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Monday, August 27, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Egypt

Egypt PPT


Presentation Transcript:
PPT By Ajith kumar

1.  Egypt.

2. Contents
Brief Introduction
Political Situation In Egypt
Economic Challenges in Egypt

3. Introduction To Egypt
Egypt, one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations It is located in North Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
Egypt covers just over 1 million square kilometers (the same size as France and Germany combined).  Capital City : Cairo 
Population : Around 78 million people live in Egypt   
Religion :  Muslim 94%, Christian and other 6%. 
Currency : Egyptian Pound

4. Facts
Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, and tourism
Most of the population live near the Nile river as this is the only ground where food can be grown
Silver was considered more valuable then gold in ancient Egypt
They invented the 365 day calendar

 5. Politics In Egypt

6. History of Mubarak
Mubarak was a air chief marshal in the Egyptian Air Force
Mubarak was appointed Vice President of Egypt In 1975
Claimed to the presidency on 14 October 1981, following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat

7. How did the protests start?
In Egypt, there  has been growing discontent over economic woes, poverty, unemployment, corruption and police abuses

8. Demonstrators were gathered peacefully in central Cairo on Jan 25,2011 to demand an end to Mubarak's power.
Social media tools, such as Twitter and Facebook, have been used extensively to rally support for the protesters

9. Mohammed Mursi
Although he was not their first choice as presidential candidate, Egypt's powerful Muslim Brotherhood soon threw its weight behind the chairman of its Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), Mohammed Mursi
 Later in the run-off elections, he took 51.73% of the vote Mr Mursi handed in his nomination papers for the presidential race The Brotherhood officially supported to Mr Mursi

10. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Mining Complex Types of Data

PPT On Mining Complex Types of Data

Presentation Transcript:
1.Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques

2.Mining Complex Types of DataMultidimensional analysis and descriptive mining of complex data objects
Mining spatial databases
Mining multimedia databases
Mining time-series and sequence data
Mining text databases
Mining the World-Wide Web

3.Mining Complex Data Objects: Generalization of Structured Data
Set-valued attribute
Generalization of each value in the set into its corresponding higher-level concepts
Derivation of the general behavior of the set, such as the number of elements in the set, the types or value ranges in the set, or the weighted average for numerical data
E.g., hobby = {tennis, hockey, chess, violin, nintendo_games} generalizes to {sports, music, video_games}
List-valued or a sequence-valued attribute
Same as set-valued attributes except that the order of the elements in the sequence should be observed in the generalization

4.Generalizing Spatial and Multimedia Data
Spatial data:
Generalize detailed geographic points into clustered regions, such as business, residential, industrial, or agricultural areas, according to land usage
Require the merge of a set of geographic areas by spatial operations
Image data:
Extracted by aggregation and/or approximation
Size, color, shape, texture, orientation, and relative positions and structures of the contained objects or regions in the image
Music data:
Summarize its melody: based on the approximate patterns that repeatedly occur in the segment
Summarized its style: based on its tone, tempo, or the major musical instruments played

5.Generalizing Object Data
Object identifier: generalize to the lowest level of class in the class/subclass hierarchies
Class composition hierarchies
generalize nested structured data
generalize only objects closely related in semantics to the current one
Construction and mining of object cubes
Extend the attribute-oriented induction method
Apply a sequence of class-based generalization operators on different attributes
Continue until getting a small number of generalized objects that can be summarized as a concise in high-level terms
For efficient implementation
Examine each attribute, generalize it to simple-valued data
Construct a multidimensional data cube (object cube)
Problem: it is not always desirable to generalize a set of values to single-valued data

6. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On IP Addresses Classless Addressing

PPT On IP Addresses Classless Addressing

Presentation Transcript:
 1.IP Addresses: Classless Addressing

In classless addressing variable-length blocks are assigned that belong to no class. In this architecture, the entire address space (232 addresses) is divided into blocks of different sizes.
The topics discussed in this section include:
Finding the Block
Granted Block

3.Variable-length blocks

4.What is the first address in the block if one of the addresses is

5.What is the first address in the block if one of the addresses is
Solution Figure 5.3 shows the solution. The first, second, and fourth bytes are easy; for the third byte we keep the bits corresponding to the number of 1s in that group. The first address is

6.Find the first address in the block if one of the addresses is
Solution The first, second, and fourth bytes are as defined in the previous example. To find the third byte, we write 84 as the sum of powers of 2 and select only the leftmost 4 (m is 4) as shown in Figure 5.4. The first address is

7.Find the number of addresses in the block if one of the addresses is
Solution The prefix length is 20. The number of addresses in the block is 232-20 or 212 or 4096. Note that this is a large block with 4096 addresses.

8.Using the first method, find the last address in the block if one of the addresses is
Solution We found in the previous examples that the first address is and the number of addresses is 4096. To find the last address, we need to add 4095 (4096 - 1) to the first address.

9.An organization is granted the block The organization needs 4 subnets. What is the subnet prefix length?
Solution We need 4 subnets, which means we need to add two more 1s (log2 4 = 2) to the site prefix. The subnet prefix is then /28.

10.What are the subnet addresses and the range of addresses for each subnet in the previous example?
Solution Figure 5.6 shows one configuration.

11. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On IP Addresses Classful Addressing

PPT On IP Addresses Classful Addressing

Presentation Transcript:
1.IP Addresses: Classful Addressing

The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify each device connected to the Internet is called the Internet address or IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a host or a router to the Internet. IP addresses are unique. They are unique in the sense that each address defines one, and only one, connection to the Internet. Two devices on the Internet can never have the same address.

3.An IP address is a 32-bit address.

4.The IP addresses are unique.

5.The address space of IPv4 is 232 or  4,294,967,296.

6.Dotted-decimal notation

7.The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.

8.Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation.
a. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 b. 11000001 10000011 00011011 11111111 c. 11100111 11011011 10001011 01101111 d. 11111001 10011011 11111011 00001111

9.Change the following IP addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation.
a.            b. c.                d.

a. There are no leading zeroes in dotted-decimal notation (045).
b. We may not have more than four numbers in an IP address.
c.  In dotted-decimal notation, each number is less than or equal      to 255; 301 is outside this range.
d. A mixture of binary notation and dotted-decimal notation is not     allowed.

11.Solution We replace each group of 4 bits with its hexadecimal equivalent (see Appendix B). Note that hexadecimal notation normally has no added spaces or dots; however, 0X (or 0x) is added at the beginning or the subscript 16 at the end to show that the number is in hexadecimal.
a. 0X810B0BEF or 810B0BEF16 b. 0XC1831BFF or C1831BFF16

IP addresses, when started a few decades ago, used the concept of classes. This architecture is called classful addressing. In the mid-1990s, a new architecture, called classless addressing, was introduced and will eventually supersede the original architecture. However, part of the Internet is still using classful addressing, but the migration is very fast.

13.Occupation of the address space

14.Addresses per class

15.Finding the class in binary notation

16.Finding the address class

17.Solution In class A, only 1 bit defines the class. The remaining 31 bits are available for the address. With 31 bits, we can have 231 or 2,147,483,648 addresses.

18.Solution See the procedure in Figure 4.4. a. The first bit is 0. This is a class A address. b. The first 2 bits are 1; the third bit is 0. This is a class C address. c. The first bit is 0; the second bit is 1. This is a class B address. d. The first 4 bits are 1s. This is a class E address..

19.Finding the class in decimal notation

20.Solution a. The first byte is 227 (between 224 and 239); the class is D. b. The first byte is 193 (between 192 and 223); the class is C. c. The first byte is 14 (between 0 and 127); the class is A. d. The first byte is 252 (between 240 and 255); the class is E. e. The first byte is 134 (between 128 and 191); the class is B.
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