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Tuesday, August 13, 2013



ENZYMES Presentation Transcript:

2.What are enzymes
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (increase or decrease) chemical reactions.
Enzymes are specialized protein molecules facilitating most of the body's metabolic processes - such as, supplying energy, digesting foods, purifying your blood etc.
 They also assist in fighting aging, weight loss, lowering cholesterol, cleaning the colon, breaking down fats, strengthening the immune system, improve mental capacity, detoxifying the body, building muscles from protein, eliminating carbon dioxide from the lungs etc.

3.Many genetic disorders (diabetes, Tay-Sachs disease) occur due to the deficiency or total absence of one or more enzymes. The disease conditions like cancer, results due to an excessive activity of one or more enzymes.
Routine medical tests monitor the activity of enzymes in the blood, and many of the prescription drugs (penicillin, methotrexate) exert their effects through interactions with enzymes.
Enzymes and their inhibitors can be important tools in medicine, agriculture, and food science

4.There are two major types of enzymes:  synthetases and hydrolases.
The synthetases (also known as metabolic enzymes) help to build body structures by making or synthesizing larger molecules.
The hydrolases (also known as digestive enzymes) use the process of hydrolysis to break down large molecules into smaller ones by adding water to the larger molecules.

Enzymes have one (or more) active sites in their structure that have great specificity for certain substrates (bind only to these) and catalyze their transformation into specific product.”

6.Three dimensional structure of an enzyme preserves its ACTIVE SITE.
 Conditions that can affect three dimensional structure include:
heat, pH (acid/base balance) and other chemicals (salt, charged ions).

7.Enzymes have been isolated from every type of living organism. Many of these biological catalysts are significant only from an academic or medical standpoint, but some of the available enzyme from this vast repertoire have been utilized for agricultural and industrial purposes for years.

8.Animal Enzymes:
Around fifty years ago, enzymes were being produced strictly from animals. Pigs or cows were butchered and enzymes were extracted from their pancreases. The problems with animal enzymes were multifold.
They were not very stable at the low pH (acidic) environment of the stomach so that taking them orally meant that much of the enzyme product was destroyed before doing the job.
Also, animals can be exposed to antibiotics and steroids, which wouldn’t be healthy. Finally, animal enzymes were limited as to type.

9.Plant Enzymes:
Plant enzymes were discovered and used next. These animal-friendly enzymes are much more stable under low pH conditions, such as inside the stomach, and temperature changes don't seem to affect them as much. While clearly a step up from animal enzymes, plant enzymes don't always give much variety in what they can do.
In digestive conditions, they work very well; however, as systemic enzymes doing their work outside of the digestive tract, there isn't much to choose from. Another is they could contain harmful substances such as phenolic compounds.

10.Microbial Enzymes:
Microbial enzymes have since come along and provide for numerous enzymes that perform multiple body functions. In fact, there are likely microbial enzymes out there that we haven't even discovered yet-enzymes that will one day prove beneficial to us. Microbial enzymes are extracted from fermented bacteria or fermented fungal organisms. Each has been tested for effectiveness and safety in humans and those that show promise are researched and provided for human use.

11.So, microbes are preferred to plants and animals as source of enzyme because:
They are usually cheaper to produce.
They are extracted from fermented fungus or bacteria.
Their enzyme contents are more controllable and predictable.
One doesn’t have to worry about contamination with antibiotics or steroids. The pH range is broad which makes them active in stomach acid and throughout our body.
Last but not least, there is a reliable supply of raw material to make microbial enzymes.

12.The table below lists several of the industrially on sequential enzymes and their sources in nature.

Pineapple (bromelain) –
The bromelain in most digestive enzyme supplements is extracted from pineapple stems, since they have the highest concentration of the nutrient
Bromelain is a group of powerful proteolytic digestive enzymes and provides several other health benefits, most of which are still under investigation.
 Studies have revealed that bromelain is also effective in fighting cancer growth.
 Pineapple is also a great source of several other nutrients including manganese, vitamin C, and potassium

14. Green Papaya (papain) –
Like the bromelain in pineapple, papain is a group of proteolytic digestive enzymes.  Papain, often extracted from papaya, is another major ingredient in digestive enzyme supplements.  Papain is also added to most enzyme supplements that are formulated specifically for pain relief (arthritis, sports injuries, etc.).  Papain may also have anti-inflammatory properties.  Papaya is an excellent source of several other nutrients including potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

Mangoes –(magneferin, katechol oxidase, and lactase)
Green mango powder (amchur) is often used as a tenderizing agent for meats. Mango lassi is a common drink in South Asian restaurants and it's made from a combination of mangoes, yogurt, and spices. Not only are mangoes a rich source of digestive enzymes, they're also an excellent source of potassium, vitamin A, and beta-carotene. Mangoes are also a good source of vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fiber.

Plain yogurt isn't just an excellent source of "good" bacteria. It's basically fermented milk and contains many of the same enzymes. Yogurt is antiviral and antibacterial. It protects the digestive system and helps to build immunities.
Kiwifruit (actinidin) –
The actinidin enzyme in kiwifruit eases digestion due to it's proteolytic enzyme qualities. Actinidin is also found in pineapples, papayas, and mangoes.  Aside from kiwi being a great source of digestive enzymes, it's also a great source of several other nutrients including vitamin C (almost twice the amount in an orange), magnesium, and potassium

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