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Tuesday, August 13, 2013

PPT On Methods For Sensory Testing


Methods For Sensory Testing Presentation Transcript: 
1.Is this the best way to evaluate products?...

2.Describe what is she doing ?

3.Get motivated, familiar and … ?

4.Methods For Sensory Testing
Before carrying out sensory testing:
Researcher must be thoroughly familiar with each method – its advantages and disadvantages
Researcher must precisely define his objectives & what information he is expected to collect
With above information, he should select the most practical & efficient method

5.Before carrying out sensory testing:
Researcher must be thoroughly familiar with each method – its advantages and disadvantages
Researcher must precisely define his objectives & what information he is expected to collect
With above information, he should select the most practical & efficient method
Discriminatory/ Difference tests
Used to determine whether a difference exists between samples
The panelists does not allow his personal likes and dislikes to influence his response/ judgment
Preference/ Acceptance tests
Tests based on a measure of preference or a measure from which relative preference can be determined
The personal feeling of a panelist toward the products directs his response
Descriptive tests
Used to determine the nature & intensity of the differences

6.Interpretation of sensory test results
All sensory experiments must be planned in advance, to make them > efficient
Interpretation of sensory test results cannot be made by direct examination, due to variability of sensory test results
Results must be tested by statistical methods:
These methods compare the results actually obtained with those that would be obtained by chance alone
Results are usually expressed in degrees of significance, which is the probability that the results are caused by chance

7.Types of tests

8.Difference/discriminatory tests
Triangle test
Test is very useful in:
QC work – to ensure samples from different production lots are the same
Ingredient substitution or change in manufacturing – to determine if change results in detectable difference in product
Panelists selection (often used)
Panelists receive 3 coded samples. Two of the samples are the same (i.e.duplicate samples) and one is different (odd sample). The panelist is asked to identify the odd sample
Note: panelist is asked to find/detect any differences

9.Results of a triangle test indicate whether or not there is a detectable difference between two samples
As number of judgments increases, % of correct responses required for significance decreases
Higher level of significance do not indicate that the differences is greater but there is less probability of saying there is a difference when the fact there is none
Eg. Of questionnaire – pg 21
Analysis of results – pg 22
Advantages of test:
Researcher receives information on size difference between samples
Researcher also receives information on product acceptance (although results need to be confirmed by a preference test)

10.Simple paired comparison tests
A pair of coded samples is presented to panelists for comparison on the basis of some specific characteristics. Eg. sweetness
Applications are similar to triangle test
Fewer samples are required & there is less tasting (however, statistically test is less efficient, as the probability of selecting a sample by chance is 50% or ½)
Test gives no indication of the size difference between the two samples
Eg. Of questionnaire – pg 23
Analysis of results – pg 24

11.Multiple paired comparison tests
When there are >2 samples to be evaluated, each must be compared with every other sampler for a single attribute
The number of pairs is determined by the formula:
where n =no. of samples or treatments
Useful for sets of three to six samples to be evaluated by a relatively inexperienced panel
A panelist is presented with one pair of sample at a time in random  order with the question, “ Which sample is sweeter?”
The panelist will be continue to evaluate all possible pairs that can be formed from the samples
Results will be evaluated by a Friedman – type statistical analysis (excluded from syllabus)

12.Duo-trio test
Three (3) samples are presented to panelists; one is labeled as R (reference) & the other two are coded
Panelist has to identify the odd/different sample
Test has the same application as the Triangle test, but is less efficient, as the probability of selecting the correct sample by chance is 50% or ½
Test is often used instead of triangle test when tasting samples that have a strong flavour because less tasting is required
In this test panelist bases his judgment on any difference he can detect (compare with Paired comparison test)
Eg –questionnaire – pg 30
Analysis of results – pg 30 -31

13.Multiple comparison test
Test is used to examine the effects of replacing/changing an ingredient, packaging material, process or storage
Panelist is presented with a known reference/standard sample (labeled as R) & together with several coded samples
Panelist has to compare each coded sample with reference sample on the basis of specific characteristics
Test is used very efficiently to evaluate 4 or sample 5 at a time
Small differences between samples &R can be detected
Test gives information about size & direction of difference
Eg of questionnaire – pg 32
Analysis of results – pg 33 -37

14.Ranking test
Panelists receives 3 or more coded samples and has to rank them for intensity of a specific characteristics
A rapid test and allows testing of several samples at once
Test is generally used to screen one or two of the best samples from a group of samples
No indication of size of differences between samples
Results from 1 set of rank cannot be compared with the results of another set of ranks
Eg of questionnaire – pg 38
Analysis of results –
Method I – Comparison of rank totals with rank totals in Chart 5 (pg 38 -39)
Method II – ANOVA (pg 39 -41) – excluded from syllabus

15.Scoring test
Coded samples are evaluated for the intensity of a specific characteristics
Panelists records his judgment on a graduated scale
Intervals on the scale can be labeled with numbers or descriptive terms
For effective results, descriptive terms must be carefully selected
Size & direction of difference between samples can be obtained
Include standards at various points if possible:
To minimise panel variability
To prevent drift in meaning of terms with time
Eg. Of questionnaire – pg 43
Analysis of results – pg 44 -46



LOGIC Presentation Transcript: 
Logics is the science of necessary laws of thoughts without which no employment of understanding and the reason take place.

The preposition is a sentences that is either True or False but not both.
Compound Statement:
    It is windy but not cold
Let :
        p=>It is windy
        q=>It is cold     ~q=>It is not cold

3.Symbols used:
                and , but
                       or        V
Therefore the above example become:
                  p     ~q
That is,
        It is windy but not cold .

An expression which always has the value true is called a tautology. A statement whose form is a tautology is known as “tautological statement”.

An expression which always has the value false is called contradiction. .A statement whose form is a contradiction is known as “contradictory statement”.

7.Conditional statement   
If p and q are statement variables the conditional of q by p is “if p then q” denoted by “p? q”  or  “p implies q”.

8.Bi-Conditional Statement
Given statement variable p and q the bi-conditional of p and q is “p if and only if q” and is denoted by p?q. 

PPT On Ion Exchange Chromatography


Ion Exchange Chromatography Presentation Transcript:

2.Definition Ion-exchange chromatography (or ion chromatography) is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on the charge properties of the molecules.

3.Ion-exchange chromatographyThe solution to be injected is usually called a sample, and the individually separated components are called analytes
It can be used for almost any kind of charged molecule including large proteins, small nucleotides and amino acids.
It is often used in protein purification, water analysis.

Ion exchange chromatography retains analyte molecules based on ionic interactions.
The stationary phase surface displays ionic functional groups (R-X) that interact with analyte ions of opposite charge.
This type of chromatography is further subdivided into:
cation exchange chromatography
anion exchange chromatography.

5.Ion exchange mechanism
  Composed of five steps:
Diffusion of ion to the exchanger surface. 
     (occurs quickly in homogenous solution)
Diffusion of ion through the matrix structure to exchange site (depends on degree of cross-linkage and conc. of solution.

6.3. Exchange of ions at the exchange site. (instantaneous and is an equilibrium process)
4. Diffusion of the exchanged ion through the exchanger to the surface.
5. Selective desorption by the eluant and diffusion of the molecule into  external solution.(By changes in pH or ionic conc. or affinity elution).

7.Ion Exchangers

8.Cation exchange chromatography
Cation exchange chromatography retains positively charged cations because the stationary phase displays a negatively charged functional group

9.Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group:

A sample is introduced, either manually or with an autosampler, into a sample loop of known volume.
The mobile phase (buffered aqueous solution) carries the sample from the loop onto a column that contains some form of stationary phase material.
Stationary phase material is a resin or gel matrix consisting of agarose or cellulose beads with covalently bonded charged functional groups.

11.The target analytes (anions or cations) are retained on the stationary phase but can be eluted by increasing the concentration of a similarly charged species that will displace the analyte ions from the stationary phase.        For example, in cation exchange chromatography, the positively charged analyte could be displaced by the addition of positively charged sodium ions.

12.The analytes of interest must then be detected by some means, typically by conductivity or UV/Visible light absorbance.
A chromatography data system (CDS) is usually needed to control an IC.

13.Separating proteins
Proteins have numerous functional groups that can have both positive and negative charges.
Ion exchange chromatography separates proteins according to their net charge, which is dependent on the composition of the mobile phase.

14.Affect of pH in the separation of proteins
By adjusting the pH or the ionic concentration of the mobile phase, various protein molecules can be separated.
For example, if a protein has a net positive charge at pH 7, then it will bind to a column of negatively-charged beads, whereas a negatively charged protein would not.

15.Proteins are charged molecules. At specific pH, it can exist in anionic (-), cationic (+) or zwitterion (no net charge) stage.






4. Acacia is the dried, gummy exudates obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia  Senegal (linne) or other related African species of acacia.
 The word acacia is derived from Greek word akakia, coming from ake, meaning pointed and referring to thorny nature of the plant, Senegal refers to its habitat.

5. FAMILY: leguminoseae
   It is commonly known as;
Gum Arabic
Gum acacia
Indian gum

Acacia plants are thorny trees about 6 meters in height that grow in the Sudan, Srilanka, India, Senegal, Kordofan, Pakistan and Africa.
 About 85% of world supply of gum acacia is from Sudan.

    The trees are tapped by making an incision in the bark and peeling it both above and below the cut, thus exposing an area of cambium.
    In 2 or 3 weeks, the tears of gum formed on this exposed surface are collected, the average annual yield of gum per tree is 900 to 2000 g.
 . The formation of the gum may be caused by bacterial action.

8.   The gum is occasionally bleached and exposed to the sun. Numerous minute cracks often form in the outer portion of the tears during the bleaching process thus giving them a semi opaque appearance.
   Trees begin to bear between 4–18 years of age and are said to yield only when they are in unhealthy state due to poor soil, lack of moisture or damaged.

Gum Arabic is odorless
Taste is bland and mucilaginous
Tears are nearly white or pale yellow and somewhat creamish brown to red in color
Tears are  rounded or ovoid in shape
The tears are glossy and marked with minute fissures and are brittle in nature

 Soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.
 The watery solution is viscous and acidic.

  Gum acacia contains neutral sugars, acids, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium.
  Its backbone chain consists of D-galactose units, and its side chains are composed of D-glucuronic acid units with l-rhamnose or l-arabinose as end units.
  Its complex structure is still not completely known.

 Acacia is essentially non-toxic when ingested.
 Allergic reactions to the gum and powdered forms of acacia have been reported and include respiratory problems and skin lesions.

13.USES The Egyptians used the material as glue and as a pain reliever.
 It was formerly given intravenously to counter-act low blood pressure after hemorrhages and surgery and to treat edema.

14.Its major use is in foods,
     as suspending or emulsifying agent, stabilizer, adhesive, flavor fixative, and to prevent crystallization of sugar, etc.
Used in practically all categories of processed foods (candy, snack foods, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, baked goods, frozen dairy desserts, gelatins, puddings, imitation dairy products, breakfast cereals, and fats and oils)

As a binding agent in making pills and tablets and particularly cough drops and lozenges.
As demulcent for inflammations of the throat or stomach.
As an emulsifying agent and gives viscosity to powdered drug materials.
It is employed as colloidal stabilizer.

PPT On Function In C Language


Function In C Language Presentation Transcript: 
1.What is a FUNCTION?Function is a self contained block of statements that perform a coherent task of some kind.
Every C program can be a thought of the
collection of functions.

Library functions.
These are the in-built functions of ‘C’ library.
These are already defined in header files.
e.g. printf( );
is a function which is used to print
output. It is defined in‘stdio.h’file .

3.User defined functions
Programmer can create their own function in C to perform specific task.
main( )
message( );

message( )

4.Some conclusion
Any C Program must contain at least one function.
If program contains only one function it must be
main( ).
There is no limit on the number of functions
present in a C program
Each function in a program is called in the
sequence specified by functions call in main( ).
After each function has done its thing, control
returns to main( ). When main( ) run out of
function calls program ends
C Program is a collection of one or more functions.
       A function gets called when its name is followed by a semicolon.

5. Advantages
It felicitate top down modular program.
The length of the source program can be reduce by using functions at
It is easy to locate and isolate and fault function easily
A function can used by many other program, it means programmer built an what have already done, insert of starting over scratch.

6. Using Functions
Using Functions The main functions and other library functions does need to be declared and defined but the main function’s body need to be defined by the programmer.

7. The 3 components associated with functions are
The Declaration
The function definition
The Calling Statement

8.In C user- written functions should normally be declared prior to its use to allow compiler to perform type checking on arguments used in its call statement. The general form is: Return_data_type  function_name (data_type Variable_name);

9.Function name
This is the name given to the function. It follows the same naming convention as that of any valid variable in C.
Return data type: this specifies the type of data given back to the calling construct.
Data type list: this list specifies the data type of each variables, the values of which are expected to be transmitted to the function. These variables are known as formal parameters.

10.The collection of program statements that does a specific tasks done by the function is called the function definition. It consist of
function header: Int FindMax(int x, int y) { } 
function body. Int FindMax(int x, int y) { //body of the function…. }

11.The function is called from the main() The function can in turn call a another function. the function call statements invokes the function, which means the program control passes to that function. Once the function completes its task, the program control is passed back to the calling environment.
The general form of calling stmt is: Function_name (var1, var2,..); Or var_name=function name(var1, var2,..);

PPT On Engineered Protein


Engineered Protein Presentation Transcript: 
1.Engineered Protein

Engineered Proteins  are the proteins which are synthesized by Changing the gene coding of the protein
The process of making changes in the sequence of a gene coding for a protein in order to bring about desirable changes in function is called “Engineered Protein” 

DNA-Technology has revolutionized both traditional biotechnology and opened totally new fields for scientific study.
Recombinant DNA-Technology allows one to produce new enzymes in traditional overproducing and safe organisms .

4.Engineered Protein
Protein engineering is used to modify and improve existing enzymes.
DNA is basically a long chain of deoxyribose sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds. Organic bases, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine are linked to the sugars and form the alphabet of genes. The specific order of the organic bases in the chain constitutes the genetic language.

5.Engineered Protein
Genetic engineering means reading and modifying this language. Enzymes are crucial tools in this process. e.g.
1. Restriction enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the chain at these recognition sites

6.DNA modifying enzymes synthesize nucleic acids, degrade them, join pieces together and remove parts of the DNA.
3.    DNA-polymerases synthesize new DNA-chains. Many of them need a model template, which they copy.
 4.    Ligases join adjacent nucleotides together.

7.Recombinant DNA technology led to the rapid development and production of Therapeutic protein.
There are many proteins essential to good health that some people cannot produce because of genetic defects.

8.These proteins include various blood-clotting factors causing hemophilia, insulin (resulting in diabetes), growth hormone (resulting in lack of proper growth), and other proteins, the administration of which corrects pathological conditions or results in other therapeutic benefits.
Plasmids are used to transfer human genes to bacterial cells.

9.If the gene inserted into the plasmid of bacteria is the human gene for insulin, for example, the bacteria into which this gene is inserted produces human insulin.
Bacteria as such do not produce insulin, but the recombinant bacterial cells do produce insulin, it was an outstanding example of microbial biotechnology.

10.Human genes composed of coding and non- coding sequences. The copy of the coding sequences is called cDNA.
The synthesis of the insulin cDNA will allow the production of a functional insulin molecule.

11.Transfer of the Insulin gene into a plasmid vector (schematic)

12.Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
Insulin was first synthesized in 1979 in E. coli cells through the use of recombinant DNA techniques.
Insulin is produced by beta cells in pancreas in humans.

13.Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
Human insulin has two polypeptides subunits called the A (21 amino acids) and the B (30 amino acids) which are bonded by disulphide bond to create the active insulin.
When a human gene for insulin is cloned, gene for each of the subunit is inserted into plasmid vector separately.

14.   Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
The vector has the Lac z gene encoding for the enzyme ß-galactosidase (ß-gal).
The genes that code for the two insulin chains in human are fused to the E. coli gene (Lac z) encoding for beta-galactosidase.
The plasmid is then transformed into E. coli .
Plasmids enter the bacteria in a process called transfection .

15.Microbes against microbes
Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs used against microbes.
An antibiotic is a substance, usually produced by a microorganism which, in very small quantities, inhibits or kills other microorganisms .

PPT On Economic Management


Economic Management Presentation Transcript:
1.Time Value of Money

2.Principles of Economics
Time Value of Money
Investigating Alternatives
Marginal Revenue Vs Marginal Cost
Estimating Risk

3.Time Value of  Money
Interest: The Cost of Money
Economic Equivalence
Development of Interest Formulas
Unconventional Equivalence Calculations

4.Time Value
Money has a time value because it can earn more money over time (earning power).
Time value of money is measured in terms of interest rate.
Interest is the cost of money—a cost to the borrower and an earning to the lender

P = principal (or present worth): a sum of money chosen for purposes of analysis at time zero
i = interest rate per interest period
N = number of total interest periods
F = future worth: a future sum of money at the end of the analysis period
An = a discrete payment or receipt occurring at the end of some interest period n
A = an end-of-period payment or receipt in a uniform series that continues for N periods

6.Compound Interest
At the end of the first period: P(1+i)
At the end of the second period:
P(1+i) + i(P(1+i)) = P(1+i)(1+i) = P(1+i)2
At the end of the third period: P(1+i)3
At the end of the Nth period: P(1+i)N=F

7.If you deposit P dollars today for N periods at i, you will have F dollars at the end of period N.
F dollars at the end of period N is equal to a single sum P dollars now, if your earning power is measured in terms of interest rate i.

8.Economic Equivalence
Interest rate is 10%

9.(F/P, i, N)  … ration of Future value with Present
(P/F,I,N) … ration of Present value with Future

Next Develop
(F/A, i, N) … ration of Future value with Payment
(A/F,I,N) … ration of Payment with Future Value

10.(F/A,i,N) … ration of Future value with Payment
(A/F,I,N) … ration of Payment with Future Value

11.Situation 1:
What value of A would make the two cash flow transactions equivalent if i = 10%?

12.The value of F = A*(F/A, i, N) = 100*(F/A, 10%, 4)

The next step is to Find
P(A/P,10%, 4)

13.What value of A would make the two cash flow transactions equivalent if i = 10%?

14.Note that the values at 3 are 100*(F/A, 10%, 3)
=331 and 100*(1+i)^3 =133.1+331=464.1
Note that this is the same as
=464.1 as before
In Year 5 the FV=
=> P2*(A/P,10%, 3)

15.If the bank agrees to defer the payment of a 100 Dollar loan by one year what will be the annual payment if 4 even payments have to be made at 10% interest?



DOSAGE FORMS Presentation Transcript:


Solution is a homogenous mixture of a solid, liquid or gas in another liquid and represents a group of preparations in which the molecules of the solute are dispersed among those of the solvents and are intended for external and internal use.

1- Active
2- Excipients
 Vehicle (e.g. purified water)
Co-solvents  (e.g.  glycerin)
Solubilizing agents (e.g. surface active agents)
Preservatives (e.g. boric acid)
Sweetener (e.g. glucose)
Viscosity modifiers (e.g. hydrophilic polymers)
Anti oxidants (e.g. butylated hydroxytoluene)
Buffers  (e.g. citrate buffer)

Simple solution
Solution by chemical reaction
Solution by extraction

6. Simple solution method

7.Solution by chemical reaction

8.Solution by extraction


10.Aqueous solutions
Aromatic water (e.g. Peppermint Water U.S.P)
Aqueous acids (e.g. Diluted HCl U.S.P)
Douches (e.g. Astringent Douche )
Enemas (e.g. Evacuate enema)
Mouthwashes (e.g. Sodium chloride mouthwash)
Gargles (e.g. Phenol Gargel)
Irrigation solutions (e.g. sodium chloride irrigation U.S.P)

11.Juices (e.g. Cherry Juice U.S.P)
Nasal solutions (e.g. Ephedrine Sulfate  solution U.S.P)
Otic solutions (e.g. Benzocaine Otic solution U.S.P)
Ophthalmic solutions (e.g. Zinc sulphate eyedrop)

12.Syrups (e.g. Wild Cherry Syrup U.S.P)
Mucilages  (e.g. Acacia Mucilage)
Honey  (e.g. Acid honey)
Jellies  (e.g. Lidocaine HCl Jelly U.S.P )

13.Elixirs  (e.g. Aromatic Elixir U.S.P)
Spirits (e.g. lemon spirit B.P)
Collodions  (e.g. Salicylic Acid Collodion U.S.P)
Glycerins   (e.g. Starch Glycerite U.S.P)
Liniments (e.g. Terpentine liniment)
Oleo vitamins (e.g. Oleovitamin A & D, U.S.P )

14.Specify the route of administration 
      (oral or body cavity  or  topical).
Keep away from excessive heat  and sunlight.
Keep at cool temperature.
Special warning according to dosage form.


PPT On Demand And Supply


Demand And Supply Presentation Transcript:
1.Demand And Supply

2.Checklist of Demand And SupplyDemand
Economic Goods and Non-Economic goods
Identify the Population (Whose Population?)
Population Distribution
Can be specified as Rich, Middle-class, Poor

3.Demand CurveInverse Relation between Price and Quantity
Negative slope: as price increases Quantity decreases
More people will buy at less Price: Clearance Sale
Ceteris Paribus- All other things being constant

4.Terminology of Demand
Substitute Goods and Complementary goods
Coffee Vs Tea: Substitute goods-Close substitute
Distant Substitutes
Competition between substitutes- for Money
Augmented product-core product-need-service

5.Shift in Demand
Shift in Demand Curve-Vs movement on demand
Increase in Population-Increase in the user-segment
Complementary goods- Compared to Substitutes
Price increases for complementary good
Demand low
Examples of Complementary goods-CNG and Cars

6.Demand Shift Table
Change in Population
Population doubling over time
Increase in production?

7.Shifted in Demand Graph
Notice in Shift less quantity demanded at the same price

8.Supply Curve

9.Equilibrium Curve
Notice Above and Below Equilibrium
Assumption Price does not vary per unit

10.Shifted Equilibrium Curve
11.Shifted Supply Equilibrium
Notice inequalities
Tables for concept not exact account

Show how does corruption affect the economy using demand and supply?

13.What will happen if the government fixes a lower price for chicken then the equilibrium price?
Note: no Change in table of Demand and Supply


PPT On Data Management


Data Management Presentation Transcript:
1.Chapter Outline
Data Management: A Critical Success Factor
Data Warehousing
Information and Knowledge Discovery with Business Intelligence
Data Mining Concepts and Applications
Data Visualization Technologies
Web-Based Data Management Systems
Introduction to Knowledge Management
Information Technology in Knowledge Management

2.Learning Objectives
Recognize the importance of data, managerial issues, and life cycle .
Describe the sources of data and their collection
Describe document management systems.
Explain the operation of data warehousing and its role in decision support
Describe information and knowledge discovery and business intelligence
Understand the power and benefits of data mining.
Describe data presentation methods, and explain geographical information systems, visual simulations, and virtual reality as decision support tools
Recognize the role of the web in data management.
Define knowledge and describe the different types of knowledge.
Describe the technologies that can be utilized in a knowledge management system

3.Data Management
A critical success factor: IT applications cannot be done without using data. Data should be high-quality (accurate, complete, timely, consistent, accessible, relevant, and concise).
The Difficulties of managing Data:
The amount of data increases exponentially with time
 Data are scattered throughout  organization and are collected by many individuals using several methods and devices.
An  ever- increasing amount of  external data needs to be considered in making organizational decisions.
Data security, quality, and integrity are critical, yet  are easily jeopardized (put at risk). 

4.Critical Success Factors (CSF)
Those few things that must go right in to ensure an organization’s survival and success

5.Data Life Cycle

6.Data Sources
Internal Data Sources: data about people, products, services, and processes.
Personal Data: IS users or other corporate employees may document their own expertise by creating personal data.
External Data Sources: Data from commercial databases to sensors and satellites.

7.Characteristics of a Data Warehouse 
 Organization. Data are organized by subject  and contain information relevant for decision support only .
 Consistency. Data in different operational databases may be encoded differently . In the data warehouse, though, they will be coded in a consistent manner.
Time variant. The data are kept for many years so that  they can be used for trends, forecasting, and  comparisons over time.
Non-volatile. Data are not updated once entered into the warehouse.
 Multidimensional. Typically the data warehouse uses a multidimensional structure .
Web-based. Today’s data warehouse are designed to provide an efficient computing environment for web-based applications.

8.Building a Data Warehouse

9.Relational and Multidimensional Database
Relational databases store data in two – dimensional tables. Multidimensional databases typically store data in arrays, which consist of at least three business dimension.

10.Data Marts
Data Mart: A small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit ( SBU) or a department
The advantage of data marts include:: low cost (Prices under $100,000 versus $1million or more for data warehouses); significantly shorter lead time for implementation (often less than 90 days), local rather than central control (conferring power on the using group), More rapid response and more easily understood and navigated than an enterprise wide data warehouse .

11.Information & Knowledge Discovery with Business Intelligence
Business Intelligence: A broad category of applications and techniques for gathering, storing, analyzing , and providing access to data to help enterprise users make better business and strategic decisions.

12.How Business Intelligence works?

13.The process of extracting knowledge from volumes of data; includes  data mining .

14.Data Mining Concepts Data mining: The process of searching for valuable business information in a large database, data warehouse, or data mart.
Data mining capabilities include:
     1) Automated prediction of trends and      behaviours, and
    2) Automated discovery of previously     unknown patterns.

15.Data Mining Application Retailing and sales
Manufacturing and production
Police work
Health care



CHROMATOGRAPHY Presentation Transcript:

2.What is chromatography?
 Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed  between two phases, one which is stationary phase and other is mobile phase move in a definite direction.

3.Background of Chromatography
The term “chromatography’’ is derived from Greek, chroma  meaning “color” and  graphein  meaning “to write”
Chromatography is a new technique which was first invested by Mikhail  Tswett, in 1906 in Warsaw.
He was successful in doing the separation Of colored substances by percolating vegetable extract through a column of ca carbonate.
 The Calcium carbonate act as adsorbent and different substances got absorbed to different extent and this give rise to color bands at different position on the column. Tswett termed this system of colored band as the chromatogram and the method as chromatography.

4.Classification of Chromatography

5.Chromatography types are further Subdivided into

6.Column Chromatography
It  was developed by the American petroleum  Chemist D.T Day in 1900
 M.S Tswett , the polish botanist in1906 used adsorption  column in his investigation .
 column chromatography is also known as adsorption chromatography .In  which the solid stationary phase is packed in a tubular column and mobile phase is allowed to flow through the solid .
 the column in which the stationary phase is packed consist of glass or Teflon tube, typically 10 to  50mm in diameter.


Adsorption chromatography
Gel filtration chromatography
Ion exchange chromatography
Affinity chromatography
Gas chromatography
High performance liquid chromatography


    This is the method employed by Mikhail Tswett in 1906. It is still used commonly in developing countries although the advent of faster more efficient variants has led to a decline in its use in developing countries.

    It is the type of column chromatography in which the mobile liquid is passed by gravity through the column of stationary phase.

   The advantages of this technique is that it requires little in a way of special equipment and gives good results with a relative low level of experimental expertise. The amount of supervision required is much lesser compare to that from other techniques.

    This method is developed by W. C. Stills in 1978, which involves application of positive pressure to the mobile phase solvent from the top of the column.

   Flash column chromatography is a specialized chromatography technique that uses compressed gas (such as nitrogen or air) or a pump to push solvent through the column.

  The main application of flash chromatography are:
Purification of synthetic products,
Isolation of target compounds from natural products,
The simplification of mixtures prior to high resolution
    preparative (usually) liquid chromatography
The fractionation of complex mixtures into simpler
     group for analysis. 

PPT On Cloud Computing Architecture


Cloud Computing Architecture Presentation Transcript:

Definition Of Cloud Computing
Characteristics Of A Cloud Service
Service Models
Types Of Cloud Computing
Advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing

Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm in the computer industry where the computing is moved to a cloud of computers.
Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet) or any such large networked environment. It came partly from the cloud-like symbol used to represent the complexities of the networks in the schematic diagrams.
It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices.

The characteristics of a cloud service is that it is normally:
Accessed via the internet
Paid by need and use
Adjusted up and down as needed and
Delivered from a platform of pooled computer resources

The above literature apply to all clouds but each cloud provides users with services at a different level of abstraction, which is referred to as a service model in the definition.
The three most common service models are:

 This is where users simply make use of a web-browser to access software that others have developed and offer as a service over  the web.
At the SaaS level, users do not have control or access to the underlying infrastructure being used to host the software.
Salesforce’s Customer Relationship Management software and Google Docs are popular examples that use the SaaS model of cloud computing.

 This is where applications are developed using a set of  programming languages and tools that are supported by the PaaS provider.
PaaS provides users with a high level of abstraction that allows them to focus on  developing their applications and not worry about the underlying infrastructure, Just like the SaaS model.
Google App Engine and Microsoft  Azure are popular PaaS examples.

This is where users  acquire computing resources such as processing  power, memory and storage from an IaaS provider  and use the resources to deploy and run their applications.
In contrast to the PaaS model, the IaaS  model is a low level of abstraction that allows users to access the underlying infrastructure through the  use of virtual machines.
 IaaS gives users more flexibility than PaaS
However, flexibility comes with a cost and users are responsible for updating and patching the operating  system at the IaaS level.
     Amazon Web Services’ EC2  and S3 are popular IaaS examples.

The service models described  in the definition are deployed in clouds, but there are  different types of clouds depending on who owns and uses them.
This is referred to as a cloud deployment model in the definition and the four types of cloud computing  are:

A cloud that is used exclusively by one  organization.
The cloud may be operated by the  organization itself or a third party.
The St Andrews Cloud Computing Co-laboratory and Concur  Technologies  are example organisations that have private clouds.

A cloud that can be used (for a fee) by the general public.
Public clouds require significant  investment and are usually owned by large corporations.
such as Microsoft, Google or Amazon.

A cloud that is shared by several organisations and is usually setup for their specific  requirements.
The Open Cirrus cloud test bed could be regarded as a community cloud that aims to support research in cloud computing .
all Government organizations within the state of  Pakistan may share computing infrastructure on the cloud to manage data related to citizens residing in Pakistan.

A cloud that is setup using a mixture of  the above three deployment models.
Each cloud in a  hybrid cloud could be independently managed but applications and data would be allowed to move  across the hybrid cloud.
Hybrid clouds allow cloud bursting to take place, which is where a private cloud can burst-out to a public cloud when it requires more  resources.

Sales force cloud computing for high/peak load requirements.

Low –or no –start-up costs
Payment according to need/use
Great flexibility in relation to fast up-and downscaling of resource needs
Possibility of full service with maintenance
Easier (and cheaper) access to new software versions

Financial trade-off is necessary –it might be more expensive over time than an in-house solution
Lack of control on operation and development
Costs of data traffic to and from the solution
Data security and return of data upon termination



GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS Presentation Transcript:

2.Preparation of the solution
 Solid sample must be dissolved in a suitable solvent.
 Some form of preliminary separation may be necessary to eliminate interfering materials.
 The Purposes of Solution Preparation

i) To maintain low solubility of the precipitate.
ii) To obtain the precipitate in a form suitable for filtration.
iii) Proper adjustment of the solution condition may also mask potential interferences.

3.Factors that Must be Considered when Preparing the Solution

i) Volume of the solution during precipitation.

ii) Concentration range of the test substance.

iii) The presence and concentrations of other constituents.

iv) Temperature

v) pH

4.Formation and Properties of Precipitates
  Analyte  +  Precipitating Agent  ?  Supersaturation
   Two steps are involved in precipitation:
1. Nucleation        2.Particle Growth
The particle size of a precipitate is determined by which one is faster between these two steps.
In nucleation a few atoms, ions or molecules join together to give a stable solid called nuclei (nucleus). 
 Further precipitation then involves a competition between additional nucleation and particle growth (the process where more ions are added to the nucleus to form colloids with sizes in the range of 1-100nm in diameter).

5.If: In high supersaturated solution….
Rate of Nucleation >  Rate of Particle Growth
Precipitate containing a large number of small particles. Colloidal is formed in the solution.
In less supersaturated solution……
Rate of Nucleation < Rate of Particle Growth
Precipitate containing a smaller number of larger particles is produced.
 Precipitates with large particle are more easily handled during filtration and washing.
** In general, a dilute solution with low supersaturation enhances particles growth that results in large particle size.

6.Factors That Determine the Particle Size of precipitates
 Von Weimarn introduced the concept of relative supersaturation,
 The particle size of precipitates is inversely proportional to the relative supersaturation of the solution during precipitation.

Relative Supersaturation  =    Q  -  S
Q  =  concentration of the mixed reagent before
S  =  solubility of the precipitate at equilibrium
 (Q?S) is a measure of the degree of supersaturation.
 The rate of nucleation and the rate of particle growth depend on the supersaturation (Q?S).

 (Q-S) Becomes too Great
High relative supersaturation, nucleation is favored, many small particles (Colloidal precipitates form).
 (Q-S) is Small
The smaller will be the relative supersaturation, particle growth will predominate, few but larger particles size (Crystalline precipitates form).
 To minimize supersaturation and obtain large crystals, conditions should be adjusted so that Q will be as low as possible (Q ?) and S will be relatively large (S ?) during precipitation.

8.Several steps are commonly taken
 Precipitation from dilute solution, (Q ?).
Adding precipitating reagents slowly with effective stirring.
Stirring prevents local excesses of the reagent, (Q ? )
Precipitation from hot solution. The solubility of precipitates increases with temperature, (S?).
 After the precipitate was formed, the particle size can be improved by digestion process or by precipitation from homogeneous solution.

9.Precipitation from Homogeneous Solution
 A technique in which a precipitating agent is generated in a solution of the analyte by slow chemical reaction.
 The precipitating ion is not added to the solution but is slowly generated throughout the solution by a homogeneous chemical reaction.
 The advantages
 ?    No locally excesses of precipitating agent.
 ?    The supersaturation (Q-S) is kept low at all the time, so that the precipitate obtained is much more dense and free from impurities than precipitates formed by the conventional method.
 ?    Substances that ordinarily precipitate only as amorphous solid frequently precipitate from homogenous solution as well-formed crystals.

 Urea (NH2CONH2)
 Used for generation of hydroxide ion.
Hydrolysis of urea will increase the pH (more alkaline). The ammonia slowly liberated raises the pH of the solution, and react with metal ions to form metal hydroxides (or hydrous oxides) precipitate.
 (NH2)2 CO  +  3H2O  ?  CO2  +  2NH4+  +  2OH?
 Process is controlled by heating the solution just below 100oC and a 1-2 hr heating period is needed to complete the typical precipitation.
 Used for the precipitation of Al, Ga, Th, Bi, Fe and Sn as hydroxides.

Known as absorbed and adsorbed impurities.
Co-precipitation is a process where the impurity is precipitated along with the desired precipitate, even though the solubility of the impurity has not been exceeded.
 ?    Post Precipitation
Foreign compound precipitates on top of the desired precipitate. For example, post precipitation of magnesium oxalate occurs if a precipitate of calcium oxalate is allowed to stand too long before being filtered.   

 3 types of coprecipitation:
Surface adsorption
Mixed–crystal formation
Occlusion and mechanical entrapment
Surface Adsorption
 A process in which a normally soluble compound is carried out of solution on the surface of a precipitate.
 Adsorption is a reversible process because it is accompanied by the opposite process of desorption.
The two opposing processes lead to a state of dynamic equilibrium known as adsorption equilibrium.

13.The position of the adsorption equilibrium depends on numerous factors;
 Effects of Surface Area
The amount of a substance adsorbed is directly proportional to the total surface area of the adsorbent.
 Effect of Concentration
Adsorption of ions increases with an increase of their concentration (not proportional).
 Effect of Temperature
Adsorption is an exothermic process. Rise of temperature means decreased adsorption.
 Effects of the Nature of the Adsorbed Ions
Adsorbents with ionic crystal lattices prefer to adsorb ions, which form sparingly soluble or common ions with the precipitate. For example, BaSO4 precipitate prefers to adsorb its own common ions, Ba2+ or SO42- dependent on which is present in the solution in excess.

14.    Occurs with all precipitates especially which has a very large surface area like colloidal particle.
 The surfaces of the precipitate contain some primary adsorbed ion, either the lattice cation or the lattice anion (the excess lattice ion).
 If AgCl is precipitated by the addition AgNO3 to excess NaCl, Cl? will be adsorbed on the precipitate surface.
 The lattice ion adsorbed is called the primary layer or primary adsorbed ion. The surface of the precipitate has a minus charge (because of the Cl?).
 The particles carry the same charge on the surface and because of that they repel each other and will not easily coagulate to form larger particles.
 To balance this charge, the adsorbed ions will also attract an ion of opposite charge (called the counter ion) such as Na+, which then surround the precipitate particles.
 For a silver halide precipitate, AgX, two cases are possible.

15.If nitrate is co-precipitated, the results will  be too high  because nitrate weights more than chloride.
 A lower weight counter ion will result  in the weight of the precipitate being too low.



CELLULAR AGING Presentation Transcript:

The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all  living

The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH.

> Evolutionary Theory: Aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with the age.
> Telomere Theory: Shortened telomeres activate the mechanism that prevents further cell multiplication.

5.> Accumulative Waste Theory: points to buildup of cells of waste products that presumably interferes with metabolism.
> Wear and Tear Theory: idea that changes associated with ageing are the result of chance damage that accumulates over time.

6.> Error Accumulation Theory: ageing that results the damage to genetic coding. > Somatic Mutation Theory: ageing results from damage to genetic integrity of body’s cells. > Free Radical Theory: that free radicals, unstable organic molecules (generally oxygen spp.) give rise to ageing.


8.Cellular senescence:
       > Lifespan is regulated by genes.
   > Their functions gradually decline due to
      random errors in DNA replication leading to
      the accumulation of senescent cells.

9.  1. Cellular senescence:
   > Lifespan is regulated by genes.
   > Their functions gradually decline due to
      random errors in DNA replication leading to
      the accumulation of senescent cells.

10.2. DNA damage:
 > a crucial mediator for cellular   senescence.
 > oxidative DNA damage accumulates with age by an age-related increase in ROS production and a decline in DNA repair capacity.

      > are the regions of DNA  at the end of 
      linear chromosomes.
   > are shortened during each cell division
      as DNA is replicated
   > telomere shortening is an indicator of
      aging at the DNA level.
   > Faster telomere shortening means
      faster aging.

12.Cell loss
Nuclear mutations
Mitochondrial mutations
Cellular senescence
Extracellular cross-links
Extracellular junk
Intracellular junk

13.The process of aging is a net result of number of factors including: > Primary intrinsic process  within the    living body. > Life style of the individual. > Influence of the environment. > Diseases.

> Deposits of the "aging pigment”, lipofuscin.
> Heart rate diminished.
> Valve stiffness.
> Heart muscle cells degenerate.
> Arteries become stiffer.

15. > Neurons of central and peripheral               nervous system degenerate.  > Nerve transmission slows. > Loss of motor coordination, intellectual      function and short term memory.



ENZYMES Presentation Transcript:

2.What are enzymes
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (increase or decrease) chemical reactions.
Enzymes are specialized protein molecules facilitating most of the body's metabolic processes - such as, supplying energy, digesting foods, purifying your blood etc.
 They also assist in fighting aging, weight loss, lowering cholesterol, cleaning the colon, breaking down fats, strengthening the immune system, improve mental capacity, detoxifying the body, building muscles from protein, eliminating carbon dioxide from the lungs etc.

3.Many genetic disorders (diabetes, Tay-Sachs disease) occur due to the deficiency or total absence of one or more enzymes. The disease conditions like cancer, results due to an excessive activity of one or more enzymes.
Routine medical tests monitor the activity of enzymes in the blood, and many of the prescription drugs (penicillin, methotrexate) exert their effects through interactions with enzymes.
Enzymes and their inhibitors can be important tools in medicine, agriculture, and food science

4.There are two major types of enzymes:  synthetases and hydrolases.
The synthetases (also known as metabolic enzymes) help to build body structures by making or synthesizing larger molecules.
The hydrolases (also known as digestive enzymes) use the process of hydrolysis to break down large molecules into smaller ones by adding water to the larger molecules.

Enzymes have one (or more) active sites in their structure that have great specificity for certain substrates (bind only to these) and catalyze their transformation into specific product.”

6.Three dimensional structure of an enzyme preserves its ACTIVE SITE.
 Conditions that can affect three dimensional structure include:
heat, pH (acid/base balance) and other chemicals (salt, charged ions).

7.Enzymes have been isolated from every type of living organism. Many of these biological catalysts are significant only from an academic or medical standpoint, but some of the available enzyme from this vast repertoire have been utilized for agricultural and industrial purposes for years.

8.Animal Enzymes:
Around fifty years ago, enzymes were being produced strictly from animals. Pigs or cows were butchered and enzymes were extracted from their pancreases. The problems with animal enzymes were multifold.
They were not very stable at the low pH (acidic) environment of the stomach so that taking them orally meant that much of the enzyme product was destroyed before doing the job.
Also, animals can be exposed to antibiotics and steroids, which wouldn’t be healthy. Finally, animal enzymes were limited as to type.

9.Plant Enzymes:
Plant enzymes were discovered and used next. These animal-friendly enzymes are much more stable under low pH conditions, such as inside the stomach, and temperature changes don't seem to affect them as much. While clearly a step up from animal enzymes, plant enzymes don't always give much variety in what they can do.
In digestive conditions, they work very well; however, as systemic enzymes doing their work outside of the digestive tract, there isn't much to choose from. Another is they could contain harmful substances such as phenolic compounds.

10.Microbial Enzymes:
Microbial enzymes have since come along and provide for numerous enzymes that perform multiple body functions. In fact, there are likely microbial enzymes out there that we haven't even discovered yet-enzymes that will one day prove beneficial to us. Microbial enzymes are extracted from fermented bacteria or fermented fungal organisms. Each has been tested for effectiveness and safety in humans and those that show promise are researched and provided for human use.

11.So, microbes are preferred to plants and animals as source of enzyme because:
They are usually cheaper to produce.
They are extracted from fermented fungus or bacteria.
Their enzyme contents are more controllable and predictable.
One doesn’t have to worry about contamination with antibiotics or steroids. The pH range is broad which makes them active in stomach acid and throughout our body.
Last but not least, there is a reliable supply of raw material to make microbial enzymes.

12.The table below lists several of the industrially on sequential enzymes and their sources in nature.

Pineapple (bromelain) –
The bromelain in most digestive enzyme supplements is extracted from pineapple stems, since they have the highest concentration of the nutrient
Bromelain is a group of powerful proteolytic digestive enzymes and provides several other health benefits, most of which are still under investigation.
 Studies have revealed that bromelain is also effective in fighting cancer growth.
 Pineapple is also a great source of several other nutrients including manganese, vitamin C, and potassium

14. Green Papaya (papain) –
Like the bromelain in pineapple, papain is a group of proteolytic digestive enzymes.  Papain, often extracted from papaya, is another major ingredient in digestive enzyme supplements.  Papain is also added to most enzyme supplements that are formulated specifically for pain relief (arthritis, sports injuries, etc.).  Papain may also have anti-inflammatory properties.  Papaya is an excellent source of several other nutrients including potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

Mangoes –(magneferin, katechol oxidase, and lactase)
Green mango powder (amchur) is often used as a tenderizing agent for meats. Mango lassi is a common drink in South Asian restaurants and it's made from a combination of mangoes, yogurt, and spices. Not only are mangoes a rich source of digestive enzymes, they're also an excellent source of potassium, vitamin A, and beta-carotene. Mangoes are also a good source of vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fiber.

Plain yogurt isn't just an excellent source of "good" bacteria. It's basically fermented milk and contains many of the same enzymes. Yogurt is antiviral and antibacterial. It protects the digestive system and helps to build immunities.
Kiwifruit (actinidin) –
The actinidin enzyme in kiwifruit eases digestion due to it's proteolytic enzyme qualities. Actinidin is also found in pineapples, papayas, and mangoes.  Aside from kiwi being a great source of digestive enzymes, it's also a great source of several other nutrients including vitamin C (almost twice the amount in an orange), magnesium, and potassium

PPT On Biological Aspects Of Enzymology


Biological Aspects Of Enzymology Presentation Transcript:
1.Biological Aspects Of Enzymology

2.Biological Role Of EnzymesEnzymes are biological catalysts.
  biological: composed of protein
                    or rarely, RNA
  catalyst:   speeds up a reaction
                  without being changed
                  by the reaction

3.Biological Role Of Enzymes
Enzymes are incredibly efficient and highly specific biological catalysts . In fact, the human body would not exist without enzymes, because the chemical reactions required to maintain the body simply would not occur fast enough.

4.Most enzymes are proteins. 
All enzymes are SPECIFIC for the reactants (substrates) in the reactions that they catalyze.
Enzymes speed up biological reactions by lowering the activation energy for the reaction. 

5.Enzymes play a critical role in everyday life.
Many genetic disorders (diabetes, Tay-Sachs disease) occur due to the deficiency or total absence of one or more enzymes.
The other disease conditions like cancer, results due to an excessive activity of one or more enzymes.
Routine medical tests monitor the activity of enzymes in the blood, and many of the prescription drugs (penicillin, methotrexate) exert their effects through interactions with enzymes.
Enzymes and their inhibitors can be important tools in medicine, agriculture, and food science.

6.Enzyme-Substrate Interactions

7.Three dimensional structure of an enzyme preserves its ACTIVE SITE

   active site: region on enzyme where
                      reactants bind 
Conditions that can affect three dimensional structure include: heat, pH (acid/base balance) and other chemicals (salt, charged ions)   

8.Sources of Enzymes
Enzymes can be obtained from various sources
which include:

9.Of the total industrial enzymes, more than 50% are produced from fungi and yeast
Over one third is produced from bacteria
From animal source 8%
From plant source 4%

10.   Microbes are preferred to plants and animals as source of enzyme because:
They are generally cheaper to produce
Enzyme contents are more predictable and controllable
Reliable supply of raw material of constant composition
Plant and animal tissues contain more potentially harmful material than microbes, e. g. phenolic compound (plants), endogenous enzyme inhibitors and proteases  

Food Sources of Enzymes
1. Papaya
    Papayas are one of the best natural sources of   digestive enzymes.
Papain, a proteolytic enzyme, extracted from Papaya, is used as digestive supplement.
 Papayas are also high in potassium, fiber and    carotenoids, which benefit the eyes.

12.Green Foods
The Muscular Dystrophy Association cites leafy green vegetables as a good source of enzymes full of antioxidants and a good way to decrease oxidative stress in the body.
Bowden specifically points to super green foods such as chlorophyll for their ability to activate enzymes in the body and purify the blood.

Sweet tasting and fragrant, pineapple is just as well known as the papaya for its ability to aid in digestion and reduce inflammation.
Its active ingredient, bromelain, is a good source of enzymes and also extracted to make digestive supplements.
Pineapple is packed with fiber and vitamin C, and is low on the glycemic index.

Raw, unpasteurized, organic milk is packed with vitamins and minerals which is one of the best natural sources of enzymes
Enzymes are the  crucial components in recovering from disease and maintaining health, and that obtaining them from organic sources such as raw milk makes all the difference

Plain yogurt isn't just an excellent source of "good" bacteria. It's basically fermented milk and contains many of the same enzymes.
Yogurt is antiviral and antibacterial. It protects the digestive system and helps to build immunities.



FRANCE Presentation Transcript:

2.The People
The French cherish their culture, history, language and cuisine, which is considered an art. The French have been and are today world leaders in fashion, food, wine, art and architecture.
 Discussing below some important key points for consideration when doing business in France.

3.Relationships - Public vs. Private
 The French are private people and have different rules of behavior for people within their social circle and those who are not.
 Although the French are generally polite in all dealings, it is only with their close friends and family that they are free to be themselves.
Friendship brings with it a set of roles and responsibilities, including being available should you be needed. Friendship involves frequent, if not daily, contact.


5.Dress Etiquette
Business dress is understated and stylish.
Dress well: The French are fashion conscious and their version of casual is not as relaxed as in many western countries.
Men should wear dark-colored, conservative business suits for the initial meeting.
Women should wear either business suits or elegant dresses in soft colors.
The French like the finer things in life, so wear good quality accessories


7.Business Meetings Etiquette
When doing business in France, use first names only after being invited to do so
Appointments are necessary and should be made at least 2 weeks in advance.
Do not try to schedule meetings during July or August, as this is a common vacation period.
Meetings are to discuss issues, not to make decisions.

8.Gift Giving Etiquette
Small business gifts may be exchanged, but usually not at the first meeting.
Flowers should be given in odd numbers but not 13, which is considered unlucky.
 Some older French retain old-style prohibitions against receiving certain flowers: White lilies are used at funerals; red carnations as they symbolize bad will.
 Gifts are usually opened when received.

9.How do French people greet each other?
The handshake is a common form of greeting.
Friends may greet each other by lightly kissing on the cheeks, once on the left cheek and once on the right cheek.
You are expected to say 'bonjour' or 'bonsoir' (good morning and good evening) with the honorific title Monsieur or Madame when entering a shop and 'au revoir' (good-bye) when leaving.

Perhaps no other culture so highly regards its language as a symbol of itself.
The French are extremely proud of their language. This pride makes the use of French a sensitive issue.
 It is important to at least learn some basic civilities prior to doing business in France.


12.Table manners
Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.
Do not begin eating until the hostess says
     'bon appetit'.
 Finish everything on your plate.
 Do not cut salad with a knife and fork. Fold the lettuce on to your fork.
Peel and slice fruit before eating it.
Taste everything offered.
Leaving food on your plate is impolite.

13.Dining Etiquette
If you are invited to a French house for dinner
Arrive on time. Under no circumstances should you arrive more than 10 minutes later than invited
The French do not like to discuss business during dinner. Dinner is more of a social occasion and a time to enjoy good food

Food is one of the great passions of the French people.
 French cooking is highly refined and involves careful preparation, attention to detail, and the use of fresh ingredients. 
French people eat 2 times a day i.e. Midday and in the evening between 7 and 8



ASTHMA Presentation Transcript:
1.ASTHMA Asthma (AZ-ma) is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning..

2.To understand asthma, it helps to know how the airways work. The airways are tubes that carry air into and out of your lungs. People who have asthma have inflamed airways. This makes them swollen and very sensitive. They tend to react strongly to certain inhaled substances.
When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This narrows the airways, causing less air to flow into the lungs. The swelling also can worsen, making the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways might make more mucus than usual. Mucus is a sticky, thick liquid that can further narrow the airways.

3.What Causes Asthma?The exact cause of asthma isn't known. Researchers think some genetic and environmental factors interact to cause asthma, most often early in life. These factors include:
An inherited tendency to develop allergies, called atopy (AT-o-pe)
Parents who have asthma
Certain respiratory infections during childhood
    Contact with some airborne allergens or exposure to some viral infections in infancy or in early childhood when the immune system is developing

4.Who Is at Risk for Asthma?
Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 25 million people are known to have asthma. About 7 million of these people are children.
Young children who often wheeze and have respiratory infections—as well as certain other risk factors—are at highest risk of developing asthma that continues beyond 6 years of age. The other risk factors include having allergies, eczema (an allergic skin condition), or parents who have asthma.
Among children, more boys have asthma than girls. But among adults, the disease affects men and women equally. It's not clear whether or how sex and sex hormones play a role in causing asthma.
Most, but not all, people who have asthma have allergies.
Some people develop asthma because of contact with certain chemical irritants or industrial dusts in the workplace. This type of asthma is called occupational asthma.

 Coughing. Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep.
 Wheezing. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe.
 Chest tightness. This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.
Shortness of breath. Some people who have asthma say they can't catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can't get air out of your lungs.
Not all people who have asthma have these symptoms. Likewise, having these symptoms doesn't always mean that you have asthma. The best way doctors have to diagnose asthma is to use a lung function test, ask about medical history (including type and frequency of symptoms), and do a physical exam.

6.What Causes Asthma Symptoms To Occur?
What Causes Asthma Symptoms To Occur?
Many things can trigger or worsen asthma symptoms. Your doctor will help you find out which things (called triggers) may cause your asthma to flare up if you come in contact with them. Triggers can include:
    Allergens from dust, animal fur, cockroaches, mold, and pollens from trees, grasses, and flowers
    Irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, chemicals or dust in the workplace, compounds in home décor products, and sprays (such as hairspray)
    Medicines such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nonselective beta-blockers
    Sulfites in foods and drinks
    Viral upper respiratory infections, such as colds
    Physical activity, including exercise

7.Other health conditions can make asthma harder to manage. Examples of these conditions include a runny nose, sinus infections, reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep apnea. These conditions should be treated as part of an overall asthma care plan.
Asthma is different for each person. Some of the triggers listed above may not affect you. Other triggers that do affect you might not be on the list. Talk with your doctor about the things that seem to make your asthma worse.

8.Medical and Family Histories
Your doctor may ask about your family history of asthma and allergies. He or she also may ask whether you have asthma symptoms and when and how often they occur.
Let your doctor know whether your symptoms seem to happen only during certain times of the year or in certain places, or if they get worse at night.
Your doctor also may want to know what factors seem to trigger your symptoms or worsen them.
Your doctor may ask you about related health conditions that can interfere with asthma management. These conditions include a runny nose, sinus infections, reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep apnea.

9.Physical Exam
Your doctor will listen to your breathing and look for signs of asthma or allergies. These signs include wheezing, a runny nose or swollen nasal passages, and allergic skin conditions (such as eczema).
Keep in mind that you can still have asthma even if you don't have these signs when your doctor examines you.

10.Diagnostic Tests
Lung Function Test:  Your doctor will use a test called spirometry (spi-ROM-eh-tre) to check how your lungs are working. This test measures how much air you can breathe in and out. It also measures how fast you can blow air out.

11.Other Tests
1. Allergy testing to find out which allergens affect you, if any.
2. A test to measure how sensitive your airways are. This is called a bronchoprovocation (brong-KO-prav-eh-KA-shun) test. Using spirometry, this test repeatedly measures your lung function during physical activity or after you receive increasing doses of cold air or a special chemical to breathe in.
3. A test to show whether you have another condition with symptoms similar to asthma, such as reflux disease, vocal cord dysfunction, or sleep apnea.
4. A chest x ray or an EKG (electrocardiogram). These tests will help find out whether a foreign object in your airways or another disease might be causing your symptoms.

12.TREATMENT Cromolyn : This medicine is taken using a device called a nebulizer. As you breathe in, the nebulizer sends a fine mist of medicine to your lungs. Cromolyn helps prevent airway inflammation. Omalizumab :(anti-IgE). This medicine is given as a shot (injection) one or two times a month. It helps prevent your body from reacting to asthma triggers, such as pollen and dust. Anti-IgE might be used if other asthma medicines have not worked well. Inhaled Long acting beta 2 agonist . These medicines open the airways. They might be added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids to improve asthma control. Inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists should never be used for long-term asthma control unless they're used with inhaled corticosteroids. Leukotriene Modifiers. These medicines are taken by mouth. They help block the chain reaction that increases inflammation in your airways. Theophylline . This medicine is taken by mouth. Theophylline helps open the airways.

13.ApoB levels are higher in males than in females and tend to increase with age. It has been suggested the range be adjusted according to the risk factor stratification,[1] similar to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C).

14.Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) is a structural and functional protein that constitutes approximately 70% of the protein in high density lipoprotein (HDL). The reference range of Apo-A1 varies by sex, as follows: Men: Greater than 120 mg/dL (1.2 g/L) Women: Greater than 140 mg/dL (1.4 g/L) levels decrease with age.

15.Serum triglyceride levels and classifications are as follows:[1] Less than 150 mg/dL - Normal 150-199 mg/dL - Borderline 200-499 mg/dL - High 500 mg/dL or higher - Very high




2.The Aorta
After originating from LV (about 3 cm in diameter ), it ascending for a short distance, arches backward and to the left side, descends within the thorax on the left side of the vertebral column
Portions of aorta
Ascending aorta
Arch of the aorta and
Descending aorta (thoracic and abdominal aorta) 

3.About 5 cm. in length
Passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage
At its origin, three small dilatations called the aortic sinuses
At the union of the ascending aorta with the aortic arch, the caliber of the vessel is increased, owing to a bulging of its right wall. This dilatation is termed the bulb of the aorta
Only branches of the ascending aorta are the two coronary arteries

4.Arch of the Aorta Begins at the level of the upper border of the Rt 2nd sternocostal joint
First runs upward, backward, and to the left, infront of the trachea, then directed backward on the left side of the trachea and finally passes downward on the left side of the body of T4, at lower border of which it becomes continuous with the descending aorta
Forms two curvatures: one with its convexity upward, the other with its convexity forward and to the left

5.Branches of arch of aorta
Three in number-
Innominate artery
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery

6.CCA= common carotid artery

VA= vertebral artery

SCA= subclavian artery

7.Descending Aorta Thoracic Aorta
Contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity
Begins at the lower border of the T4
Ends in front of the lower border of the T12 vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm

8.Branches of the Thoracic Aorta
Intercostal.- usually 9 pairs
Superior Phrenic.

9.Abdominal aorta
Begins at aortic
hiatus of diaphragm
In front of lower
  border of T12
Descending in front
 of the vertebral column
Ends on L4-body,
  a little to Left of midline
Summit of the convexity
  corresponding to the L3

10.Visceral Branches
 Superior Mesenteric.
 Inferior Mesenteric.
 Middle Suprarenals.
 Internal Spermatics.
 Ovarian (in the female)
Parietal Branches
 Inferior Phrenics.
 Middle Sacral.
Terminal Branches
 Common Iliacs.

11.Short thick trunk
˜1.25 cm length
Arises from the front of the aorta, just below the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm
Between T12 & L1
Passing nearly horizontally forward
3 large branches
Left gastric A - smallest
Hepatic A
Splenic A - largest

12.Superior Mesenteric Artery
Large vessel
Arises from front of aorta, at L1, ~1.25 cm below Coeliac A
Passes downward and forward, to the right iliac fossa
Supply small intestine (expt superior Duo),
   Cecum, Asc Colon & Rt ½ Transverse Colon

Inferior Pancreatico-duodenal
Middle Colic
Right Colic

14.Smaller than SMA
Arises from aorta at L3, about 3 or 4 cm above its division
Passes downward, posterior to the peritoneum
Continued into pelvis as Superior hemorrhoidal artery & ends on the upper rectum
Supply Lt ½ transverse colon, descending & sigmoid colon, and most of the rectum

15.Inferior Mesenteric Artery branches
Left Colic A
Sigmoid branches
Superior Hemorrhoidal A



ANTI TUMOR DRUGS Presentation Transcript:



4.   Plant-derived compounds have been an important source of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents.    Anti cancer or Anti tumor agents are those agents which are used in the treatment of cancer or tumor.

5.Plants are an enormously rich source of peptides with the potential to be developed as anticancer agents, e.g. Violaceae, Rubiaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families and some marine plants.
Most peptides isolated from plants are cyclic peptides, so-called cyclopeptides.
Peptides, including those isolated from plants, have a potential antitumor effect.

6.How Cancer Drugs Work?
All cancer drugs on the whole show the same mechanism of action:
 “They block the growth of living cells”.
 But the way by which they achieve this goal differs on the basis of cellular functions on which each drug acts. The characteristics that lead to cell growth can be used against the cell, and this advantage is used in chemotherapy.

7.The Mechanism Of Action Of Peptides Act As Anti Tumor Agent
 Peptides from plants exhibit marked inhibitory effects on the proliferation of various tumor cell lines,
  Condensing and dissociation of
the cellular microtubules are important processes for cell proliferation. Interruption of such processes can stop division during cell mitosis, which results in either the prolongation of the cell cycle or cell apoptosis.

Mitotic inhibitors causes the crystallization of microtubules during mitosis  causing mitotic arrest and apoptosis.
Enzymes that  act by inhibiting protein synthesis thereby depriving tumor cell and inhibit cell replication.

By reducing the  blood flow to the tumor cells. Thus, acting as an antivascular targeting agent, which blocks tumour blood supply.
It is reported that these agents cause the shutdown of blood flow in many animal tumors leading to extensive tumour necrosis.

10.Apoptosis is an important process for eliminating cancer cells. Induction-apoptosis is a key mechanism by which anticancer compounds show their action.

 such as Topoisomerase inhibitors resulting DNA damages that interferes with cell replication and transcription.


12.Natural origin is defined as natural products, derivatives of natural products or synthetic pharmaceuticals based on natural product models

The search for anti-cancer agents from plant sources started in earnest in the 1950s with the discovery and development of the vinca alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, and the isolation of the cytotoxic podophyllotoxins.
These plants are used against various types of tumors/cancers such as sarcoma, lymphoma, carcinoma and leukemia
The first agents to advance into clinical use were the isolation of the vinca alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (Apo-cynaceae)
Vinblastine and vincristine are primarily used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of a variety of cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, advanced testicular cancer, breast and lung cancers, and Kaposi’s sarcoma.

14.Podophyllotoxin (abbreviated as PPT), otherwise known as podofilox, is a non-alkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of  American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Another common source of podophyllotoxin is the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae).
Podophyllotoxin's anticancer property can be attributed to the inhibition of tubulin polymerization. As podophyllotoxin binds to the tubulin, microtubule formation is prevented. Consequently, podophyllotoxin arrests the cell cycle in the metaphase
Etoposide and teniposide are well known anti tumor agents are the semisynthetic products of Podophyllotoxin they are used for the treatment of small lung cell cancer, testicular cancer neuroblastoma and hepatoma.
A racemic mixture of harringtonine and homoha-rringtonine has been used successfully in China for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia.

15.The discovery of paclitaxel from the bark of the Pacific Yew, Taxus brevifolia Nutt. (Taxaceae), is another evidence of the success in natural product drug discovery.
Taxus baccata was reported to use in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancer. Paclitaxel is significantly active against ovarian cancer, advanced breast cancer, small and non-small cell lung cancer.
The extract of Camptotheca acuminate (Nyssaceae) was the only one of 1000 of the plant extracts tested for anti-tumor activity which showed efficacy and camptothecin was isolated as an active constituent
Topotecan and irinotecan are semi-synthetic derivatives of camptothecin and are used for the treatment of ovarian and small cell lung cancers, and colorectal cancers, respectively.
Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae) have a history of use in the treatment of cancers started in the 1960s.
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