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Tuesday, August 13, 2013

PPT On ASTHMA


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ASTHMA Presentation Transcript:
1.ASTHMA Asthma (AZ-ma) is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning..

2.To understand asthma, it helps to know how the airways work. The airways are tubes that carry air into and out of your lungs. People who have asthma have inflamed airways. This makes them swollen and very sensitive. They tend to react strongly to certain inhaled substances.
When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This narrows the airways, causing less air to flow into the lungs. The swelling also can worsen, making the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways might make more mucus than usual. Mucus is a sticky, thick liquid that can further narrow the airways.

3.What Causes Asthma?The exact cause of asthma isn't known. Researchers think some genetic and environmental factors interact to cause asthma, most often early in life. These factors include:
An inherited tendency to develop allergies, called atopy (AT-o-pe)
Parents who have asthma
Certain respiratory infections during childhood
    Contact with some airborne allergens or exposure to some viral infections in infancy or in early childhood when the immune system is developing

4.Who Is at Risk for Asthma?
Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 25 million people are known to have asthma. About 7 million of these people are children.
Young children who often wheeze and have respiratory infections—as well as certain other risk factors—are at highest risk of developing asthma that continues beyond 6 years of age. The other risk factors include having allergies, eczema (an allergic skin condition), or parents who have asthma.
Among children, more boys have asthma than girls. But among adults, the disease affects men and women equally. It's not clear whether or how sex and sex hormones play a role in causing asthma.
Most, but not all, people who have asthma have allergies.
Some people develop asthma because of contact with certain chemical irritants or industrial dusts in the workplace. This type of asthma is called occupational asthma.

5.SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
 Coughing. Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep.
 Wheezing. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe.
 Chest tightness. This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.
Shortness of breath. Some people who have asthma say they can't catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can't get air out of your lungs.
Not all people who have asthma have these symptoms. Likewise, having these symptoms doesn't always mean that you have asthma. The best way doctors have to diagnose asthma is to use a lung function test, ask about medical history (including type and frequency of symptoms), and do a physical exam.

6.What Causes Asthma Symptoms To Occur?
What Causes Asthma Symptoms To Occur?
Many things can trigger or worsen asthma symptoms. Your doctor will help you find out which things (called triggers) may cause your asthma to flare up if you come in contact with them. Triggers can include:
    Allergens from dust, animal fur, cockroaches, mold, and pollens from trees, grasses, and flowers
    Irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, chemicals or dust in the workplace, compounds in home d├ęcor products, and sprays (such as hairspray)
    Medicines such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nonselective beta-blockers
    Sulfites in foods and drinks
    Viral upper respiratory infections, such as colds
    Physical activity, including exercise

7.Other health conditions can make asthma harder to manage. Examples of these conditions include a runny nose, sinus infections, reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep apnea. These conditions should be treated as part of an overall asthma care plan.
Asthma is different for each person. Some of the triggers listed above may not affect you. Other triggers that do affect you might not be on the list. Talk with your doctor about the things that seem to make your asthma worse.

8.Medical and Family Histories
Your doctor may ask about your family history of asthma and allergies. He or she also may ask whether you have asthma symptoms and when and how often they occur.
Let your doctor know whether your symptoms seem to happen only during certain times of the year or in certain places, or if they get worse at night.
Your doctor also may want to know what factors seem to trigger your symptoms or worsen them.
Your doctor may ask you about related health conditions that can interfere with asthma management. These conditions include a runny nose, sinus infections, reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep apnea.

9.Physical Exam
Your doctor will listen to your breathing and look for signs of asthma or allergies. These signs include wheezing, a runny nose or swollen nasal passages, and allergic skin conditions (such as eczema).
Keep in mind that you can still have asthma even if you don't have these signs when your doctor examines you.

10.Diagnostic Tests
Lung Function Test:  Your doctor will use a test called spirometry (spi-ROM-eh-tre) to check how your lungs are working. This test measures how much air you can breathe in and out. It also measures how fast you can blow air out.

11.Other Tests
1. Allergy testing to find out which allergens affect you, if any.
2. A test to measure how sensitive your airways are. This is called a bronchoprovocation (brong-KO-prav-eh-KA-shun) test. Using spirometry, this test repeatedly measures your lung function during physical activity or after you receive increasing doses of cold air or a special chemical to breathe in.
3. A test to show whether you have another condition with symptoms similar to asthma, such as reflux disease, vocal cord dysfunction, or sleep apnea.
4. A chest x ray or an EKG (electrocardiogram). These tests will help find out whether a foreign object in your airways or another disease might be causing your symptoms.

12.TREATMENT Cromolyn : This medicine is taken using a device called a nebulizer. As you breathe in, the nebulizer sends a fine mist of medicine to your lungs. Cromolyn helps prevent airway inflammation. Omalizumab :(anti-IgE). This medicine is given as a shot (injection) one or two times a month. It helps prevent your body from reacting to asthma triggers, such as pollen and dust. Anti-IgE might be used if other asthma medicines have not worked well. Inhaled Long acting beta 2 agonist . These medicines open the airways. They might be added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids to improve asthma control. Inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists should never be used for long-term asthma control unless they're used with inhaled corticosteroids. Leukotriene Modifiers. These medicines are taken by mouth. They help block the chain reaction that increases inflammation in your airways. Theophylline . This medicine is taken by mouth. Theophylline helps open the airways.

13.ApoB levels are higher in males than in females and tend to increase with age. It has been suggested the range be adjusted according to the risk factor stratification,[1] similar to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C).

14.Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) is a structural and functional protein that constitutes approximately 70% of the protein in high density lipoprotein (HDL). The reference range of Apo-A1 varies by sex, as follows: Men: Greater than 120 mg/dL (1.2 g/L) Women: Greater than 140 mg/dL (1.4 g/L) levels decrease with age.

15.Serum triglyceride levels and classifications are as follows:[1] Less than 150 mg/dL - Normal 150-199 mg/dL - Borderline 200-499 mg/dL - High 500 mg/dL or higher - Very high
 

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