## Monday, August 27, 2012

### PowerPoint Presentation On IP Addresses Classful Addressing

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1.IP Addresses: Classful Addressing

2.INTRODUCTION
The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify each device connected to the Internet is called the Internet address or IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a host or a router to the Internet. IP addresses are unique. They are unique in the sense that each address defines one, and only one, connection to the Internet. Two devices on the Internet can never have the same address.

3.An IP address is a 32-bit address.

4.The IP addresses are unique.

5.The address space of IPv4 is 232 or  4,294,967,296.

6.Dotted-decimal notation

7.The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.

8.Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation.
a. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 b. 11000001 10000011 00011011 11111111 c. 11100111 11011011 10001011 01101111 d. 11111001 10011011 11111011 00001111

9.Change the following IP addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation.
a. 111.56.45.78            b. 221.34.7.82 c. 241.8.56.12                d. 75.45.34.78

10.Solution
a. There are no leading zeroes in dotted-decimal notation (045).
b. We may not have more than four numbers in an IP address.
c.  In dotted-decimal notation, each number is less than or equal      to 255; 301 is outside this range.
d. A mixture of binary notation and dotted-decimal notation is not     allowed.

11.Solution We replace each group of 4 bits with its hexadecimal equivalent (see Appendix B). Note that hexadecimal notation normally has no added spaces or dots; however, 0X (or 0x) is added at the beginning or the subscript 16 at the end to show that the number is in hexadecimal.
a. 0X810B0BEF or 810B0BEF16 b. 0XC1831BFF or C1831BFF16

12.CLASSFUL ADDRESSING
IP addresses, when started a few decades ago, used the concept of classes. This architecture is called classful addressing. In the mid-1990s, a new architecture, called classless addressing, was introduced and will eventually supersede the original architecture. However, part of the Internet is still using classful addressing, but the migration is very fast.

13.Occupation of the address space

14.Addresses per class

15.Finding the class in binary notation

16.Finding the address class

17.Solution In class A, only 1 bit defines the class. The remaining 31 bits are available for the address. With 31 bits, we can have 231 or 2,147,483,648 addresses.

18.Solution See the procedure in Figure 4.4. a. The first bit is 0. This is a class A address. b. The first 2 bits are 1; the third bit is 0. This is a class C address. c. The first bit is 0; the second bit is 1. This is a class B address. d. The first 4 bits are 1s. This is a class E address..

19.Finding the class in decimal notation

20.Solution a. The first byte is 227 (between 224 and 239); the class is D. b. The first byte is 193 (between 192 and 223); the class is C. c. The first byte is 14 (between 0 and 127); the class is A. d. The first byte is 252 (between 240 and 255); the class is E. e. The first byte is 134 (between 128 and 191); the class is B.