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Tuesday, November 22, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Designer Babies

PPT On Designer Babies



2. The colloquial term "designer baby" refers to a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics. The term is derived by comparison with "designer clothing".

3. Designer babies Since the discovery of DNA in the late 1950's, the possibility of genetic modification of animals and plants has become a reality. The term designer baby refers to the genetic modification of the child in it's early fetal life. The world of genetic modification has long moved on from the days of Dolly the Sheep.

4. parents will be able to select or design desired traits for their children. Boy or girl? Blond or brunette? Blue eyes or brown?

5. moms and dads pick whether junior has blue or brown eyes or black or blond hair. some known genetic markers do correlate with a probability of hair, eye and skin color,

6. "Our goal in offering (embryo screening) to couples at risk is to increase the likelihood that they can achieve their dream of having a healthy baby, free from a catastrophic genetic disease

7. Inherited Genetic Disorders
Tay-Sachs disease
Sickle-cell anemia
Cystic fibrosis
Huntington’s Disease
Down’s Syndrome

8. Artificial Reproductive Technology
In vitro fertilisation
Louise Brown 25 July 1978

9. Reproductive Technology

10. What should we test for?
Genetic disorder 700 inherited conditions 344 test clinically available 211 prenatal tests offered

11. Embryo Selection is a relatively simple process. An ovarian biopsy can yield many eggs which can be fertilized in vitro with the partner’s sperm. The cells can be grown in culture, and at the eight cell stage, one of the cells can be removed for diagnosis.

12. How is it done?
The removal of one cell allows DNA tests to be performed on the embryo. The embryo with the desired trait can then be selected.
The final step is implanting the embryo into the uterus, and letting the pregnancy continue to term.
This process is called in vitro fertilization.

13. Invitro Fertilization (IVF) & Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

14. What is IVF?
Use of artificial techniques to join an ovum with sperm outside (in vitro) woman's body to help infertile couples to have a children of their own. The basic technique of IVF involves removing ova from a woman's ovaries, fertilising them in the laboratory, and then inserting them into her uterus.
The first ‘test-tube baby’, Mary Louise Brown, was born in England in 1978.

15. Process of IVF
Hyper ovulation
Egg Retrieval
Artificial Insemination
Embryo Transfer

16. The embryos with faulty genes are discarded and only healthy ones are implanted in the mother's womb. The technique involves fertilizing eggs in a laboratory. When the embryos are three days old, scientists take out a cell from it and analyze it. If they find that the cell has an abnormal chromosome, the embryo is discarded as it will lead to babies with genetic defects

17. Viable and Desirable?
“This information is helping parents choose which embryos they want--and which to reject as unhealthy, or merely undesirable.”

18. Pre-implantation Genetic Testing
in vitro fertilization (IVF) Allow fertilized cells to divide until 8 cells – 3 days
Remove single cell for diagnosis within 15 hours Decide whether or not to implant

19. What is PGD?
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. A procedure to analyze the genetic makeup of an embryo before it is implanted. The purpose is to identify disorders and genetically inherited diseases (Downs Syndrome, hemophilia, etc) as well as identify the gender.

20. Why Should I have PGD done?

Some of the most common reasons for having the PGD procedure are:

Three or more miscarriages in early pregnancy More than two unsuccessful IVF treatments Family Balancing If scientists are aware of the sex of an embryo while it remains still in their care, measures can be taken to assure that only embryos of a selected gender are returned to the womb for the possible establishment of pregnancy. While in vitro fertilization with PGD is only one of the methods for sex predetermination offered by our Center, it is the only procedure where success rates are higher than 99.9%.

21. preimplantation genetic diagnosis
PGD also known as embryo screening refers to procedures that are performed on embryos prior to implantation, sometimes even on oocytes prior to fertilization.
PGD is considered another way to prenatal diagnosis.
Its main advantage is that it avoids selective pregnancy termination as the method makes it highly likely that the baby will be free of the disease under consideration.

22. PGD
In the first group PGD is used to look for a specific disorder in couples with a high risk of transmitting an inherited condition.
This can be a monogenic disorder, meaning the condition is due to a single gene only, (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked disorders) or a chromosomal structural aberration (such as a balanced translocation).

23. PGD helps these couples identify embryos carrying a genetic disease or a chromosome abnormality, thus avoiding the difficult choice of abortion. In addition, there are infertile couples who carry an inherited condition and who opt for PGD as it can be easily combined with their IVF treatment

24. To be tested and prevented as well
Deafness, Shortness in height, learning disabilities?
“Gay Gene

25. Specific disorders
PGD is available for a large number of monogenic disorders. The most frequently diagnosed autosomal recessive disorders are cystic fibrosis, Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell disease and spinal muscular atrophy type 1.
The most common dominant diseases are myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; and in the case of the X-linked diseases, most of the cycles are performed for fragile X syndrome, haemophilia A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

26. Embryo Screening with PGD
Recent advances in the fields of genetics, genetic diagnosis, embryo biopsy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) have opened up a new world of opportunity for couples interested in achieving a healthy pregnancy.

27. Genetic testing performed prior to embryo transfer

28. Biotechnology Issues
1. In Vitro Fertilisation (ART)
2. Human Cloning
3. Therapeutic Tissue Cloning
(Stem Cells)
4. Preimplantation Diagnosis
5. Sex Selection
6. Designer babies

29. Genetic testing for disease
 1. Sample Cells from human
2.DNA extracted from the Cells
3.DNA Cut Into Double Stranded Fragments
4.Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Fragments
 5.Shorter DNA Pieces have Travelled Further through Gel than Longer Ones

30. The birth of the first British baby genetically screened before conception to be free of a breast cancer gene of creating so-called designer babies

31. In the future, the ability to identify many more genes for different neurological, psychiatric, and behavioral traits and disorders before uterine implantation may present opportunities for parents to "design" their children, selecting in or out the desired physical, intellectual, and temperament traits they desire.

32. selecting the child's genetic make-up based on parental preferences is the right decision.
It is possible that the world into which these designed children grow changes its values, leaving these genetically-designed children at a new disadvantage. Parents who have a socially undesirable trait, like deafness, may choose to reify their own existence by not sparing their children this trait, or even selecting for it, but the children may grow to resent their parents for it, wanting to be more like the norm.
Other children may be "designed" to be genetically similar at the HLA locus to a sibling with a condition that can be "cured" with a bone marrow transplant..

33. HLA Tissue Typing Savior Siblings
Zain Hashmi
Beta thalassaemia

34. HLA Tissue Typing Saviour Siblings
Molly and Adam Nash
Fanconi Anaemia

35. HLA Tissue Typing Saviour Siblings
Charlie Whitaker
Diamond Blackfan Anaemia

36. First "designer baby" born free of breast cancer genetic risk
‘BRCA1-free’ birth to designer babies”

37. Her parents had undergone a form of in vitro fertilisation (IVF), which meant that, unlike the father’s family, the baby was free of a breast cancer-causing mutation that had plagued the women of his family for generations

38. Every woman across three generations of the father’s family had previously been diagnosed with aggressive breast cancer, many in their 20s. Tests had shown that the family carried a faulty copy of the BRCA1 ‘high-risk’ breast cancer gene.

39. Although BRCA1 mutations are rare in the population as a whole, between five and eight out of ten carriers of this gene fault will go on to develop breast cancer, often at a young age (compared to an overall risk of one-in-nine of the general population). And, as is often the case with early-onset breast cancer, BRCA1 tumours will often be extremely aggressive.
So the couple took the decision to use the latest technology to ensure that their baby didn’t carry the BRCA1 fault

40. Beating eye cancer
Retinoblastoma accounts for 11 per cent of all cancers that develop in the first year of life. In almost half of cases, it is caused by an inherited mutation in a gene called RB1. Parents with this defective gene have a 50 per cent chance of passing it on to a child, and it causes tumours in 90 per cent of those who inherit it. The mutation also raises the lifetime risk of suffering other cancers from a third to more than half

41. The eye cancer retinoblastoma, seen above in a young boy, affects about 1 in 15,000 children. About half the cases are hereditary, and those who inherit the defective gene have a 90 per cent chance of developing cancer. Up to 95 per cent of tumours detected early can be treated, but this requires chemotherapy and surgery that can cause blindness.

42. Arguments for creating designer babies
Some couples are not able to have children because their children will have a genetic disease and die before they are born or when they are very young. Techniques used to change the genetic make-up of the embryo allow these parents to have a child.
If we want the best for our children why shouldn't we design our own babies? Using genetic techniques we can help prevent certain genetic diseases. This both saves the children from suffering and reduces the cost and emotional strain of looking after an ill child.
In a few cases where parents have had one child with a serious blood disease, they have used IVF to select embryos so that they can have a second child that can act as a future, tailor-made blood or bone marrow donor.
In these cases when the child is born he or she will be healthy and can help their older brother or sister stay well

43. Arguments against creating designer babies

In these cases, parents and doctors are creating a child to act as an organ-donating factory. The child may feel that they were only born to be a help to their older brother or sister. Children should be loved and cherished for themselves and not what they can do for others.

These genetic techniques are very expensive. Why should only rich people be able to eradicate genetic diseases? This could lead to imbalances between rich and poor people.

We could get carried away 'correcting' perfectly healthy babies. Once we start to eliminate embryos because they have the gene for a disease, what is to stop us from picking babies for their physical or psychological traits

44. Thanks.

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