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Tuesday, June 26, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On GENOMIC IMPRINTING


Presentation Transcript:
1. Definition
 Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silent when maternally inherited but expressed when paternally inherited, or vice versa.

2. All individuals inherit two copies of every autosomal gene, one copy from our mother and one from our father. Both copies are functional but ; however , in a one copy of that gene is turned off or silenced.

 Epigenetics is defind as the chemical modification of DNA that affects gene expression but does not involve changes to the gene activity.

4. Epigenetics: Heritable alterations in gene activity without a change in DNA sequence

5. Evolution of imprinting

6. The word “ Imprinting” was first used to describe events in insect Pseudococcus nipae In Pseudococcids or Mealybugs both the male and female developed from a fertilised egg.

7. Evolution of imprinting Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silent when maternally inherited but expressed when paternally inherited, or vice versa. The most widely accepted evolutionary theory of genomic imprinting is the ‘conflict’ theory.

8. Establishment of the epigenotype in relation to growth

9. Genomic imprinting in mammals
The normal human genome contains 46 chromosome. 23 form the mother and 23 from the father. Thus every individual has two copies of each gene. These two copies of each chromosome, one inherited from the mother and one from the father.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Human Genome Project

PPT On Human Genome Project

Presentation Transcript:
1. In 2003 scientists in the Human Genome Project obtained the DNA sequence of the 3 billion base pairs making up the human genome

2. What we’ve learned so far from the Human Genome Project
The human genome is nearly the same (99.9%) in all people Only about 2% of the human genome contains genes, which are the instructions for making proteins

3. Other Lessons from the Human Genome Project
Humans have an estimated 30,000 genes; the functions of more than half of them are unknown Almost half of all human proteins share similarities with other organisms, underscoring the unity of live

4. Much is still unknown!

5. Explore how DNA impacts HEALTH Identify and understand the differences in DNA sequence (A, T, C, G) among human populations

6. Understand what all the GENES do Discover the functions of human genes by experimentation and by finding genes with similar functions in the mouse, yeast, fruit fly, and other sequenced organisms

7. Learn what the rest of the human genome does Identify important elements in the nongene regions of DNA that are present in many different organisms, including humans

8. Understand how the genome enables life Explore life at the ultimate level of the whole organism instead of single genes or proteins.The DOE Genomes to Life program provides a foundation for this understanding by using the information found in the genomes of microbes, life’s simplest organisms, to study how proteins—the products of genes—carry out all activities of living cells.

9. Medicine Develop more accurate and rapid diagnostics Design customized treatments

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PowerPoint Presentation On Genetically Engineered Plants

PPT On Genetically Engineered Plants

Presentation Transcript:
1. Genetically Engineered Plants

2. Introduction Genetic modifications are a result of technology that has altered the DNA of living organisms( plants, animals, bacteria). Other related terms- Genetic engineering Transgenics Recombinant DNA technology

3. Transgenic plants have been developed for a variety of reasons- longer shelf life disease resistance herbicide resistance pest resistance enhanced taste and quality reduced maturation time higher yielding crops more efficient use of land can save money and promote higher profits

4. Gene Technology Genes code for proteins The sequence of bases in the DNA of a gene contains information to make a protein Transferring the information from DNA to protein is called gene expression Process of formation of protien from DNA:- During transcription, DNA is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) chains. During translation, mRNA moves to the ribosome, where the building blocks of proteins (amino acids) are added . This sequence of amino acids ultimately forms a protein.

5. Golden Rice Created by Peter Beyer and Ingo Potrykus of the Institute of Plant Sciences at the Swiss Fedral Institute of Technology. Designed to produce β carotein, a precursor of Vitamin A, in the part of rice the endosperm. Created by transforming rice with two β-carotene biosynthesis genes: psy (phytoene synthase) from daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) crt1 from the soil bacterium Erwinia uredovora

6. Vitamin A deficiency Weakens the immune system Can lead to blindness which increases the risk of death Is entirely preventable!

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