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Tuesday, August 13, 2013

PPT On Biological Aspects Of Enzymology


Biological Aspects Of Enzymology Presentation Transcript:
1.Biological Aspects Of Enzymology

2.Biological Role Of EnzymesEnzymes are biological catalysts.
  biological: composed of protein
                    or rarely, RNA
  catalyst:   speeds up a reaction
                  without being changed
                  by the reaction

3.Biological Role Of Enzymes
Enzymes are incredibly efficient and highly specific biological catalysts . In fact, the human body would not exist without enzymes, because the chemical reactions required to maintain the body simply would not occur fast enough.

4.Most enzymes are proteins. 
All enzymes are SPECIFIC for the reactants (substrates) in the reactions that they catalyze.
Enzymes speed up biological reactions by lowering the activation energy for the reaction. 

5.Enzymes play a critical role in everyday life.
Many genetic disorders (diabetes, Tay-Sachs disease) occur due to the deficiency or total absence of one or more enzymes.
The other disease conditions like cancer, results due to an excessive activity of one or more enzymes.
Routine medical tests monitor the activity of enzymes in the blood, and many of the prescription drugs (penicillin, methotrexate) exert their effects through interactions with enzymes.
Enzymes and their inhibitors can be important tools in medicine, agriculture, and food science.

6.Enzyme-Substrate Interactions

7.Three dimensional structure of an enzyme preserves its ACTIVE SITE

   active site: region on enzyme where
                      reactants bind 
Conditions that can affect three dimensional structure include: heat, pH (acid/base balance) and other chemicals (salt, charged ions)   

8.Sources of Enzymes
Enzymes can be obtained from various sources
which include:

9.Of the total industrial enzymes, more than 50% are produced from fungi and yeast
Over one third is produced from bacteria
From animal source 8%
From plant source 4%

10.   Microbes are preferred to plants and animals as source of enzyme because:
They are generally cheaper to produce
Enzyme contents are more predictable and controllable
Reliable supply of raw material of constant composition
Plant and animal tissues contain more potentially harmful material than microbes, e. g. phenolic compound (plants), endogenous enzyme inhibitors and proteases  

Food Sources of Enzymes
1. Papaya
    Papayas are one of the best natural sources of   digestive enzymes.
Papain, a proteolytic enzyme, extracted from Papaya, is used as digestive supplement.
 Papayas are also high in potassium, fiber and    carotenoids, which benefit the eyes.

12.Green Foods
The Muscular Dystrophy Association cites leafy green vegetables as a good source of enzymes full of antioxidants and a good way to decrease oxidative stress in the body.
Bowden specifically points to super green foods such as chlorophyll for their ability to activate enzymes in the body and purify the blood.

Sweet tasting and fragrant, pineapple is just as well known as the papaya for its ability to aid in digestion and reduce inflammation.
Its active ingredient, bromelain, is a good source of enzymes and also extracted to make digestive supplements.
Pineapple is packed with fiber and vitamin C, and is low on the glycemic index.

Raw, unpasteurized, organic milk is packed with vitamins and minerals which is one of the best natural sources of enzymes
Enzymes are the  crucial components in recovering from disease and maintaining health, and that obtaining them from organic sources such as raw milk makes all the difference

Plain yogurt isn't just an excellent source of "good" bacteria. It's basically fermented milk and contains many of the same enzymes.
Yogurt is antiviral and antibacterial. It protects the digestive system and helps to build immunities.

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