global Depository Receipt means any instrument in the form of a depository receipt or certificate created by the overseas depository bank outside India and issued to non- resident investors against the issue of ordinary shares or Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds of issuing company. Among the Indian Companies, Reliance Industries Ltd. was the first company to raise funds through a GDR issue.

14.About GDR
A Global Depository Receipt (GDR) is a certificate issued by a depository bank, which purchases shares of foreign companies and deposits it into the account.
GDRs represent ownership of an underlying number of shares.

15.Global Depository Receipts facilitate trade of shares, and are commonly used to invest in companies from developing or emerging markets .
Prices of GDRs are often close to values of related shares, but they are traded and settled independently of the underlying share.

PPT On Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease

Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease PPT

Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease Presentation Transcript:

2.Alzheimer's disease:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of
the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and
eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and
In US, for every 70 seconds someone develops alzheimer’s and
it is 6 th leading cause of death

Signs of AD are first noticed in the entorhinal cortex, then proceed to the hippocampus.
Affected regions begin to shrink as nerve cells die.
Changes can begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear.
Memory loss is the first sign of AD.

4.AD spreads through the brain. The cerebral cortex begins to shrink as more and more neurons stop working and die.
Mild AD signs can include memory loss, confusion, trouble handling money, poor judgment, mood changes, and increased anxiety.
Moderate AD signs can include increased memory loss and confusion, problems recognizing people, difficulty with language and thoughts, restlessness, agitation, wandering, and repetitive statements.

5.In severe AD, extreme shrinkage occurs in the brain. Patients are completely dependent on others for care.
Symptoms can include weight loss, seizures, skin infections, groaning, moaning, or grunting, increased sleeping, loss of bladder and bowel control.
Death usually occurs from aspiration pneumonia or other infections. Caregivers can turn to a hospice for help and palliative care.

6. Age: Alzheimer's disease increases substantially after the age of 70 and may affect around 50% of persons over the age of 85
The likelihood of developing alzheimer’s disease doubles every
5.5 years from 65-85 years of age

7.Genetic risk factors for
 Alzheimer's  disease
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Coronary artery disease
Possibly elevated blood cholesterol

8.Warning signs:
 Memory loss
 Challenges in planning or solving problems
 Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home,
   at work or at leisure
 Confusion with time or place
 Trouble understanding visual images and spatial

9. New problems with words in speaking or writing
 Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
 Decreased or poor judgment
 Withdrawal from work or social activities
Changes in mood and personality

10. It is shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are better able
to remember new verbal information when it is provided in the context
of music even when compared to healthy, older adults

1. Reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (cholinergic  hypothesis)
2. Initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalized neuro inflammation
3. tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade
4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 has also been proposed to play a causative role in people carrying the susceptible versions of the apoE gene
5. Loss of locus ceruleus cells
6. pro-NGF accumulation

12.7. Oxidative stress caused by free radicals

13.Plaques – deposits of the protein beta-amyloid that accumulate in the spaces
between nerve cells
Tangles – deposits of the protein tau that accumulate inside of nerve cells

14.Major facts:
Smoking after age 65 increases your chances of developing Alzheimer’s by 79%
Obesity in midlife makes you 3 ½ times more likely to experience Alzheimer’s
Diabetes makes you twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s
Genetics account for only 25% of Alzheimer’s cases
Chronic stress may quadruple your risk

Medical history
 Medication history
Mood evaluation
Mental status exam
Complete physical exam
Appropriate laboratory tests
Neurological exam
Imaging procedures 

PPT On Accounting And Finance

Presentation On Accounting And Finance

Accounting And Finance Presentation Transcript:
1.BS Accounting & Finance

Accounting refers to the act of recording, classifying, summarizing and communicating business data.

     A branch of economics concerned with resource allocation as well as  resource management, acquisition and investment. Simply, finance deals with matters related to money and the markets.

4.Bs Accounting & Finance
A Bachelors level degree being offered in few renowned universities of Pakistan.
Proper Accounting and Finance activities act as a key to a business’s success.

5.BS Accounting in FAST-nu
The BS Accounting & Finance program is designed to prepare students to meet the challenges posed by this complex but exciting area that has assumed much greater importance in the wake of the recent financial crisis in the world.

6.BS Accounting in FAST-nu
BS Accounting & Finance at FAST is tailored to first impart a broad-based education in the fundamentals of business and management and then develop the quantitative and analytical skills necessary to become prudent, astute and ethical financial managers.

7.Asking Yourself
It provides an opportunity to learn Accounting & Finance alongside with other social sciences like economics, unlike in other fields of Accounting like ACCA.

8.Why Accounting & Finance?

It prepares an individual to Manage & Control the Financial fluctuations in a company.
No department can work Efficiently without the support from finance department

9.Finance department’s importance

10.The aims of the program
To prepare you for a career in the accountancy and finance sector
To develop your theoretical and practical knowledge of accounting and finance in the context of the global economy
To equip you with the skills required for a complex and changing business environment.

11.My Personal Experience
An A-levels degree in Business subjects
Clear concepts about how businesses work
Interested in Learning more tactics for efficiency in Corporate World

12.Why Fast-nu?
The only well established university offering BS accounting and Finance in Islamabad
The degree of professionalism taught to students.
Level of awareness about Corporate world created by the Institution

13.Career Opportunities After Bs Accounting & finance
Opportunity to excel in Management Accounting
Creating a distinctive personal position in auditing
Budget analysis
Financial Accounting

14.Management Accounting

15.Comparison with other degree programs
BBA offers numerous subjects, diverting the student’s attention to many different areas
Whereas BS accounting & Finance enables one to specialize in one field, and there is more time to focus on the desired field 

PPT On Types of Cancer

Presentation On Types of Cancer

Types of Cancer Presentation Transcript:

2.What is Cancer?
Cancer is a renegade system of growth that originates within the biosystem of a patient, more commonly known as the human body. There are many different types of cancers, but they all share one characteristic: unchecked growth that progresses toward limitless expansion.

Because cancer is so common, people have many questions about the biology, detection, diagnosis, possible causes and strategies for cancer prevention.

3.Different Types of Cancer
Cancer can originate almost anywhere in the body.

Carcinomas, The most common types of cancer, arise from the cells lining the and external surfaces internal the body. The cancers of lung of breast (Breast) and Colon are the cancers frequent.

The sarcomas are cancers that originate in cells that are in the supporting tissues of the body, such as bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue and muscle.

Lymphomas are cancers that originate in the lymph nodes and tissues of the body's immune system.

Leukemias are cancers of immature blood cells that grow in the bone marrow and which have the tendency to accumulate in large quantities into the bloodstream blood.

4.Naming Cancers
Scientists use a variety of technical names to distinguish the many different types of carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas and leukemias. In general, these names are created using different Latin prefixes that correspond to the location where the cancer began its uncontrolled growth. For example, the prefix "osteo" means bone, a cancer that originates in the bone is called an osteosarcoma. Similarly, the prefix "adeno" means gland, which glandular cell cancer is called adenocarcinoma - for example, an adenocarcinoma of the breast.


6.Loss of Normal Growth Control
The cancer is caused by a loss of normal growth control. In normal tissues, the rates of new cell growth and old cell death are kept in balance. In the case of cancer, this balance is disrupted. This alteration may occur as a result of uncontrolled cell growth or the loss of a cell's ability to undergo cell suicide by a process known as "apoptosis". The apoptosis or "cell suicide" is the mechanism by which old or damaged cells normally self-destruct.

7.Example of Normal and Cancerous Growth
The outermost thin layer of normal skin known as the epidermis, has a thickness of about a dozen cells. The cells in the lower row of this layer, known as the basal layer, are divided accurately fast enough to replace cells that are constantly shed from the skin surface. Whenever one of these basal cells divide, produce two cells. One remains in the basal layer and retains the ability to divide. The other migrates outward from the basal layer and lose the ability to divide. The number of cells with the capacity to divide in the basal layer, therefore, remains the same.
 During the development of skin cancer, the normal balance between cell division and cell loss altered. Basal cells divide more rapidly now than it is necessary to replace cells that are shed from the surface of the skin. Whenever one of these basal cells divide, the two newly formed cells will often retain the ability to divide, which leads to an increase in the total number of cells with the capacity to divide.

8.The tumors (neoplasms) The Invasion and Metastasis
This gradual increase in the number of cells with the capacity to split creates a growing tissue mass known as a "tumor" or "neoplasm". If the rate of cell division is relatively quick and there are no signs of "suicide" in place to trigger cell death, the tumor will grow rapidly in size, if cells divide more slowly, tumor growth will be slower. Regardless of the rate of growth, tumors eventually become enlarged because new cells are being produced in larger amounts than necessary. As more and more of these cells with the capacity to accumulate divide the normal tissue organization gradually altered.
Cancers are able to spread throughout the body through two mechanisms: invasion and metastasis. Relates to the invasion and penetration direct migration of cancer cells in the surrounding tissues. Metastasis refers to the ability of cancer cells to penetrate into lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and then invade normal tissues elsewhere in the body. 

9.The malignant and benign tumors and dangerousness 
Depending on whether they can spread or not by invasion and metastasis, tumors are classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors are tumors that can not be spread by invasion or metastasis, and therefore, they only grow locally. Malignant tumors are tumors that are capable of spreading by invasion and metastasis. By definition, the term "cancer" applies only to malignant tumors
A malignant tumor, a "cancer" is a more serious health problem that a benign tumor because cancer cells can spread to distant parts of the body. For example, a melanoma (a cancer of pigmented cells) that originates in the skin may have cells that enter the bloodstream and spread to distant organs, such as liver or brain. Cancer cells in the liver is called metastatic melanoma, not liver cancer. Metastases share the name of the original tumor ("primary"). Melanoma cells growing in the brain or liver can alter the functions of these vital organs and thus jeopardize potentially life

10.Hyperplasia and Dysplasia
Instead of detecting a benign or malignant tumor, microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen detects a condition sometimes called "hyperplasia". Hyperplasia refers to the increase in size of a tissue occurs by excessive cell division rate, which leads to a larger number of cells than normal. However, the cell structure and the orderly arrangement of the cells within the tissue remain normal and hyperplastic process is potentially reversible. Hyperplasia may be a normal reaction to an irritating stimulus tissue. An example of hyperplasia is a callus that has formed in your hand when you first learn to use a tennis racket or a golf club.
 In addition to hyperplasia, microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen can detect other noncancerous condition called "dysplasia". Dysplasia is an abnormal type of excessive cell proliferation characterized by loss of normal tissue arrangement and cell structure. These cells often return to normal, but sometimes gradually become malignant. The areas of dysplasia should be monitored closely by a medical professional because of its potential to become malignant. Sometimes they need treatment.

11.Carcinoma In Situ
The most severe cases of dysplasia are sometimes referred to as "carcinoma in situ". In Latin, the term "in situ" means "in place", so carcinoma on-site refers to an uncontrolled growth of cells that remains on its original site. However, carcinoma on-site can become invasive, metastatic malignancy and, therefore, are generally surgically removed if possible.

12.The Classification and Staging of Tumor
Microscopic examination also provides information about the likely behavior of the tumor and its response to treatment. Cancers with more abnormal appearing cells and numerous cells with the capacity to divide, they tend to grow more quickly, spread to other organs more frequently and be less responsive to therapy than cancers whose cells have a more normal appearance. Based on these differences in microscopic appearance, medical assign a numerical "grade" the majority of cancers. In this classification system, a low grade (grade I or II) refers to cancers with fewer cell abnormalities unlike those with higher numbers (grade III or IV). After cancer is diagnosed, doctors formulated the following three questions to determine how the disease: How large the tumor is and how far it has invaded surrounding tissues?
Do cancer cells have spread to regional lymph nodes?
Is it has spread (metastasized) cancer to other parts of the body?
Based on the answers to these questions, the cancer is assigned a "stage". The probability of survival for the patient is best when the cancer is detected at an earlier stage.

13.Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

14.Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
The detect cancer in its early stage can affect the outcome of the disease of certain cancers. When cancer is found, the doctor will determine what kind it is and how fast it is growing. He or she will also determine if cancer cells have invaded nearby healthy tissue or have spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body. In some cases, early detection of cancer can reduce the risk of a person dying because of cancer. For this reason, the highest priority currently cancer researchers is to improve methods for early detection
Some people visit the doctor only when they feel pain or when they notice changes such as a lump or nodule in the breast or bleeding or unusual discharge. But do not wait until then to be examined (a) because the early stage cancer may not have any symptoms. That is the reason why screening for some cancers are important, particularly as you get older. The detection methods are designed to detect cancer in people without symptoms

15.Review of Cervical Cancer Screening
A detection technique known as the Pap test allows for early detection of cervical cancer (cancer of the cervix or uterus), the narrow portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper vagina. In this procedure, a doctor uses a small brush or wooden scraper to remove a sample of cells from the cervix and upper vagina. The cells are placed on a slide and sent to a laboratory where it uses a microscope for abnormalities. Since the 1930s, early detection through the use of the Pap test has helped reduce the rate of death from cervical cancer (cancer of the cervix or uterus) in more than 75 percent.

May be required if additional evidence come to find abnormalities. Currently there are 13 high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV, by its initials in English) recognized as the leading cause of cervical cancer. The Food and Drug Administration of the USA. has approved an HPV test that can identify its presence in a tissue sample. This test can detect the virus even before there are any conclusive visible changes in cervical cells.

PPT On Hospitality Services

Presentation On Hospitality Services

Hospitality Services Presentation Transcript: 

2.Hospitality Services

3.4-Star & 5-Star Hotel Managers

The biggest mistake that you can make is to believe that you are working for somebody else. Job security is gone. The driving force of a career must come from the individual. Remember: Jobs are owned by the company, you own your career. – Earl Nightingale

5.After careful evaluation of the case, as MHM students we conclude that the organization together with the human resource department and human resource specialists must establish means to give clarity to the underlying issue of promotion to managerial positions in the organization. The organization must create a detailed matrix for promoting employees to managerial positions. Studies have showed that only 44% reported to have performance appraisal process. It is quite surprising that a very few percentage follows guidelines and complies to the needs of the industry focusing on the career advancement of its employees.
When formulating the matrix, human resource specialist must consider not only education, job performance, experience and personality but also other essential criteria’s to determine the candidates worthy for promotion.

What is the most important criteria that influence the promotion of hotel managers?
What other factors are important in promotion decision?
How can these criteria’s be implemented in the promotion of Hotel Managers in Turkey?

1. To understand the factors that influence the promotion of hotel managers in four star and five star hotels in Turkey

2. To identify the most important criteria for promotion

3. To encourage graduates and tourism employees to pursue higher educational degrees for career progression 

8.To investigate the factors predicting the internal promotion decisions to managerial positions
To identify procedures needed in implementing criteria for promotion
To describe the promotion decisions to hotel management positions

9.Areas of Consideration

10.Human Resource Department Functions

11.Alternative Courses of Action
 Let the organization identify the criteria and requirements for promotion

12.Review employee job description and specification

13.Submit employees for performance evaluation

MHM students recommends that the Hotels in Turkey use a :
Create a detailed matrix for promoting employees to managerial positions 

15.Program of Implementation
Performance Evaluation Criteria Matrix (PECM), represents the basis for primary selection of candidates for promotion. Therefore it is important that the organization must carefully review the criteria before attempting to adopt the Performance Evaluation Criteria Matrix (PECM). Implementation of this matrix should be conducted twice a year, before an employee will be regularized. The organization must train the Human Resource Department on the effective utilization of this program.


Presentation On AZERBAIJAN

AZERBAIJAN Presentation Transcript:

A former Soviet republic, Azerbaijan, gained independence from the Soviet rule in the year 1991. However, independence soon saw a series of economic and political upheavals, but the country, which is also the oldest exporter of oil, after the introduction of new economic programs soon found itself on the recovery path.

Flora And Fauna of Azerbaijan     The flora of Azerbaijan is made up of trees like beech, oak, and pine with most tree cover on the mountain slopes and in the southeastern Lankaran Lowland. As far as fauna is concerned, the subalpine forests support a number of mammal species, including bear, deer, lynx, and wild boar. Leopards, though rare, also inhabit the forests. Reptiles, such as lizards and poisonous snakes, thrive in the arid and semiarid lowlands, which constitute the majority of the country's territory. Gazelles, jackals, and hyenas populate the lowlands as well. The Caspian Sea coast provides a mild winter home to populations of pelicans, herons, flamingos, swans, and other migratory birds

4.Economy of Azerbaijan    
As Soviet Union collapsed and Azerbaijan gained independence, the country had to go through severe economic turmoil. To add to the woes, the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict produced around one million refugees. The living conditions of people deteriorated as inflation rose at jet speed. However, the economy began to recover in 1995, with the introduction of new economic programs. All state-owned enterprises were converted to public sectors. In 2001, the GDP touched $5.6 billion. Considering its extensive petroleum reserves, most of the foreign investments are now focused almost exclusively in the petroleum industry.

5.Arts and Crafts Azerbaijan has heavy influence of Persian and Turkish culture and has contributed several notable literary and scientific works during the medieval period. During the Soviet era in Azerbaijan, artists used their skills to express Azerbaijani nationalism. Music has always been important in an Azerbaijani life and the ancient Azerbaijani musical tradition is still kept alive by musicians known as ashugs, who improvise songs while playing a stringed instrument called a kobuz.

6.Tourist destinations:
The Maiden Tower
or also known locally as
Giz Galasi located in
the Old City, Baku in
Azerbaijan is an ancient

7.Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center
The Heydar Aliyev Center was established pursuant to Decree No.1886 signed by Ilham Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, on December 26, 2006.

8.Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Christ the Holy Savior and the Shushi Cathedral, is an Armenian church located in Shusha, Nagorno-Karabakh
Built on a site inhabited since the Palaeolithic period, the Walled City of Baku reveals evidence of Zoroastrian, Sasanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian presence in cultural continuity. The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy) is built over earlier structures dating from the 7th to 6th centuries BC, and the 15th-century Shirvanshahs' Palace is one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture.

9.Absheron National Park
Absheron National Park — is a national park of Azerbaijan and was established on 8 February 2005 by the decree of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, on an area of 783 hectares in the administrative


Kazakhstan, being a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States is a wonderful destination to venture to. The province boasts of wide spread landscapes, spellbinding train rides and eye catching terrains along with wonderful sceneries that is surely going to take your breath away.

12.Flora And Fauna Of Kazakhstan 
The region of Kazakhstan is covered with forest-steppe and coniferous woods from all ends.  There are 515 species of plants, 500 assorted ranges of birds, 178 animals, 49 types of reptiles, 12 amphibians with 107 ranges of fishes.  The rarest animal species residing in Kazakhstan are Transcaspian urial, long-needle hedgehog, wild cats like caracal and desert cat, goitred gazelles, birds like black-tailed sand grouse, Pallas sand grouse, wheatear and larks.  Usturt plateau is famous for wormwood and black saxauls. Tian Shan is known for fur woods where one can catch up with sights like the Tian-Shan brown bear, Siberian ibex, birds like lammergeyer, snow cock, snow vulture, griffon vulture, golden eagle, finches, chough and Alpine chough. Among the taiga woods placed along the Altai mountainous region of Kazakhstan watch out for giant moose, maral, musk deer, chipmunk and many other species.  Birds like the waterfowl, fish hawk, black stork, gull, sea swallow, imperial eagle, falcons and herons rest along this region. One may even catch up with reptiles like the central Asian turtle, toad agama and gecko.

13.People Of Kazakhstan  The population of Kazakhstan is constituted with several ethnic groups mainly:
The Kazakhs, covering about 53% of the inhabitants, while
The Russians covering 30% of the residents.
Several other groups reside within the region of Kazakhstan like the Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Chechens, and Uyghurs - belonging to the Russian authority.

14.Arts, Culture And Music Of KazakhstanArt:
Silk painting emerged within the region as the most attractive art form where painters depicted Kazakh family, their love legends, their yurt, their cultural life, Kazakh women and men along with other aspects relating to the region.

Culture: The Kazak natives dwell within a tent carved out with willow wood and felt which are popularly known as yurt. The local natives resort to animal husbandry and follow a nomadic customary method of living. The guests are treated with great honor and are served with delicacy made of freshly killed lamb.

Kazaks has a formulated ethnicity that is based upon the nomadic rustic culture. Kazakhstan is known to possess musical hubs like the Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra, Kazakh National Opera, Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments, and Kazakh State Chamber Orchestra. Get a rustic musical culture, which shares common similarities with the Uzbek and Kyrgyz folk music where one may come across wandering lyric poet, bards, healers and spiritualist those who are called as akyn within the region. The akyn are known to carry musical instruments like qobuz or dombra along with them.
The other native musical instruments are kylkobyz, sherter, sybyzgy, saszyrnay, shankobyz along with kobizovaia, sibiz-govaia, and dombrovaia. These folk music are based on the prehistoric folklore and spiritual beliefs.
                      Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower



COMMUNICATION Presentation Transcript: 

Transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to some outcome, changed behaviour or changed practice
Formal Communication – established and agreed procedures
Informal Communication – channels not formally recognised – ‘the grapevine’


4.Means of Communication

     -Sign language
         @Visual sign
         @Audio sign
     -Body Language

Downward Communication
  -Personal instructions
  -Social and cultural affairs
Upward Communication
  -Face to face communication
  -Telephone and other devices

6.Horizontal communication
   -Meeting and conferencing
   -Social and other activities
Diagonal Communication
   -Group Discussions
   -Brainstorming exercise
   -Official get together

    -Creative Activity
    -Time factors
    -Fewer cycles

    -Record keeping
    -Acts as exchange material
    -Legal defences
    -Reduces the possibility of misunderstanding

Notice board
Face to face
Body language
Video/video conferencing

9.Choice of Medium affected by:
Need for record
Direction of the information flow
Number of people to be reached
Nature of the information – length, complexity, speed of transfer
Cost of the medium

Barriers to Successful Communication
Ability of the sender – how much the sender understands of the message they are trying to send
Content – including technicalities and jargon
Method of communication – including style and body language where appropriate!
Skills and attitude of the receiver
Organisational factors – complexity of the organisation, scope of the organisation
Cultural attitudes
Perceptions, prejudices and stereotypes
Inappropriate target for the message
Technical capabilities – ICT!

Ideas and message should be clear, brief and precise.
Sense of timing.
Help the receiver.
Proper follow-up.
Comprehensive communication.

12.Overcoming barriers
Feedback and upward communication.
Improve listening skills.
Develop writing skills.
Avoid credibility gaps.

Entrepreneurial - decisions made centrally
Pyramid - staff have a role, shared decision making, specialisation is possible
Matrix - staff with specific skills join project teams, individuals have responsibility
Independent - seen in professions where organisation provides support systems and little else

14.Illustrating Structures 1

15.Illustrating Structures 2


Presentation On CORADMO

CORADMO Presentation Transcript: 
CORADMO(Constructive Rapid Application Development Model )
COCOMO II model extension
Focuses on software development schedules and costs using RAD techniques.

COCOMO II is tuned to modern software life cycles.
COCOMO II is really three different models:
The Application Composition Model
Suitable for projects built with modern GUI-builder tools. Based on new Object Points.
The Early Design Model
This model is used to get rough estimates of a project's cost and duration before you've determined it's entire architecture.
The Post-Architecture Model
This is the most detailed COCOMO II model. It is used after development of the project's overall architecture

Rapid application development (R.A.D) is a software development methodology that uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping.
The "planning" of software developed using RAD is interleaved with writing the software itself.
The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allows software to be written much faster, and makes it easier to change requirements.

4.Need for CORADMO
COCOMO II Schedule shortfalls:
Better suited for software cost experts
Does not easily support cost estimation by analogy
More knowledge is required to use
Requires specification of many parameters
Time-consuming to use

5.Constructive Rapid Application Development Model
schedule (months, M)
personnel (P)
adjusted effort (person-months, PM)
Based on
Effort and schedule distribution to the various phases
Selected schedule driver ratings impacts on the M, P, and PM of each phase.

The Constructive Application Development Model utilizes a new COCOMO II extension that allocates effort and schedule to the stages, which are anchored at points in a development life cycle, namely :
Life Cycle Objectives(LCO),
Life Cycle Architecture(LCA),
Initial Operational Capability(IOC).

7.Physical Model

8.Six Classes of Strategies for RAD
Reuse, Very High-level Languages (RVHL)
Development Process Reengineering (DPRS)
Collaboration Support (CLAB)
Architecture Risk Resolution (RESL)
Prepositioning Assets (PPOS)
RAD Capability of Personnel (RCAP)

9.RAD Opportunity Tree 

PPT On Constructive Productivity Model COPROMO

Constructive Productivity Model COPROMO PPT

Constructive Productivity Model COPROMO Presentation Transcript:
1.Constructive Productivity Model   (COPROMO)

COPROMO helps in predicting the most cost effective allocation of investment resources in new technologies , with the intent of improving productivity.
The model is based on the use of COCOMO® II and CORADMO as valuation mechanisms.
The implementation approach uses a representative prototypical application from the domain of concern to the senior management, and the identification of "technology" drivers and time frames.
Estimates cost of constructing software.
Estimates projected effects over time.

  Allows mixed strategies on investments:

  One driver, more detailed.
  Thus, narrower & deeper.
  Estimates cost of constructing software.      
  Estimates projected effects over time.

Decision assistant for
Software Engineering Senior Management
Strategic Planning

Identify prototypical application
Benchmark current developments in domain
Select time frames and technologies
Specify COCOMO-II driver values per technology & time
    Scale Factors
    Effort Multipliers: product, platform, personnel and project
Specify CORADMO driver values per technology & time
    Stage distribution percentages
    Schedule and Effort multipliers
Run the Evaluator


6.Identify prototypical application:
   Representative of domain.
   Average/target size.
Benchmark current developments in domain
  Run COCOMO-II on recent projects.
  Perform local calibration.
  Analyze the driver values.
  Select representative values.

7.Select time frames and technologies
    Time frames typically eight to fifteen years; long enough to have technologies evolve and mature
    Technologies: relatively clearly defined, one should be commercial and specific
Specify COCOMO-II, CORADMO driver values per technology & time
    Delphi or modified-Delphi (preferred)
    Record driver values over time with rationales
    (Evaluator Tool designed to assist)

8.Run the Evaluator:
  The Technology Impact Analyzer is a multi-sheet Excel Workbook that shows the
  impacts of the COCOMO II and CORADMO drivers projected over time and technology-type on a selected domain’s typically sized application. The sheets include an overview and sheets for the COCOMO-II.1998 , COSSEMO and CORADMO drivers, data and their impacts.

9. TIA Abbreviations and Sheet Descriptions

10.Impact of Technologies on Software Effort or Cost

PPT On COSTAR Software Estimation Tool

Presentation On COSTAR Software Estimation Tool

COSTAR Software Estimation Tool Presentation Transcript:

2.What is COSTAR ?       
Costar is a software estimation tool based on the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) described by Barry Boehm in his books Software Engineering Economics and Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II.
 Costar  lets you make trade-offs and experiment with "what-if" analyses to arrive at the optimal project plan.

3.What does COSTAR do ?
Software project managers use Costar to produce estimates for :-
Project Duration
Staffing Levels

4.Why use COSTAR?
COSTAR is a faithful implementation of the COCOMO model that is easy to use on small projects, and yet powerful enough to plan and control large projects.
COSTAR estimates are more objective and repeatable than estimates made by methods relying on proprietary models.
COSTAR can calibrated to reflect the software development environment, and to produce more accurate estimates.

Costar allows you to define a software structure to meet the needs.
Initial estimate is made on the basis of a system containing some thousand lines of code.
Second estimate is more refined as the system will consist of two subsystems and the user will have more accurate idea of the lines of code contained in each of the subsystems.
Costar permits the user to continue this process until the needs of the user are met.

Uses standard models
Traditional COCOMO
Intermediate COCOMO
Detailed COCOMO
Incremental COCOMO

7.The tool can store multiple estimates that can be compared and can also be used for ‘what-if’ analysisIt is calibrated using organization's historic data.
Uses calibration tool called CALICO.

Calibration tool.
Input is data on completed projects.
Uses linear regression on these to calibrate COCOMO equations to match user’s environment.

9.For anything meaningful , data should include at least half a dozen projects – each with data on size, effort, duration and cost drivers. Costar then automatically uses these new calibrated equations instead of standard estimating equations.

PPT On Disaster Management

Presentation On Disaster Management

Disaster Management Presentation Transcript:

2.A disaster as ‘any occurrence that causes damage, economic destruction, loss of human life and deterioration in health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extra ordinary response from outside the affected community’.

  Hurricanes, cyclones,  
  tornadoes and typhoons                            
Snowstorms, floods, heavy   
 rains, thunderstorms
 Droughts and famine

Disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. (WHO)
 Research is a careful search, a critical inquiry, a diligent investigation or examinatation in seeking new facts or principles .


6.Need for Research related to disability& Disaster
Pre-disaster action is profitable than post disaster reaction
Research on disasters is problematic .
Special needs of disadvantaged  women, such as women with disabilities needs to be better researched.
Disability is the consequences of disasters
Feed back from disabilities persons indicates that emergency plans are not inclusive and also not accessible.

7.Poverty-Vulnerability-Disaster-Disability Cycle

8.Action Plan
Conceptual framework.(Infrastructure)
Effective mobilization of resources human, voluntary initiatives, co-ordination & networking.
 Application of scientific methods.
Paradigm shift in disability & disaster related policy making.

Very few researches has been done. So
need for research on good technologies and
practices for disaster & disabilities
reduction at present which are appropriate
for implementation in all countries, and to
develop a mechanism for exchanging
(sharing) knowledge between  countries and
regions worldwide. 

PPT On European Citizenship

Presentation On European Citizenship

European Citizenship Presentation Transcript:
1.European Citizenship: More than 50 years together!

2.How would you define Europe?
a cooperation between countries
a political and economical definition
Important evolutions throughout the history
The EU

3.a European space of values and history
a cultural definition
One European culture?
Linked to context of use

4.What are the main European Institutions?
The European Parliament
The European Commission

5.What are the main European Institutions?
The Council of the European Union
The European council

6.What are the main European Institutions?
Court of Justice
Court of Auditors

7.Who is representing the EU?

8.What is the EU doing today? or what have they ever done for us…

9.Why are you here?
The possibility to get a grant…
The money of the grant comes from...
Yes, from the EU!
to be more precise of the European Commissioner in charge of Education, training, culture & multilingualism: Androulla Vassiliou
through budget recognition by the European Parliament, via specific programmes

10.Where is ‘the EU’ situated?
The main locations of the European Institutions
Different institutions (European Parliament, Commission, Council…)
European Parliament
Court of Justice, court of auditors, EP…
The European Central Bank

11.How many people are living in the EU?
Some statistics (world: 6,525,171,264 inhabitants)

12.Let’s go into more details…
about the EU and its memberstates
The European Commission?
The European Parliament?
Are these words also used in your own country?
An overview of the 27 EU-countries…

13.Government type: federal republic
Legislative branch:  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat and the National Council or Nationalrat
Executive branch: President + Chancellor + Council of Ministers

14.Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Legislative branch: bicameral parliament ( senate and Chamber of Deputies)
Executive branch: King + Prime Minister + Council of Ministers

15.Government type: parliamentary democracy
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
Executive branch: President + PM + Council of Ministers 


Presentation On HUMAN RIGHTS

HUMAN RIGHTS Presentation Transcript:

2.Chronology of Human Rights
Magna Carta, 1215
School of Natural Rights, 16th-20th Century
The French Declaration of the Rights, 1789
The American Bill of Rights, 1791
LoN and ILO

3.United Nations and its allied agencies
UN Declaration of Human Rights
Conventions, Conferences & Symposia

4.Council of Europe
Organization of American States
Organization of African Unity
ASEAN, Arab League

5.First Generation Rights
Second Generation Rights
Third Generation Rights

6.Hope  for Women
 Convention on the Political Rights of Women
 Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others

7.Hope  for Children
 Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally
 Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
 Convention on the Rights of the Child

8.Hope  for Workers
 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
 Slavery Convention
 Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

9.Hope  for Development
 Declaration on Social Progress and Development
 Declaration on the Right to Development
 Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind
 Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace

10.Hope  for Environment
 Declaration on the Right of Peoples of Healthy Environment

11.Hope  for Education
 Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

12.Hope  for Justice
 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
 Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
 Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances
 Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live
 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
  the Crime of Genocide
° Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners

13.Hope  for Health Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons
 Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights
 Principles for the protection of persons with mental illness and the improvement of mental health care
 Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition
 Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons

14.Hope  for All

15.Where do we stand? What can we do? How to begin?

PPT On Inspiration

Inspiration PPT

Inspiration Presentation Transcript:
1.“Your time is limited, don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma, which is living the result of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of other’s opinion drowned your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition, they somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.” –Steve Jobs -

2.“Believe in yourself and all that you are. Know that there is something inside you that is greater than any obstacle…”

PPT On Management

Presentation On Management

Management Presentation Transcript:
1.Managerial Roles
Interpersonal roles:-
        Leader, Liaison
Informational Roles
        Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson
Decisional Roles
        Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler,     Resource allocator, negotiator 

2.Management process  

3.Managerial Roles
Interpersonal roles:-
        Leader, Liaison
Informational Roles
        Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson
Decisional Roles
        Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler,     Resource allocator, negotiator 

4. Technical skills, human skills, Conceptual skills. 

Organisation are the collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose.
Nature of organisation
        Social systems
        Mutual interest

6.Social system
        Organisation are social systems, activities there in governed by social laws and psychological laws.
Two types of social systems exist in organisation, Formal social system & informal Social System.
Mutual Interest
Organisation need people and people need organisation.
Organisation are formed on the basis of some Mutual of interest among their participants.
It help in assemble a group and develop cooperation.

7.Organisation Behavior
    Study of individual & groups in organisation
                 JOB PERFORMANCE

8. Forces
A complex set of forces affects the nature of organisation

9.Characteristics of O.B 
Interdisciplinary Nature
    Behavior science
        Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology
    Allied Social Science
        Economics, Anthropology 
Contingency Thinking
Use of scientific methods

10.Uses of Scientific Methods 



MARKETING CONCEPTS Presentation Transcript:

2.DEFINITION- Marketing
Is is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and wants through creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others”-Philip Kotler.


This concept holds that the organization’s task is to determine the needs, wants and interest of target market and deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently.

5.Peter F. Drucker
“A healthy business cannot exist in a sick society, hence dysfunctional society problems (sanitation, illiteracy, family problem, safe drinking campaigns, AIDS, etc.) must be tackled by the organizations”.

6.Peter F. Drucker
Companies must consider society’s problems as an opportunity which will
Improve corporate image
Raise brand awareness
Improve customer loyalty and,
Build sales

Is to create satisfied, delighted and intoxicated customers.
Relationship marketing
Customer-life time value
Target marketing
Every employee is market focused
Every customer is a marketer

Demographic environment
Economic environment
Natural environment
Technological environment
Political-legal environment
Socio-cultural environment

PPT On Migration

Presentation On Migration

Migration Presentation Transcript:

Overview of migration worldwide
Highlight the complexity of migration

Migration is about human beings
    policy and legal framework
Migration is essential and inevitable
Migration can benefit migrants, countries of origin and destination when it is orderly and humane

A process of moving, either across an international border or within a state, whatever its length, composition and causes
It includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people and economic migrants
A Migrant is …
At the international level, no universally accepted definition exists
The term is usually understood to cover all cases where the decision to migrate is taken freely by the individual concerned for reasons of “personal convenience” and without intervention of an external compelling factor
It applies to persons, and family members, moving to another country or region to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family

5.A diaspora is …
Any people or ethnic population that leave their traditional ethnic homelands, being dispersed throughout other parts of the world
Refugees are …
A person, who “owing to well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinions, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”
Internally displaced persons (IDP) are …
Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes
In particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border

6.Migration At a Glance
A Complex, Global Phenomenon
24.5 million conflict related internally displaced people (by the close of 2006)
A phenomenon affecting all countries either as countries of origin, transit, destination or, increasingly, a combination of these
Considerable potential for development and progress: remittances, transfer of know-how, multi-culturalism, contribution to economies of host countries
Negative phenomena, too: brain drain, irregular migration in particular trafficking and smuggling, social tensions, impact on labour markets

7.Four key determining factors in case of cross border migration:
Pull of changing demographics and labor market needs in higher income countries
Push of wage differentials and crisis pressures, and
Social networks within regions and across continents, based on family, friends, culture and history
Low cost of transportation and communication

8.Migration: The Causes
Demographics and labor market needs
Wage differentials and crisis pressures
Support networks
4.  Other facilitating factors

9.The Fundamental Numbers

10.Migration: The Big Picture

11.Migration: The Big Picture
By the close of 2010, there were 27.5 million conflict related internally displaced people
The number of refugees by the close of 2010 was 15.4 million

12.Migration: The Big Picture
More types of migration

13.The Big Flows
Migration not just South-North (from a developing to a developed country) movement
 61 million moved from one developing country to another (South-      South)

14.Migration: The Big Picture
75% of all international migrants live in 28 countries
1 in every 3 migrants lives in Europe and about 1 in every 4 lives in Northern America

15.The Receivers
Top 3 migrant-receiving countries:

Monday, July 29, 2013

PPT On Motivation Theory

Presentation On Motivation Theory

Motivation Theory Presentation Transcript: 

2.Definition The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.
Three key elements:
Intensity – how hard a person tries
Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals
Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort

3.Nature Of Motivation Internal Feeling
Complex Process
Continuous Process
Dynamic Process
Different From Satisfaction


5.Each of us is motivated by needs.
Maslow believed that we must satisfy each need in turn ,starting with the first , which deals with the most obvious need for survival itself.
Only when the lower needs of physical and emotional well being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence & personal development.
Conversely ,if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away , we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs

6.Maslow’s Theory
Maslow’s theory maintains that a person does not feel a higher need until the needs of the current level have been satisfied. Maslow's basic needs are as follows:

7.Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

8.Basic Human Needs

9.Love and Belonging

10. Safety and Security
Pain Avoidance

Respected by Others
Achieve full potential


13.Existence Needs

14.Relatedness Needs
        Desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships(such as involvement with family, friends, co-workers and employers). The third and fourth levels of Maslow.

15.Growth Needs
     Desires for continued psychological growth and development(such as the desire to be creative, productive and to complete meaningful tasks ). Maslow's fourth and fifth levels.

16. E.R.G. Theory (Cont.)
move up the hierarchy as needs are satisfied
 move down the hierarchy when a need is frustrated
Deficiency cycle:
more strongly desire existence needs when they are unsatisfied
Enrichment cycle:
more strongly desire growth needs when they are satisfied

17. The frustration-regression principle
The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher level need remains unfulfilled, the person may regress towards lower level needs, which appear easier to satisfy. This is known as: the frustration-regression principle. This principle impacts workplace motivation. For example, if growth opportunities are not offered to the employees , they may regress towards relatedness needs, and socialize more with co-workers.   If management can recognize these conditions early, steps can be taken to satisfy the frustrated needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again.

18. McCLELLAND’S Theory
-Need for Power (nPow).
-Need for Achievement (nAch)
-Need for Affiliation (nAff).

19. McClelland’s Theory(Contd.)
Strong Need for achievement people
The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. Take responsibility for results of behavior. Willing to take calculated risks. Set moderate achievement goals. Prefer to set performance standards for themselves. Prefer no routine tasks to routine assignments. Welcome feedback about how well they are doing.

20. McClelland’s Theory(Contd.)
Strong Need for Power people
The desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people. A finer distinction can be made between: The need for Personal Power and , The need for Social Power Focuses on "controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person” Having strong effects on other people Means of influence: anything available to the person to control the behavior of another Actively searches for means of influence

21. McClelland’s Theory(Contd.)
Strong Need for Affiliation people
The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons. Focuses on "establishing, maintaining, and restoring positive affective relations with others“. Want close, warm interpersonal relationships. Seek the approval of others, especially those about whom they care. Like other people, want other people to like them, and want to be in the company of others.



PRICING STRATEGIES Presentation Transcript:

Service sector is the lifeline for the social economic growth of a country. It is today the largest and fastest growing sector globally contributing more to the global output and employing more people than any other sector.
In alignment with the global trends, Indian service sector has witnessed a major boom and is one of the major contributors to both employment and national income in recent times. The activities under the purview of the service sector are quite diverse

3.Indian Service Industry covers
Hotels and Restaurants
Other Transport & Storage
Communication (Post, Telecom)
Dwellings, Real Estate
Business Services
Public Administration; Defence
Personal Services
Community Services

4. Pricing
Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, Quality of product.

Profit oriented objective- In order to generate high returns on service resources.
Volume oriented objective- In order to process large number of customers or their possessions.


7. Four Customer Definitions of Value

8.Pricing Strategies
When the Customer Defines Value as Low Price

9.Pricing Strategies
When the Customer Defines Value as Everything Wanted in a Service

10.Pricing Strategies
When the Customer Defines Value as Quality for the Price Paid

11.Pricing Strategies
When the Customer Defines Value as All That Is Received for All That Is Given

12.Determining the Total Costs of a Service to the Consumer

13.Trading off Monetary and Non- Monetary Costs

It’s harder to calculate the financial cost of creating the service process than goods.
Variability in outputs  and inputs.
Importance of time factor.
Difficult to understand for customer.

Inseparability and perish ability.
Creative ways to maximize the revenues and reduce per customer served.
Presentation of service in innovative manner.
Quality of service ingredients 
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