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Wednesday, November 30, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Contract Farming

Contract Farming PPT


1. Contract Farming
One Option For Creating A Role For The Private Sector In Agriculture Development?

2. What Is Contract Farming ?
The Farmer Is Contracted to Plant the Contractor’s Crop on His Land
Harvest and Deliver to the Contractor, a Quantum of Produce, Based Upon Anticipated Yield and Contracted Acreage
This Is at a Pre Agreed Price
Towards These Ends, the Contractor May or May Not Supply the Farmer With Selected Inputs


4. What Else Did It Do?
Mono-culture,over fertilization & excessive water usage
Soil degradation..
Singular focus on supported crops discourages diversification.
Subsidized exports to liquidate stock creates a further distance between the international market & domestic reality.
To succeed in this context contract farming needs to go well beyond its simple definition

5. Why Contract Farming ?
To reduce the load on the central & state level procurement system.
To increase private sector investment in agriculture.
To bring about a market focus in terms of crop selection by Indian farmers.
To generate a steady source of income at the individual farmer level.
To promote processing & value addition.
To generate gainful employment in rural communities, particularly for landless agricultural labor.
To flatten as far as possible, any seasonality associated with such employment.
To reduce migration from rural to urban areas.
To promote rural self-reliance in general by pooling locally available resources & expertise to meet new challenges.

6. Moving From Food Security To Market Demand

7. Moving To A Value Delivery Sequence

8. The Advantages Of Contract Farming
To The Farmer
Exposure To World Class Mechanized Agro Technology.
Obtains An Assured Up Front Price & Market Outlet For His Produce.
No Requirement To Grade Fruit, As Mandatory For Fresh Market Sale.
Bulk Supplies Versus Small Lots As Again Reqd By The Fresh Market.
Crop Monitoring On A Regular Basis. Technical Advice, Free Of Cost At His Doorstep.
Supplies Of
Healthy Disease Free Nursery
Agricultural Implements
Technical Bulletins Etc
Remunerative Returns

9. The Advantages Of Contract Farming
To The Company:
Uninterrupted & Regular Flow Of Raw Material.
Protection From Fluctuation In Market Pricing.
Long Term Planning Made Possible.
Concept Can Be Extended To Other Crops.
Builds Long Term Commitment
Dedicated Supplier Base
Generates Goodwill For The Organization.

10. Contract Farming - Industry Related Issues
Honoring Contracts - there is no credible enforcement mechanism in place.
Small size of land holdings.
Need to contract with a larger number of farmers, thereby increasing risk.
Lack of a comprehensive crop insurance scheme

11. Some Suggestions To Promote Contract Farming
Contract farming organizations are allowed to take out realistic & deregulated crop insurance policies.
Facilitate import of varieties / hybrids for contract farmers. Growth will be led by productivity enhancement & market focus.
Research system synergy with both farmers & private sector

12. In Conclusion
India, given the diverse agro climatic zones, can be a competitive producer of a large number of crops.
Need to convert our factor price advantage into sustainable competitive advantage.
Contract farming offers one possible solution.

13. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On XML



1. Extensible Markup Language

2. XML Is A W3C Standard
First official XML specification (1.0) published in February 1998.
XML is upper version of HTML.

3. A method for putting structured data in a text file. Uses tags to specify certain rules. Used with a processing application that knows how to handle tags.

4. XML is meta language that describe the content of document
Java = portable program
XML = portable data
XML does not specify the tag set or grammar of the language

5. The “X” in XML
Tags are defined by the person creating the document.
Tag sets have been developed for specialized topics.
–Chemistry, math, music, libraries, calendar events, addresses, etc.

6. Key Uses Of XML
Data storage
Data exchange
Document publishing

7. XML: Data Storage
Searching the data is relatively easy.
Format is standard.
Standard tools for input/output and validation exist.
Easy to read files makes debugging easier.

8. XML: Data Exchange
Data is relatively easy to read and edit with a simple text editor.
Complex relationships like trees and inheritance can be communicated.
Tags are self-describing, human readable.
Automatic data validation.

9. XML: Document Display
Meaning of tags is handled by XSL.
–Instructions for transforming one kind of document to another.
–Common transformation is XML to HTML
One XML may be linked to multiple XSL files.
–Content in one file can be rendered for the Web, print, smart phones, etc.
Separation of content from presentation.

10. Processing Applications
Processing applications
–Check that XML document meets standards for being “well formed”.
–Validate based on syntax defined in the DTD(Document Type Definition)
–Transform based on instructions in the XSL

11. Why XML?
Four different renderings generated from a single XML file.
–Text only
–Site map
–Quick links
Link consistency.

12. XML Examples
VT home page (top level university pages).
-One XML file stores all content, links
- XSL transforms the XML into HTML
Hokie Portal
–an XML-based syndication format

13. Why Use XML?
Allows for distributed content management.
Various university departments may “own” RSS channels.
Channel owners edit their content directly.
Webmaster controls display.
Automatic validation of RSS files.

14. When You Might Use XML
Store and search small amounts of data.
Exchange data between different applications or organizations.
Separate content from presentation.

15. Tools
Tool exist for many programming languages.
–Java, ASP, PHP
XML processing application

16. Future Of XML
Editors and processing applications that are easier to use.
Built in browser support

17. Thank You.

Friday, November 25, 2011




1. On independence in 1947, MAULANA AZAD, India's first education minister recommended strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system.

2. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
announced the first National Policy on Education in 1968
which called for a "radical restructuring" and equalize educational opportunities in order to achieve national integration and greater cultural and economic development.


Problems of access, quality, quantity, utility and financial outlay
The general formulation is corporate in the 1968 policy did not get translated into detailed study of implementation.This new policy called for "special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity,"

1) Important role of education.
2) National system of education.
3) Education for equality.
4) Reorganization of education at different levels.
5) Making the system work.

Important role of education
All round development
Developing Man-Power
A unique investment

7. National system of education
Concept of national system
Common educational structure
Understanding cultural & social system
National support for implementing programs.

8. There is a common educational structure(10+2+3) followed all over the country.

9. School education 10+2
Pre primary (FOR 1 YEAR) Primary (GRADE 1-5)
Middle (GRADE 6-8)
Secondary (GRADE 9-10)
Senior Secondary (GRADE11-12)

10. Education for equality.
For women
For SC & ST
For other educationally backward sections & minorities
For handicapped

11. This policy is especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities. To achieve these, the policy called for expanding scholarships, adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives for poor families to send their children to school regularly, development of new institutions and providing housing and services

The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world.

13. The government is committed to providing education through mainstream schools for children with disabilities.
The need for inclusive education arises precisely because it is now well understood that most children with disabilities can, with motivation and effort on the part of teaching institutions, become an integral part of those institutions

14. Reorganization of education at different levels
Early childhood care & education
Primary education
Secondary education
Vocationalisation of education
Higher education

15. The Indian government lays great emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years Education has also been made free for children for six to 16 years of age. Private schools shall admit at least 25% of the children in their schools without any fee.

16. The Mid-day Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal programmed in India. It involves provision of lunch free of cost to school-children on all working days with an objective to:
increase school enrolment and attendance, improve socialization among children belonging to all castes and addressing malnutrition.

17. Role of NPE in Secondary Education
The (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as yoga into the Indian secondary school system

18. Making the system work
A better deal to teachers with greater accountability
Provision of improved student services
Provision of better facilities of institutions
Creating of a system of performance as per the national level

19. Implementation of NPE 1986
Operation blackboard
Restructuring & reorganization of teacher education
Non formal education
Vocationalisation of education

1) Deep concern had been shown by the prime minister in
formulation of NPE.
2) The nation wide debate was conducted for the formulation of
the policy.
3) The program of action was checked out.
4) The ministry of education was renamed as ministry of
Human Resource Development (HRD).

21. NPE is best policy for the development of education in remote areas especially for SC, ST, Handicapped, backward, minorities and women. Indian govt. introduced it for the development of nation and they got success on large extent.
People come closer by the help of education and now just because of this policy India’s education system is third largest system among all nations.

22. Thanks a lot

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Speaker Recognition

PPT On Speaker Recognition



Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing who is speaking on the basis of individual information included in the input speech waves.

This technique makes it possible to use the speaker’s voice to verify their identity and control access to services such as voice dialing, voice mail, telephone shopping, security control for confidential information areas and many more.

To extract, characterize and recognize the information about speaker identity.

It consists of comparing a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a set of stored data of known speakers. The system can recognize the speaker, which has been trained with a number of speakers. This process determines who has spoken by matching input signal with pre- stored samples.

4. Principles of Speaker Recognition
The human speech contains numerous discriminative features that can be used to identify speakers. Speech contains significant energy from zero frequency up to around 5kHz. The speech signal is a slowly timed varying signal but when examined over a sufficiently short period of time, its characteristics are fairly stationery. Therefore, short-time spectral analysis is the most common way to characterize the speech signal.

5. Speaker recognition methods can be divided into

In a text-independent system, task is to identify the person who speaks irrespective of what one is saying whereas in text-dependent system , the recognition of the speaker’s identity is based on his or her speaking one or more specific phrases, like passwords, PIN codes, etc.
Here we are describing text-independent speaker identification system.

6. Speaker recognition is basically identification and verification.

Speaker identification is the process of determining which registered speaker provides a given utterance, on the other hand verification is the process of accepting or rejecting the identity claim of a speaker.

Speaker recognition systems contain two main modules:
Feature extraction
Feature matching

Feature extraction is the process that extracts a small amount of data from the voice signal that can later be used to represent each speaker.
Feature matching involves the actual procedure to identify the unknown speaker by comparing extracted features from his/her voice input with the ones from a set of known speakers.

7. All speaker recognition systems have two distinguished phases:

Enrollment or training phase

It is the process of familiarizing the system with the voice characteristics of the speakers registering so that the system can build reference models for those speakers.

Input speech → feature extraction →generate reference model

Operational or testing phase

Testing is the actual recognition task. In this phase, the input speech is matched with stored reference models and a recognition decision is made.

Test speech→ feature extraction → comparison→ decision


 8. Speech Feature extraction

  It is Signal-processing front end :

In this sampled speech signal is converted into set of feature vectors which characterize the properties of speech that can separate different speakers, performed both in training and testing phases.

Here, Parametrical representation of speech signal is done using Mel-frequency Ceptrum coefficients(MFCC).

MFCC is based on the human peripheral auditory system. This technique uses two types of filters, linearly spaced filters and logarithmically spaced filters to capture the important characteristics of speech. This is expressed in the mel-frequency scale (linear frequency spacing below 1000Hz and a logarithmic spacing above 1000Hz).

9. Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients processor

The main purpose of the MFCC processor is to mimic the behaviour of the human ear. The input speech signal is sampled and sampling frequency is chosen to minimize the effects of aliasing in the analog to digital conversion.

10. Framing
In this step the continuous speech signal is blocked into frames of N samples, with adjacent frames being separated by M (M < N). Windowing we window each individual frame so as to minimize the signal discontinuities at the beginning and end of each frame. The concept here is to minimize the spectral distortion by using the window to taper the signal to zero at the beginning and end of each frame.   Hamming window is used, which has the form: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)   The next processing step is the Fast Fourier Transform, which converts each frame of N samples from the time domain into the frequency domain. The FFT is a fast algorithm to implement the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

11. Mel-frequency Wrapping Human perception of the frequency contents of sounds for speech signals does not follow a linear scale. Thus, for each tone with an actual frequency, f, a subjective pitch is measured on a scale called the ‘mel’ scale.Filter bank has a triangular bandpass frequency response, and the spacing is determined by a constant mel frequency interval. Cepstrum In this final step, we convert the log mel spectrum back to time. The result is called the mel frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC).Because the mel spectrum coefficients (and so their logarithm) are real numbers, we can convert them to the time domain using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

12. Feature matching Vector quantization(VQ)approach is used for its ease of implementation and high accuracy. It is a process of mapping vectors from a large vector space to a finite no. of regions in that space. Each region is called a cluster and can be represented by its centre called codeword. The collection of codeword is called codebook. Codebook effectively reduces the amount of data by preserving the essential information of the original distribution.

13. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Bokaro Steel Plant

PPT On Bokaro Steel Plant



2. Introduction
BOKARO SAIL is the fourth largest integrated Steel plant (PUBLIC SECTOR) in India.
At present it houses five blast furnaces with total capacity to produce 4.5 MT of liquid steel.
It manufactures Steel which is an alloy of iron and carbon where the carbon content is 0.2 to 2.5% which depends upon the grade of steel.
Melting temperature of iron = 1536 degrees Celsius.

To interact and learn from the experience of trained engineers,supervisors and other organization employees.
To differentiate between real working scenario and uncertainties and the text book knowledge and to analyses the gap between the two.
To get an insight into the various processes and the sequence of steps in the manufacture of steel and other products.
To understand and appreciate the extent of coordination required between various departments for the success of the organization.

4. Raw Materials & Material Handling Plant (RMHP)
4 Raw Materials
18 Beds
Wagon Tiplers

5. Coke Oven & BPP
Battery of ovens.
Coal is converted into coke in anaerobic conditions at temperature-1250 degrees Celsius.
Cars involved for production :-
Pusher car.
Guiding car.
Quenching car.
Charging car.

6. Sinter Plant
Agglomerated mass of iron ore, flux
Increases efficiency, reducibility,
reduces coke rate
Fed into sinter furnace on moving pallets
Crushed cooled
+5mm crushed sinter sent to BF & rest reused

7. Steel melting shops-sms1 & sms2
Steel melting- process of removal of impurities like carbon and silicon.
Oxygen blowing process.
It receives hot metals from blast furnace.
Output of sms1 is in ingot form.
Output of sms2 is in slab form.
From sms2 it goes to continuous casting shop.
Molten metal to CCS

8. Continuous Casting Shop
SRU : refining, composition, temperature
Argon purging
The main function of Continuous Casting Shop is to produce steel slabs directly from the molten steel coming from SMS-II and sending them to Hot Strip Mill (HSM) for hot rolling.

9. Slabbing Mill
SMS 1 – Ingot route
Ingot rolling
Same function as CCS

Hot rolling- plastic deformation of metal above crystallization temperature by squeezing it between pair of roller.
The capacity of HSM=4 MT.
HSM has 2000 mm wide strip

11. Electrical repair shop 1 & 2
Ac Arc Welding : Only used in the transformers.
Carbon Brushes : Repaired in the
broker arm.

Autotransformers: Used as
the current regulators.
Squirrel cage motors.
Synchronous motors.
Slip ring motors.

12. Thank You

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Mobile Phone Based ON-OFF Device

PPT On Mobile Phone Based ON-OFF Device




This project is to develop a device that allows for a user to remotely control home appliances using a cellular phone.

This system will be a powerful and flexible tool that will offer this service at any time, and from anywhere .

The control system will include two separate units: the cellular phone, and the control unit.

There will be two operating environments. The cellular phone operates indoor and outdoor and control unit operates indoor.

A microcontroller is an economical computer-on-a-chip.It is a small and low-cost computer ,which performes specific task.
Microcontroller has an input device in order to get the input and an output device (such as LED or LCD Display) to exhibit the final process.
The 8051 has three very general types of memory to effectively program the 8051 it is On-Chip Memory, External Code Memory, External RAM.
A microcontroller has a CPU(a microprocessor) in addition to fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O port and a timer all on single chip. therefore the designer cannot add any external memory, I/O ports or timer to it.

The DTMF tone decoder IC converts the received tones to their respective binary values and then gives them as an input to the microcontroller.
Its filter section uses switched capacitor technology for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection. Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit.

6. The DTMF keypad is laid out in 4*4 matrix with each row representing a low frequency and each column representing a high frequency
The DTMF tone decoder IC’s internal architecture consists of a band split filter section which separates the low and the high tone of the received tone pair.



The Max 232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply.

The MAX 232 is to connect a serial port device to a serial port which uses the RS232 standard

The serial port device is usually a UART(universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter)


This project is to develop a device that allows for a user to remotely control home appliances using a cellular phone.

The system requires two phones out of which the one present at the control unit has to be a cell phone with auto answer facility.

The person who wants to switch on/off any device makes a call from mobile phone.

Once the call gets picked up, presses the key for a corresponding device.

The mobile phone on the receiver side picks up the phone automatically after 5seconds, and then makes the tones available to the DTMF tone decoder IC through the headphone jack of the phone.

10. The DTMF tone decoder IC converts the received tones to their respective binary values and then gives them as an input to the microcontroller.

DTMF verifies both the frequency and duration of the received tones and pass the resultant 4-bit code to the output bus.

The output from DTMF IC is given into the MICROCONTROLLER 8051.

We have successfully completed the project “DEVICE ON OFF THROUGH MOBILE PHONE”
This project is very useful now a days as well as its cost is very low, so anyone can afford it and use it.

12. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Designer Babies

PPT On Designer Babies



2. The colloquial term "designer baby" refers to a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics. The term is derived by comparison with "designer clothing".

3. Designer babies Since the discovery of DNA in the late 1950's, the possibility of genetic modification of animals and plants has become a reality. The term designer baby refers to the genetic modification of the child in it's early fetal life. The world of genetic modification has long moved on from the days of Dolly the Sheep.

4. parents will be able to select or design desired traits for their children. Boy or girl? Blond or brunette? Blue eyes or brown?

5. moms and dads pick whether junior has blue or brown eyes or black or blond hair. some known genetic markers do correlate with a probability of hair, eye and skin color,

6. "Our goal in offering (embryo screening) to couples at risk is to increase the likelihood that they can achieve their dream of having a healthy baby, free from a catastrophic genetic disease

7. Inherited Genetic Disorders
Tay-Sachs disease
Sickle-cell anemia
Cystic fibrosis
Huntington’s Disease
Down’s Syndrome

8. Artificial Reproductive Technology
In vitro fertilisation
Louise Brown 25 July 1978

9. Reproductive Technology

10. What should we test for?
Genetic disorder 700 inherited conditions 344 test clinically available 211 prenatal tests offered

11. Embryo Selection is a relatively simple process. An ovarian biopsy can yield many eggs which can be fertilized in vitro with the partner’s sperm. The cells can be grown in culture, and at the eight cell stage, one of the cells can be removed for diagnosis.

12. How is it done?
The removal of one cell allows DNA tests to be performed on the embryo. The embryo with the desired trait can then be selected.
The final step is implanting the embryo into the uterus, and letting the pregnancy continue to term.
This process is called in vitro fertilization.

13. Invitro Fertilization (IVF) & Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

14. What is IVF?
Use of artificial techniques to join an ovum with sperm outside (in vitro) woman's body to help infertile couples to have a children of their own. The basic technique of IVF involves removing ova from a woman's ovaries, fertilising them in the laboratory, and then inserting them into her uterus.
The first ‘test-tube baby’, Mary Louise Brown, was born in England in 1978.

15. Process of IVF
Hyper ovulation
Egg Retrieval
Artificial Insemination
Embryo Transfer

16. The embryos with faulty genes are discarded and only healthy ones are implanted in the mother's womb. The technique involves fertilizing eggs in a laboratory. When the embryos are three days old, scientists take out a cell from it and analyze it. If they find that the cell has an abnormal chromosome, the embryo is discarded as it will lead to babies with genetic defects

17. Viable and Desirable?
“This information is helping parents choose which embryos they want--and which to reject as unhealthy, or merely undesirable.”

18. Pre-implantation Genetic Testing
in vitro fertilization (IVF) Allow fertilized cells to divide until 8 cells – 3 days
Remove single cell for diagnosis within 15 hours Decide whether or not to implant

19. What is PGD?
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. A procedure to analyze the genetic makeup of an embryo before it is implanted. The purpose is to identify disorders and genetically inherited diseases (Downs Syndrome, hemophilia, etc) as well as identify the gender.

20. Why Should I have PGD done?

Some of the most common reasons for having the PGD procedure are:

Three or more miscarriages in early pregnancy More than two unsuccessful IVF treatments Family Balancing If scientists are aware of the sex of an embryo while it remains still in their care, measures can be taken to assure that only embryos of a selected gender are returned to the womb for the possible establishment of pregnancy. While in vitro fertilization with PGD is only one of the methods for sex predetermination offered by our Center, it is the only procedure where success rates are higher than 99.9%.

21. preimplantation genetic diagnosis
PGD also known as embryo screening refers to procedures that are performed on embryos prior to implantation, sometimes even on oocytes prior to fertilization.
PGD is considered another way to prenatal diagnosis.
Its main advantage is that it avoids selective pregnancy termination as the method makes it highly likely that the baby will be free of the disease under consideration.

22. PGD
In the first group PGD is used to look for a specific disorder in couples with a high risk of transmitting an inherited condition.
This can be a monogenic disorder, meaning the condition is due to a single gene only, (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked disorders) or a chromosomal structural aberration (such as a balanced translocation).

23. PGD helps these couples identify embryos carrying a genetic disease or a chromosome abnormality, thus avoiding the difficult choice of abortion. In addition, there are infertile couples who carry an inherited condition and who opt for PGD as it can be easily combined with their IVF treatment

24. To be tested and prevented as well
Deafness, Shortness in height, learning disabilities?
“Gay Gene

25. Specific disorders
PGD is available for a large number of monogenic disorders. The most frequently diagnosed autosomal recessive disorders are cystic fibrosis, Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell disease and spinal muscular atrophy type 1.
The most common dominant diseases are myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; and in the case of the X-linked diseases, most of the cycles are performed for fragile X syndrome, haemophilia A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

26. Embryo Screening with PGD
Recent advances in the fields of genetics, genetic diagnosis, embryo biopsy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) have opened up a new world of opportunity for couples interested in achieving a healthy pregnancy.

27. Genetic testing performed prior to embryo transfer

28. Biotechnology Issues
1. In Vitro Fertilisation (ART)
2. Human Cloning
3. Therapeutic Tissue Cloning
(Stem Cells)
4. Preimplantation Diagnosis
5. Sex Selection
6. Designer babies

29. Genetic testing for disease
 1. Sample Cells from human
2.DNA extracted from the Cells
3.DNA Cut Into Double Stranded Fragments
4.Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Fragments
 5.Shorter DNA Pieces have Travelled Further through Gel than Longer Ones

30. The birth of the first British baby genetically screened before conception to be free of a breast cancer gene of creating so-called designer babies

31. In the future, the ability to identify many more genes for different neurological, psychiatric, and behavioral traits and disorders before uterine implantation may present opportunities for parents to "design" their children, selecting in or out the desired physical, intellectual, and temperament traits they desire.

32. selecting the child's genetic make-up based on parental preferences is the right decision.
It is possible that the world into which these designed children grow changes its values, leaving these genetically-designed children at a new disadvantage. Parents who have a socially undesirable trait, like deafness, may choose to reify their own existence by not sparing their children this trait, or even selecting for it, but the children may grow to resent their parents for it, wanting to be more like the norm.
Other children may be "designed" to be genetically similar at the HLA locus to a sibling with a condition that can be "cured" with a bone marrow transplant..

33. HLA Tissue Typing Savior Siblings
Zain Hashmi
Beta thalassaemia

34. HLA Tissue Typing Saviour Siblings
Molly and Adam Nash
Fanconi Anaemia

35. HLA Tissue Typing Saviour Siblings
Charlie Whitaker
Diamond Blackfan Anaemia

36. First "designer baby" born free of breast cancer genetic risk
‘BRCA1-free’ birth to designer babies”

37. Her parents had undergone a form of in vitro fertilisation (IVF), which meant that, unlike the father’s family, the baby was free of a breast cancer-causing mutation that had plagued the women of his family for generations

38. Every woman across three generations of the father’s family had previously been diagnosed with aggressive breast cancer, many in their 20s. Tests had shown that the family carried a faulty copy of the BRCA1 ‘high-risk’ breast cancer gene.

39. Although BRCA1 mutations are rare in the population as a whole, between five and eight out of ten carriers of this gene fault will go on to develop breast cancer, often at a young age (compared to an overall risk of one-in-nine of the general population). And, as is often the case with early-onset breast cancer, BRCA1 tumours will often be extremely aggressive.
So the couple took the decision to use the latest technology to ensure that their baby didn’t carry the BRCA1 fault

40. Beating eye cancer
Retinoblastoma accounts for 11 per cent of all cancers that develop in the first year of life. In almost half of cases, it is caused by an inherited mutation in a gene called RB1. Parents with this defective gene have a 50 per cent chance of passing it on to a child, and it causes tumours in 90 per cent of those who inherit it. The mutation also raises the lifetime risk of suffering other cancers from a third to more than half

41. The eye cancer retinoblastoma, seen above in a young boy, affects about 1 in 15,000 children. About half the cases are hereditary, and those who inherit the defective gene have a 90 per cent chance of developing cancer. Up to 95 per cent of tumours detected early can be treated, but this requires chemotherapy and surgery that can cause blindness.

42. Arguments for creating designer babies
Some couples are not able to have children because their children will have a genetic disease and die before they are born or when they are very young. Techniques used to change the genetic make-up of the embryo allow these parents to have a child.
If we want the best for our children why shouldn't we design our own babies? Using genetic techniques we can help prevent certain genetic diseases. This both saves the children from suffering and reduces the cost and emotional strain of looking after an ill child.
In a few cases where parents have had one child with a serious blood disease, they have used IVF to select embryos so that they can have a second child that can act as a future, tailor-made blood or bone marrow donor.
In these cases when the child is born he or she will be healthy and can help their older brother or sister stay well

43. Arguments against creating designer babies

In these cases, parents and doctors are creating a child to act as an organ-donating factory. The child may feel that they were only born to be a help to their older brother or sister. Children should be loved and cherished for themselves and not what they can do for others.

These genetic techniques are very expensive. Why should only rich people be able to eradicate genetic diseases? This could lead to imbalances between rich and poor people.

We could get carried away 'correcting' perfectly healthy babies. Once we start to eliminate embryos because they have the gene for a disease, what is to stop us from picking babies for their physical or psychological traits

44. Thanks.

Monday, November 21, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Fashion Marketing

PPT On Fashion Marketing





Emergence of mall culture
Fashion on the ramp
Beauty pageants
Budding designers

Indian apparel exports (US$)

2000 5342.8 million
2008 6086.4 million
Lists of indian fashion shows:
India Fashion Week
Seasons India :: Indian Fashion Shows
Lakme India Fashion Week
Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week .


7. WHY IT ALWAYS A “BUT”………………

Indian fashion industry has come at par with international standards. It has become one of the most happening and revenue generating industry of India. The people like to dress in style which is accepted globally.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On WORLD ISLANDS



The World or World Islands is an artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.It is located 4  kilometeres (2.5 mi) off the coast of  Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

2. The World islands are composed mainly of sand dredged from Dubai's shallow coastal waters, and are one of several artificial island developments in Dubai.

3. The World's developer is Nakheel Properties, and the project was originally conceived by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai.

4. As of 2010, only a single island has any building on it, which is a show home - all the other projects having been cancelled or delayed due to the 2008 financial crisis.

Islands in the archipelago range from 14,000 to 42,000 square meters (150,000 to 450,000 sq ft) in area.
Distances between islands average 100 meters (330 ft); they are constructed from 321 million cubic meters of sand and 31 million tons of rock.
The entire development is an area that covers 6 by 9 kilometers (3.7 by 5.6 mi) and is surrounded by an oval-shaped breakwater island. Roughly 232 km (144 mi) of shoreline was created.
The World's overall development costs were estimated at $14 billion USD in 2005.


Chandigarh sector 8D market

PPT On Chandigarh sector 8D market


Friday, November 18, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On DYNAMIC ARCHITECTURE



Dynamic Tower or Da Vinci Tower, Dubai

2. The tower is expected to be architecturally innovative for several reasons:
Uniquely, each floor will be able to rotate independently.This will result in a constantly changing shape of the tower.Each floor will rotate a maximum of 6 meters (20 ft) per minute, or one full rotation in 90 minutes.

It will also be the world's first prefabricated skyscraper with 40 factory-built modules for each floor.90% of the tower will be built in a factory and shipped to the construction site.This will allow the entire building to be built in only 22 months.The total construction time will be over 30% less than a normal skyscraper of the same size.The majority of the workers will be in factories, where it will be much safer.The only part of the tower that will be built at the construction site will be the core.The core will serve each floor with a special, patented connection for clean water, based on technology used to refuel airplanes in mid-flight.

4. The entire tower will be powered from wind turbines and solar panels.
Enough surplus electricity should be produced to power five other similar sized buildings in the vicinity.The turbines will be located between each of the rotating floors.They could generate up to 1,200,000 kilowatt-hours of energy. The solar panels will be located on the roof and the top of each floor.

5. In 2008, the designer of the Dynamic Tower said that he expected it to be completed in 2010.Due to the global financial crisis, delays in acquiring land in Dubai, and patent issues, in 2009 Fisher claimed to finish construction late 2011.
However, construction has not started yet, and there has been no official announcement of the building site. Fisher did not "say where the tower would be built, [...] because he wanted to keep it a surprise."


Saturday, November 5, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Nuclear Pollution and Waste

Nuclear Pollution and Waste PPT


1.Radio activity and Its Biological Effects

2.Topics to be discussed
Radio active waste
Biological effects
On animals
On plants
On humans
Preventive measures of radiation

3.What is Radiation?
“Invisible energy waves or particles”
What is Radioactivity?
The radioactivity is the property of some atoms to spontaneously give off energy as particles or rays. The atoms that make up the radioactive materials are the source of radiation.

4.Nuclear Pollution and Waste

Radioactive waste is a material deemed no longer useful that has been contaminated by or contains radio nuclides.
Radio nuclides are unstable atoms of an element that decay, or disintegrate spontaneously, emitting energy in the form of radiation.
Releases of radio nuclides to the surrounding environment in liquid and gaseous forms.

6.Ionizing and Non-ionizing radiation?
Radiation carries a range of energy forming an electromagnetic spectrum.

Radiation that does not have enough energy to break chemical bonds but can vibrate atom is referred to as “Non-ionizing Radiations” e.g. radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light etc.

Radiation that has enough energy to break chemical bonds is referred to as 'ionizing radiation, e.g. alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays etc.

7.The potential biological effects and damages caused by radiation depend on the conditions of the radiation exposure.

It is determined by:
quality of radiation
quantity of radiation
received dose of radiation
exposure conditions (spatial distribution)
Particles with high energy loss effects cause typically greater damage.

Radiation can cause immediate effects (radiation sickness), but also long term effects which may occur many years (cancer) or several generations later (genetic effects).

Biological effects of radiation result from both direct and indirect action of radiation.

8.Effects on Plants
Green plants are extremely sensitive to gamma rays.
Higher plants have more radio sensitivity than lower plants.
Plants response varies according to age, growth stage, plant species, chromosome volume and level of radiation.
Degree of damage 8 intensity and duration of exposure of radiation.

Changes in morphological, cellular and genetic levels.
Alterations in plant’s vascular system, water transportation and other functions also affected.
More causes are
Retarded growth, decreased percent germination.
Gigantism, dwarfism, curly and misshaped leaves.
Negative effects on Seeds.

10.Radiation gives positive results also..
In crop improvement protocols
High disease resistance, vigor and high productivity.
But high dosage may kill the plants..
It mutate the DNA even in room temperature.
In a food chain, radiation may affect primary and secondary consumers also.

11.Effects on Animals..
It may include tumor, dry, itchy skin, hair loss and discoloration of the skin around the tumor site.
In addition, these particular tumors often release a disagreeable odor as the cancerous cells die.
More serious side effects may include some nerve damage and either the death or hardening (called fibrosis) of healthy tissue.

12.Effects on Humans…
Initial signs include,
Nausea, vomiting, headache , some loss of white blood cells
Doses of 300 rems or more cause temporary hair loss, but also more significant internal harm, including damage to nerve cells and the cells that line the digestive tract.
Besides the symptoms, these people also suffer from fever and diarrhea. If no effective treatment is given, death occurs within two to fourteen days.

13.For survivors, diseases such as leukemia, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, and cancers of other organs can appear due to the radiation received.
But Exposure to ionizing radiation does not necessarily cause cancer

14.Effects on Humans…
Because man's body contains a lot of water, gamma rays traverse through water (H2O) molecules. Ionization of water usually results in the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These molecules can attack a bio molecule and 'denature' (= kill) it.
Radioactive lead, retains the ability to cause brain damage and plutonium clumps on the surface of bone, delivering a concentrated dose of alpha radiation to surrounding cells.
It also affects thyroid glands .
It causes the person to have increased pulse rate, nervousness, excitability, loss of body weight and, in females, more frequent c.
If radioactive iodine (I 131 or I 129) is ingested with food it will enter the blood and tend to accumulate in the thyroid.
A small amount of radioactive iodine would probably kill only a few cells and have little or no noticeable effect on health.

15.Preventive measures and considerations
Site selection for nuclear power plants should be carefully made to avoid, or minimize to the extent possible, most of those impacts.
The safe management of radioactive waste is necessary to protect public health.
If handled improperly, potential exposures of humans to high-level radioactive waste can be dangerous, even deadly.

16.Things To follow
Regulation of Radiation Usage
Proper disposal
Minimizing the usage
Wearing protective clothes
Control on these in radiated area..
Injection without sterilization

For Radiation, like other aspects of nuclear science, can be both destructive and beneficial.
The intelligent use of radiation for the treatment of cancer, medical diagnosis, food preservation, and other useful applications requires an informed public.
Likewise, the solutions to the storage of nuclear waste also necessitate public understanding of the effects of nuclear radiation.

18.Thank You.
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