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Sunday, January 30, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Change

Change Is Universal


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Antenna And Wave Propagation Book

Hello friends today i read a book,its a great book for electronics & communication Engineering students.It have quality content and provide complete material of Antenna & Wave Propagation.Some Key Features Are:-

Best Content
Written According To Rajasthan Technical University
Easy Language
Also Helpful For AIME, GATE, PSU.

If you are an engineering student i think you like this book.

PowerPoint Presentation On UPS



UPS Presentation Transcript:

2. Product:-
1. Battery charger
2. Static voltage regulator
3. On line ups
4. Isolation transformer
5. Power inverter
6. Servo controlled voltage stablizer
7. Constant voltage transformer

3. Established in 1998, the state-of-the-art manufacturing facility at RIICO industrial area in Jaipur is spread over 8000 sq. ft. of constructed area. It houses latest manufacturing & testing machinery to provide customized as well as standard power solutions. The facility houses high-end machines like Component Mounting Zig to the simpler ones like Motorised Winding Machine to ensure the quality of the end product.

An Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is also known as a battery back-up, which provides emergency power and line regulation to the connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available

UPS : 2 – 4 ms
Inverter : 3-5 sec.

Most UPSs have microprocessors that regulate some of the functions and communicate over a LAN cables.

1. The Offline/ standby UPS
2. The line interactive UPS
3. The standby-ferro UPS
4. The double conversion on-line UPS
5. The delta conversion on-line UPS

Benefits: High reliability High efficiency Good voltage conditioning Limitations: Can not be use over a range of 5kVA

Benefits: Excellent voltage conditioning High reliability Limitations: Low efficiency Limited application because low unstable in efficiency and instability issues.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Railnet Communication

PPT On Railnet Communication


Railnet Communication Presentation Transcript:
North Western Railway was raised on 1st Oct, 2002. It consist of two divisions each from Northern &Western Railway. The formation of this zone along with five new zones was first approved by Railway Board on 16th Sept, 1996. The main Branch of N.W.R is situated inJagatpura.

2. This branch covers four main division – Ajmer, Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur.
1. Ajmer Division 12 computerized PRS center. includes 130 stations.
2. Bikaner Division Established in 1924. it serves the state of Rajasthan & Punjab.

3. Jaipur Division:
It serves the state of Uttarpradesh, Haryana. 14 computerized PRS center. Jodhpur Division: Established in 1882. It serves the state of Pali, Jalore, Barmier. 15 computerized PRS centre.

Telecom exchange are the vital assets of the local communication networking. During the age of information of technology telephone exchange plays a important role for connecting subscriber. Types of Electronic Exchange Automatic Electronic Exchange. C-dot Electronic Exchange. Digital Electronic Exchange.

5. Centre For Development Of Telemetric
C-DOT exchange are commonly used in railways because it use only one microprocessor IC. (65C02) In C-DOT 128 ports are commonly use in railways. Some Important Cards Used In Exchange SLC -CARD In exchange 10 SLC cards are used including 3Trunk card.

6. 2. TRD –CARD
(tone generator card) TRD CARD generate 8 different types of tones to indicate the status of other card. If any type of error is generated by other card Then it will be detected by TRD by generating tone.

What is microwave ? It is multi channel directional narrow band radio relay system. Microwaves Communication depends upon the Microwaves. Microwaves essentially very short waves. Microwave frequency spectrum is usually taken to extend from 1Ghz to 30 GHz.

8. Microwave Communication Features
Frequency: 7.125-7.425Ghz It uses Remote Supervision technique. Operate with -48dc supply & Positive terminal is ground.

9. Fading:
Fading is a loss of microwave energy during its propagation from transmitting antenna to receiving antenna. Importance of microwave 1. Increased gain & directivity of antenna. 2. Secrecy 3.Increased capacity in order to transmitted intelligence.

10. For more please refer odur PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Satellite Communication

PPT On Satellite Communication


Space Solar Power Satellite


Related Project Report:

Satellite Communication

PowerPoint Presentation On PLCC





PowerPoint Presentation On Milk Fat Testing

Milk Fat Testing PPT


Milk Fat Testing Presentation Transcript:
A vital role in rural development Product ranges from EMT to solar cells Planning to be a 200 million turnover by 2010 Remarkable performance not only in India but also in abroad.

2. Introduction of EMT
Simple,economical,accurate milk fat testing instrument. Measures fat content instantly on a digital read out. Works on a light scattering principle. It operates in AC-mains as well as on battery with inbuilt battery charger.

3. Technical specifications
Measuring range O-13% Fat Capacity 120-150 Sample per hour  Weight 16 Kg. (without diluent) Accuracy (Sd) O-5% Fat: 0.06% Sample Volume O.5m1./test Diluent Volume 6.5m1./test .

4. Principle of measurement
Based on the photometric measurement of light scattered by the milk sample. Light is scattered by fat globule acting as small prisms and proteins. Not only fat globules in the milk contribute to light scattering,but also the proteins may affect the measurement. To elliminate this EDTA solution is used to dissolve this.

5. The range of globule size is limited in milk tester is 0.5 to 1.5 microns. Light rays from photo lamp passed through layer of fluid in cuvette and are scattered. More the fat present in cuvette ,more light scattered and less light passes through the cuvette. The rays passes to photo cell,produces current propotinal to light intensity.current is fed to digital read out which gives fat percentage.

6. Photometer & parts
Photometer->it consists of lamp,lamp housing & detector assembly.detector assembly includes cuvette and photocell. Cuvette->it is made up of 2 hardened glass has ground depression of 0.4mm & other has 2 holes which provides inlet and outlet to cuvette. Photocell->it is selenium barrier\silicon detector photocell. Lamp->12 volts tungsten lamp.

7. Procedures
Diluent->it is used to dilute the milk samples & dissolve the proteins. Repeatability->it is used to check that instrument is in proper working order , as leaks & poor connections will affect repeatability. Calibration->the purpose of calibration is to adjust the instrument to give results in 2 steps one gives correct linearity, other gives correct results.

8. Advantages of EMT
It can measure upto 0-13% fat content. It is accurate upto 99.99% Light weighted. Easily handled. Even without power supply it can be used with battery for a long duration.

 9. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Main Distribution Frame And Faults

PPT On Main Distribution Frame And Faults


Main Distribution Frame And Faults Presentation Transcript:
1. Company Profile
The nine jewels “Navratanas” declared by Indian government are NTPC, VSNL, ONGC, IOC, HPCL, SAIL, BHEL, IPCLAND, and BPCL. Therefore, B.H.E.L. is one of the Navratanas .

2. B.H.E.L is ranked among the top 12 companies in the world for manufacturing power generation equipment.

At present B.H.E.L. have 14 manufacturing units. The major units are B.H.E.L. –Bhopal, B.H.E.L. – Hyderabad, B.H.E.L. – Triuchy, and B.H.E.L. – Haridwar. The corporate office is situated in New –Delhi and provides necessary top management leadership.

Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs".

 5. Types of Communication Systems
Analog Communication Systems Analog message: “Physical quantity that varies with time” Digital Communication Systems Digital message: “Ordered sequence of symbols selected from a finite set of discrete elements”

6. Telephone Exchange
In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls.

7. Electronic Exchange
Pre-digital automatic exchanges. To overcome demerits of traditional exchanges, electronic exchanges are used. The greatest advantage it provides is that no time is lossed in making a connection and a very high speed of operation is possible.

8. How the telephone call is made…??
Outgoing Calls Generally 48-60V always remains on the telephone line. But as the handset is picked-up the voltage limiter drops this voltage to 9-12V. On hearing the dial tone it is confirmed that the apparatus is ready to work and after dialing the number a ringing pulse is send to the called party. When the calling party picks-up the handset the billing meter of the exchange becomes activated. There is a counter in the exchange, which counts the pulse and converts them into calls.

9. Incoming Calls
Just opposite of outgoing calls. In the incoming calls the telephone detects the ringing signal from the exchange and provides the ring. At the instance of ringing signal, there remains a voltage of 75-110V/20 Hz on the telephone. A high voltage (A.C.) is sent from the ringer section of the exchange to start the ringer circuit of the telephone. The duration of this tone, if unattended, is 1 minute after which an engage tone is heard. After lifting the handset a circuit is established and a call is made.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On EWSD



EWSD Presentation Transcript:

2. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME(MDF) The fault of telephone number is removed in the MDF; hence it is called as Fault Remove Section. For any type of testing firstly we need the vertical no. or N.E. number of that particular telephone number, than this number is tested by the live tester, printer and computer. Live tester shows us that which type of fault occurs for that particular telephone number. The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the M.D.F., because of some specific reason.

The EWSD are Digital switching system is an integral part of the Powerful Network Solutions. The EWSD switch is designed for incremental expansion in processing power, connectivity and services.

Digital line unit (DLU) Line/Trunk Group (LTG) Switching Network (SN) Coordination Processor (CP) Common Channel Signaling Network Control(CCNC)Unit or Signaling System Network Control (SSNC)

5. Digital line unit (DLU)
 Functional unit on which subscriber lines are terminated. A single DLU has 4 Shelves, 16 Modules, and 16 Port. Module stands for subscriber line module analog(SLMA). Port stands for subscriber supported by the Module. A Unique Equipment Number(NE) is given to each subscriber. Example-NE of a subscriber is represented by 10-1-1-14

6. Line Trunk Group (LTG)
Digital Trunks and DLUs are connected to LTGs. The line/trunk groups (LTG) forms the interface between the digi­tal environment of a EWSD exchange and the switching network (SN). Call processing functions Safeguarding functions Operation and maintenance functions

7. Coordination Processor (CP)
 It is used for system-wide coordination functions, such as, routing, zoning, etc. However each subsystem in EWSD carryout practically all the tasks arising in their area independently. Storage and administration of all programs, exchange and subscriber data, Communication with operation and maintenance centers, Handling of the man-machine interface.

8. Switching Network (SN)
All the LTGs are connected to the SN which inter connects the line and trunks connected to the exchange in accordance with the call requirement of the subscribers. CCNC and CP are also connected to SN. Different peripheral units of EWSD are connected to the SN via 8192 kbps highways called SDCs (Secondary Digital Carriers).

 9. Switching Techniques In SN
Time Switching The speech samples are stored and transferred to the output during a different timeslot, this technique of timeslot interchange of information is called time switching. In the time switch, the incoming information is written sequentially in a memory.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On DRDO



DRDO Presentation Transcript:
1. Overview
LASTEC is the oldest laboratory in DRDO. It was established in 1950. LASTEC's primary focus is the research and development of various laser materials, components and laser systems, including High Power Lasers. The Director of LASTEC is Dr. Maitree Nanda. My head was Mr. Ravindra Singh Sc ”E”. My guide was Chandraprakash Sc “C”.

2. Inverting Adder Using LF356
Inverting adder is an operational amplifier in which the input is provided at the inverting terminal. The output so obtained will be the addition of all the inputs in inverted form.

3. Non Inverting Adder using LF356
Non-Inverting adder is an operational amplifier in which the input is provided at the non-inverting terminal. The output so obtained will be the addition of all the inputs.

4. Non Inverting Adder using LF356
Non-Inverting adder is an operational amplifier in which the input is provided at the non-inverting terminal. The output so obtained will be the addition of all the inputs.

5. Integrator using R & C
A device which have been constructed to perform integration of the signals applied to it. For eg. The integration of a square wave is a triangular wave.

 6. Differentiator using R & C
A device which have been constructed to perform integration of the signals applied to it. For eg. The differentiation of a square wave is spikes.

7. PID Controller
It is a mechanism which is used in industrial control systems to calculate the error value as the difference between measured process variable and set point. It attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. P: Determines the reaction of the current error. I: Determine the reaction based on the sum of recent errors. D: The reaction based on the rate at which error has been changing.

8. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On CCNA



CCNA Presentation Transcript:
1. Centre for Electronic Governance (CEG)
Centre for Electronic Governance is an Autonomous body of the Government of Rajasthan under the Department of Technical Education. Foundation stone of CEG was laid down on 8th December 2006 at Khaitan Polytechnic College Jaipur by Hon’ble Ministers for Technical Education. The CEG has been established with a sole aim to provide a conducive environment for creating industry employable IT professionals by the way of arranging seminars lecturers, vocational trainings and industry relevant software trainings.

2. Features
To promote interaction between the Government,Technical Institutes and the Industries To empower students living in the rural areas so as to bridge the urban - Rural gap To produce industry ready IT professionals To help in updating the Curriculum as per the needs of the Industries

3. Aims and Objectives
are Campus Placement Mission (CPM) Campus Placement Related Skills (CPRS) Graduate Placement Mission (GPM) Training for Student

4. Computer Network
A computer network allows users to communicate with other users on the same network by transmitting data on the cables used to connect them. A computer network is defined as having two or more devices (such as workstations, printers, or servers) that are linked together for the purpose of sharing information, resources, or both.

5. Local-Area Networks (LANs)
A local-area network (LAN) can connect many computers in a relatively small geographical area such as a home, an office, or a campus. It allows users to access high bandwidth media like the Internet and allows users to share devices such as printers.

6. Local-Area Networks (LANs)
The general shape or layout of a LAN is called its topology. Topology defines the structure of the network. This includes the physical topology which is the actual layout of the wire or media, and the logical topology which is how the media is accessed by the hosts.

7. Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
A WAN, as the name implies, is designed to work over a larger area than a LAN. A WAN uses point-to-point or point to multipoint, serial communications lines. Point-to-point lines connect only two locations, one on each side of the line. Point-to-multipoint lines connect one location on one side of the line to multiple locations on the other side.

8. Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
Connections across WAN lines may be temporary or permanent. Telephone or dialup lines, might make a temporary connection to a remote network from a computer in a home or small office. In both temporary and permanent cases, computers that connect over wide area circuits must use a modem or channel service unit/data service unit at each end of the connection.

9. Common Networking Devices
A hub is a device that is used to extend an Ethernet wire to allow more devices to communicate with each other.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Direct To Home



DTH Presentation Transcript:
1. How does DTH network work?
In simple terms the service provider broadcasts the signal that is sent to the satellite that then transmits the signal back to earth which is picked up by your dish antenna and fed to your television set.

 DTH is a very attractive sector, on growth front, it has huge opportunities and companies will act aggressively to garner subscribers as it happened in mobile space. Only 5 million homes have DTH connections out of 75 million cable households in India. This is a positive aspect for this sector.

3. Some of the features of DTH
service are as following: DTH offers better quality picture than Cable TV. DTH can reach remote areas where terrestrial transmission and cable TV have failed to penetrate. DTH has also allows for interactive TV services such as movie-on-demand , and e-mail. In DTH, the payments will be made directly by the subscriber to the satellite company offering the service.

4. India currently has 6 major DTH service providers and a total of over 5 million subscriber households. Tata group and Star network owned Tata Sky Zee group owned Dish TV Sun network owned SUNDIRECT DTH. Reliance owned BIG TV Bharti Airtel’s DTH  DD Direct Plus India - DTH Potential DTH to grow from 3.2 mn in 2007 to 43 mn by 2015, with 30% share of Pay TV

A Birds view of Tata Sky: Tata Sky launched its services pan-India in August 2006. It resulted as a joint venture between the TATA group and the STAR group. It has over 147 channels to choose from Tata Sky recently launched Tata Sky Plus which uses the personal video recording (PVR) technology that allows consumers to record live.

6. Few salient features of the Tata Sky are:
Strongly innovative product offerings . Kick started the category advertising. Focus on heritage. Low cost packages to increase penetration. Tata Sky is collaborating with HUMAX and THOMSON to increase availability of Set Top Box. Tata sky, in order to increase its rural penetration, has tied up with ITC e-Choupal and Godrej Aadhar For Effective distribution Tata Sky has tied up with ITC international Business Division

The 3 major reasons for growth of Tata Sky that can be explored are: a) SUPERIOR PICTURE QUALITY Unlike analog cable, Tata Sky subscribers can view TV through superior digital DVD quality picture and CD quality sound. b) WIDE ARRAY OF INTERACTIVE APPLICATIONS In order to empower the Indian viewer with choice, control and convenience Tata Sky has a wide array of programming choices and interactive services like Active Cooking. c) UNPARALLELED CUSTOMER SERVICE Tata Sky has established an extensive customer service network across the country.

The prices of the key brands in the category are as follows: • The price per month of Tata sky (South Jumbo Pack - Rs. 310) is less than that of Dish TV . Number of channels that Tata Sky is providing (128) is more than the number of channels being provided by Dish Tv (119). Tata Sky also provides cost saving economic packages like family and Value packs.

 9. Set Top Box Technology
The basic Set Top Box (STB) takes the signal from the satellite dish and converts it into a signal that can be used by a TV, sound amplifier, etc. STBs can act as a gateway between a television or PC and telephone, satellite , terrestrial or cable feed. The analog STB receives encoded/compressed digital signals from the signal source and decodes/decompresses those signals. converting them into analog signals displayed on your analog television. The STB also accepts commands from the user and transmits these commands back to the network operator.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Advanced Optical Networks



Advanced Optical Networks Presentation Transcript:
1. What is DWDM
Dwdm is the dense wavelength divison multiplexing It is the tecnology which multiplexes multiple carrier signals on a signal optical fiber is called the Dwdm Wdwm is the increces of the banwidth of the channel this tecnolgoy is called the Dwdm

2. Introduction to DWDM
DWDM systems being deployed today can increase a single fiber’s capacity sixteen fold, to a throughput of 40 Gb/s. Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) revolutionized transmission technology by increasing the capacity signal of embedded fiber. DWDM technology can be applied to different areas in the telecommunication networks, which includes the backbone networks, the residential access networks, and also the Local Area Networks (LANs).

3. In the dwdm are three areas, developments in the DWDM-based backbone network are leading the way, followed by the DWDM-based LANs. The development on DWDM-based residential access networks seems to be lagging behind at the current time. The multiple channels of information (each having a different carrier wavelength) are transmitted simultaneously over a single fiber. The number of wavelength channels is above 20 in a WDM system, it is generally referred to as Dense WDM or DWDM.

4. Development of DWDM technology
Early WDM began in the late 1980s using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 1310 nm and 1550 nm (or 850 nm and 1310 nm) regions, sometimes called wideband WDM The early 1990s saw a second generation of WDM, sometimes called narrowband WDM, in which two to eight channels were used. These channels were now spaced at an interval of about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window. By the mid-1990s, dense WDM (DWDM) systems were emerging with 16 to 40 channels and spacing from 100 to 200 GHz. By the late 1990s DWDM systems had evolved to the point where they were capable of 64 to 160 parallel channels, densely packed at 50 or even 25 GHz intervals

Early WDM systems transported two or four wavelengths that were widely spaced. WDM and the “follow-on” technologies of CWDM and DWDM have evolved well beyond this early limitation. (i) WDM:- Traditional, passive WDM systems are wide-spread with 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 channel counts being the normal deployments. This technique usually has a distance limitation of less than 100 km.

6. (ii) CWDM:-
The CWDM grid is made up of 18 wavelengths defined within the range 1270 nm to 1610 nm spaced by 20 nm. (iii) DWDM:- Dense WDM common spacing may be 200, 100, 50, or 25 GHz with channel count reaching up to 128 or more channels at distances of several thousand kilometers with amplification and regeneration along such a route.

7. DWDM System function
It an optical technology used to increase Band width over existing fiber optic backbones. Dense wavelength division multiplexing systems allow many discrete transports channels by combining and transmitting In effect, one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers. So, if you were to multiplex 32 STM-16 signals into one fiber, you would increase the carrying capacity of that fiber from 2.5 Gb/s to 80 Gb/s. Currently, because of DWDM, single fibers have been able to transmit data at speeds up to 400Gb/s. Dense WDM common spacing may be 200, 100, 50, or 25 GHz with channel count reaching up to 128 or more channels at distances of several thousand kilometers with amplification and regeneration along such a route.

8. Multiplexer or Demultiplexer
Combines/separates discrete wavelengths Multiplexer i s used to single o/p of multichannel Demultiplexer i s used to many o/p of single channel

9. Amplifier
Pre-amplifier boosts signal pulses at the receive side Post-amplifier boosts signal pulses at the transmit side (post amplifier) and on the receive side (preamplifier) In line amplifiers (ILA) are placed at different distances from the source to provide recovery of the signal before it is degraded by loss EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) is the most popular amplifier

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.
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