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Thursday, July 5, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On INDIA



Presentation Transcript:
1. INDIA Mera Bharath Mahaan

2. The subcontinent of India lies in south Asia, between Pakistan, China and Nepal. To the north it is bordered by the world's highest mountain chain, where foothill valleys cover the northernmost of the country's 26 states. Further south, plateaus, tropical rain forests and sandy deserts are bordered by palm fringed beaches .

3. 5,000 year old civilization
    325 languages spoken
    – 1,652 dialects
   18 official languages
   29 states, 5 union territories
  3.28 million sq. kilometers
  - Area 7,516 kilometers
  - Coastline 1,000,000,000 people in 2000

India's history goes back to 3,200 BC when Hinduism was first founded. Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism. Judaism. Zoroashtrianism, Christianity and Islam all exist within the country today.

5. THE TRINITY Generates-Brahma Observes-Vishnu Destroys-Shiva

6. Indus Valley Civilization- one of the world’s first great urban civilizations. Harappa Civilization- 2700BC

7. World’s first university in Takshila –700 B.C Ayurveda- earliest school of medicine known to humans Sanskrit Language –most suitable for computer software

8. India is,the cradle of the human race,the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history,the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition.Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. -Mark Twain We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. -Albert Einstein

9. Jai Hind Thanks.



Presentation Transcript: 

 2. Nitrogen Fixation-
Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beigerinck. Natural processes fix about 190×1012 g yr-1 of nitrogen through the following processes-

3. Types of nitrogen fixation
Lightning 2.Photochemical Reaction 3.Industrial Nitrogen Fixation

4.Biological Nitrogen Fixation

5. Types of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation- In symbiotic nitrogen fixation the plant and bacteria depend on each other. Rates of nitrogen fixation are highly variable and are dependent on the bacterial strain-legume cultivar used, soil and other environmental conditions. 100kg of nitrogen are reported to be derived from symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

 6. Continue………………
The highest amount of nitrogen fixed by the legumes takes place either the flowering stage or during pod fill stage. Legume symbioses- eg- rhizobium species Associations with Frankia- Frankia is a group termed Actinomycetes-filamentous bacteria that are noted for their production of air-borne spores. They form nitrogen fixing root nodules with several woody,sea buckthorn. Cyanobacterial associations-The photosynthetic cyanobacteria often live as free-living organisms in pioneer habitats such as desert soils or as symbionts with lichens in other pioneer habitats.they form nitrgen fixing nodulation.

7. Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation In nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation the bacteria not associated with plant but they fix nitrogen into the plant. Azotobacter and Azospirillum fix nitrogen into the plant by the nonsymbiotic process. Azospirillum is not only capable of nitrogen fixation but also codes for plant growth hormones auxins and cytokinins. These bacteria are the free living bacteria that fix nitrogen.

8. Mechanism of Nitrogen fixation The biological process of nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme, an enzyme complex containing the nitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase. Nif genes forming a gene cluster of 24 kb nucleotides which are located between the genes encoding for histidine and shikimic acid. The cluster is organized in 7 operons i.e. transcription units (QB AL FM VSUX NE YKDH J). Nif HDKY operon encodes nitrogenase.

 9. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

PPT On Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

Presentation Transcript:
1. Molecular diagnostic techniques for identification and characterization of microorganisms

2. In past Indian microbial diversity reached foreign repositories free of cost. Today import of single microbial culture costs Rs 8,000. Excellent research done by Indians. Nevertheless, not even 10% cultures deposited in any gene Bank.

3. Mushrooms reproduce through spores in nature.

4. Mushrooms are invariably stored as mycelial cultures. Fruit body morphology is highly variable and has caused taxonomic chaos. Microscopic characters are homogeneous throughout a given taxon. Insufficient to designate a taxon up to species level.

 5. Recent DNA fingerprinting techniques were employed for molecular identification and strain differentiation. Recently direct sequencing of conserved genes: 28S, 18S, 5.8S rDNA are being used for molecular identification up to species level. Instead of depositing the cultures now gene sequences are deposited in world data bases for claiming authenticity of an organism.

 6. For More Please Refer Our PPT. Thanks.
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