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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

PPT On Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease

Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease PPT

Introduction To Alzheimer's Disease Presentation Transcript:

2.Alzheimer's disease:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of
the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and
eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and
In US, for every 70 seconds someone develops alzheimer’s and
it is 6 th leading cause of death

Signs of AD are first noticed in the entorhinal cortex, then proceed to the hippocampus.
Affected regions begin to shrink as nerve cells die.
Changes can begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear.
Memory loss is the first sign of AD.

4.AD spreads through the brain. The cerebral cortex begins to shrink as more and more neurons stop working and die.
Mild AD signs can include memory loss, confusion, trouble handling money, poor judgment, mood changes, and increased anxiety.
Moderate AD signs can include increased memory loss and confusion, problems recognizing people, difficulty with language and thoughts, restlessness, agitation, wandering, and repetitive statements.

5.In severe AD, extreme shrinkage occurs in the brain. Patients are completely dependent on others for care.
Symptoms can include weight loss, seizures, skin infections, groaning, moaning, or grunting, increased sleeping, loss of bladder and bowel control.
Death usually occurs from aspiration pneumonia or other infections. Caregivers can turn to a hospice for help and palliative care.

6. Age: Alzheimer's disease increases substantially after the age of 70 and may affect around 50% of persons over the age of 85
The likelihood of developing alzheimer’s disease doubles every
5.5 years from 65-85 years of age

7.Genetic risk factors for
 Alzheimer's  disease
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Coronary artery disease
Possibly elevated blood cholesterol

8.Warning signs:
 Memory loss
 Challenges in planning or solving problems
 Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home,
   at work or at leisure
 Confusion with time or place
 Trouble understanding visual images and spatial

9. New problems with words in speaking or writing
 Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
 Decreased or poor judgment
 Withdrawal from work or social activities
Changes in mood and personality

10. It is shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are better able
to remember new verbal information when it is provided in the context
of music even when compared to healthy, older adults

1. Reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (cholinergic  hypothesis)
2. Initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalized neuro inflammation
3. tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade
4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 has also been proposed to play a causative role in people carrying the susceptible versions of the apoE gene
5. Loss of locus ceruleus cells
6. pro-NGF accumulation

12.7. Oxidative stress caused by free radicals

13.Plaques – deposits of the protein beta-amyloid that accumulate in the spaces
between nerve cells
Tangles – deposits of the protein tau that accumulate inside of nerve cells

14.Major facts:
Smoking after age 65 increases your chances of developing Alzheimer’s by 79%
Obesity in midlife makes you 3 ½ times more likely to experience Alzheimer’s
Diabetes makes you twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s
Genetics account for only 25% of Alzheimer’s cases
Chronic stress may quadruple your risk

Medical history
 Medication history
Mood evaluation
Mental status exam
Complete physical exam
Appropriate laboratory tests
Neurological exam
Imaging procedures 

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