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Tuesday, August 13, 2013

PPT On Engineered Protein


Engineered Protein Presentation Transcript: 
1.Engineered Protein

Engineered Proteins  are the proteins which are synthesized by Changing the gene coding of the protein
The process of making changes in the sequence of a gene coding for a protein in order to bring about desirable changes in function is called “Engineered Protein” 

DNA-Technology has revolutionized both traditional biotechnology and opened totally new fields for scientific study.
Recombinant DNA-Technology allows one to produce new enzymes in traditional overproducing and safe organisms .

4.Engineered Protein
Protein engineering is used to modify and improve existing enzymes.
DNA is basically a long chain of deoxyribose sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds. Organic bases, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine are linked to the sugars and form the alphabet of genes. The specific order of the organic bases in the chain constitutes the genetic language.

5.Engineered Protein
Genetic engineering means reading and modifying this language. Enzymes are crucial tools in this process. e.g.
1. Restriction enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the chain at these recognition sites

6.DNA modifying enzymes synthesize nucleic acids, degrade them, join pieces together and remove parts of the DNA.
3.    DNA-polymerases synthesize new DNA-chains. Many of them need a model template, which they copy.
 4.    Ligases join adjacent nucleotides together.

7.Recombinant DNA technology led to the rapid development and production of Therapeutic protein.
There are many proteins essential to good health that some people cannot produce because of genetic defects.

8.These proteins include various blood-clotting factors causing hemophilia, insulin (resulting in diabetes), growth hormone (resulting in lack of proper growth), and other proteins, the administration of which corrects pathological conditions or results in other therapeutic benefits.
Plasmids are used to transfer human genes to bacterial cells.

9.If the gene inserted into the plasmid of bacteria is the human gene for insulin, for example, the bacteria into which this gene is inserted produces human insulin.
Bacteria as such do not produce insulin, but the recombinant bacterial cells do produce insulin, it was an outstanding example of microbial biotechnology.

10.Human genes composed of coding and non- coding sequences. The copy of the coding sequences is called cDNA.
The synthesis of the insulin cDNA will allow the production of a functional insulin molecule.

11.Transfer of the Insulin gene into a plasmid vector (schematic)

12.Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
Insulin was first synthesized in 1979 in E. coli cells through the use of recombinant DNA techniques.
Insulin is produced by beta cells in pancreas in humans.

13.Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
Human insulin has two polypeptides subunits called the A (21 amino acids) and the B (30 amino acids) which are bonded by disulphide bond to create the active insulin.
When a human gene for insulin is cloned, gene for each of the subunit is inserted into plasmid vector separately.

14.   Cloning the Insulin gene (Mechanism):
The vector has the Lac z gene encoding for the enzyme ß-galactosidase (ß-gal).
The genes that code for the two insulin chains in human are fused to the E. coli gene (Lac z) encoding for beta-galactosidase.
The plasmid is then transformed into E. coli .
Plasmids enter the bacteria in a process called transfection .

15.Microbes against microbes
Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs used against microbes.
An antibiotic is a substance, usually produced by a microorganism which, in very small quantities, inhibits or kills other microorganisms .

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