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Wednesday, December 19, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Government Grants

Government Grants Presentation

Government Grants Presentation Transcript:
1. Grants: Finalization And Submission - Tips And Strategies

2. Need for Grants
Why do you need Grants for this project???
Where is the system broken?
Identify the GAPS in the current program
Once the gap is clearly identified: QUANTIFY IT.

3. Need for Grants
Yes: SHOWS NEED The data should be current Related to research Supports program purpose, project design, goals & objectives Reliable, valid and ideally public Should be explained in detail
No: UNRELATED TO NEED Data not current Proper study not done Data thinly related to project design Unreliable Inadequate explanation

4. Project Design
Clearly define the program of HOW you will close the gaps defined in Need Section
Why is the program going to WORK?
Explain the program in DEPTH
QUANTIFY the outcome

5. Goals And Objectives
Support EACH goal
State AMBITIOUS goals
No GENERAL statements
Significant changes/growth

6. Project Design
Yes: Detailed explanation, rationale, and target audiences for all activities Matches the stated need Illustrates the relationship to program purpose, statutory requirements, absolute priorities Relationship between activities and scientifically-based research
No: Insufficient detail Unrelated to stated need Does not match program purpose or statutory requirements No relationship given

Yes: Detailed milestone/timeline that match project design, goals and objectives Job descriptions Project Leadership – Levels of authority (Advisory Committee, Operating Team)
No: Insufficient detail in timeline/milestones Timeline and milestones do not match project design Logical flaws in timeline

8. Budget
Don’t wait until the last minute
Prepare a spreadsheet or checklist of budget items
Make sure budget matches proposal exactly
Check and re-check your math
Ensure it is easily read and understandable

Yes: ALL COSTS, with an aggregate total Sufficient rationale for all expenses, particularly travel and subcontractors Personnel necessary to implement project
No: Insufficient detail Items in budget are not explained in narrative, and vice versa Insufficient narrative rationale for large budget items Excessive number of personnel

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Friday, November 23, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Cargo Tank Atmosphere

PPT On Cargo Tank Atmosphere

Cargo Tank Atmosphere Presentation Transcript:
1. A tank is an enclosed space which is sealed and may not have any ventilation. As a result, there is a accumulation of gases which can be dangerous and harmful to humans.

 2. What do we FEAR MOST when we speak about Cargo Tank atmospheres ?

3. There are Different types of Tankers.
Such as: Crude Oil Tankers
Product Tankers
Chemical Tankers
Bitumen Tankers
Fruit Juice Tankers (stainless steel tanks)
Wine Tankers (stainless steel tanks)

4. Fire hazards can be best explained by a Fire Tetrahedron
It describes the four different factors required for ignition of a fire. Essentially all four elements must be present at the same time for a fire to occur. Removal of any one of these essential elements will result in the fire being extinguished : Air (Oxygen) Heat ( Internal / External Spark) Fuel (Cargo vapours) Chain Reaction The Inert Gas is introduced into a tank to remove the Oxygen side of the tetrahedron by reducing the Oxygen content below required percentage for combustion.

5. General Policy of Cargo tank atmosphere control
Tankers fitted with an inert gas system should maintain their cargo tanks in a non-flammable condition at all times.
It follows that: Tanks are kept inerted when they contain cargo /cargo residue The atmosphere within the tank should make the transition from inert condition to gas-free condition without passing through flammable condition. In practice before any tank is gas freed, it would be purged with inert gas until the hydrocarbon content of the tank atmosphere is below the critical dilution line. When a ship is in a gas-free condition before arrival at a loading port, tanks should be re-inerted prior to loading.

6. Dilution method
Dilution theory assumes Incoming inert gas / air, mixes with the original gas mixture in tank to form a homogenous mixture throughout the tank, In result concentration of original gas decreases gradually. For complete replacement the entry velocity of incoming gas should be high enough for the jet to reach the bottom of tank.

7. Displacement method
For ideal replacement a stable horizontal interface should be formed between the lighter gas entering at the top of tank and heavier gas being displayed from the bottom of tank through some suitable pipping arrangment. In result the tank atmosphere is changed gradually. For complete replacement a relativley low entry velocity of gas is required. In practice more than one volume change is necessary

8. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Monday, October 8, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On SOLAR PANEL ROAD


SOLAR PANEL ROAD Presentation Transcript:
The Solar Roadways consists of structurally engineered solar panels that we drive on. Each Solar Road Panel (roughly 12’ by 12’) interlinks with neighboring panels to form the Solar Roadways system. The Solar Roadway generates electrical power from the sun and becomes our nation’s decentralized, intelligent, self-healing power grid, replacing our current deteriorating power distribution infrastructure.


Road Surface Layer: The road surface layer is semi- transparent and is of high strength. The sunlight can still pass through it to the cells where solar energy is collected.
Electronics Layer: A number of ultra capacitors are also fitted in this layer to store energy for future use. Base Plate Layer: the Base Plate Layer has the responsibility of distributing the power being collected from the electronic layer. The energy thus collected is transmitted to homes linked to the Solar Roadway

The Solar Roadways can protect wildlife and motorists. Load cells in the Solar Road Panels can detect if something is on the surface of the panel. Load cells work like weight machines. In the event that an animal does get onto the Solar Roadway, oncoming drivers will be warned via embedded LEDs of the danger ahead and will be given plenty of time to slow down

5. Illuminated Roads Unlike the dark roads we drive on by night today, the Solar Roadways will have LEDs which will "paint" the lanes There is no need to expend energy lighting roads when no cars are travelling, so the intelligent roadway will tell the LEDs to light up only when it senses cars on its surface . This way, drivers will know an oncoming car is ahead when they see the lights on the other side of the road begin to light up ahead.

6. Traffic Management what’s the solution?
Each Solar Road Panel contains a microprocessor that monitors and controls the panel, while communicating with neighbouring panels and the vehicles travelling

7. Electric vehicles
Electric vehicles (EVs) are on their way: More and more car manufacturers are offering electric vehicle options. How are EVs currently charged? EVs can be recharged at any conveniently located rest stop, or at any business that incorporates Solar Road Panels in their parking lots . Owners can plug their cars in and recharge while not driving.

8. Oil Independence Until now:
By replacing our deterioration highway infrastructure with the Solar Roadways, we create a system that will support the recharging of all-electric vehicles. Using all-electric vehicles will eliminate the need for fuel . By the removal of internal combustion engine vehicle are easy to drive.

9. National Security:
Our Roadway Infrastructure Global Warming Dependency on Foreign Oil

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On C Sharp

PPT On C Sharp

C# Presentation Transcript
1. Introduction to C#
Anders Hejlsberg Distinguished Engineer Developer Division Microsoft Corporation

2. C# – The Big Ideas
The first component oriented language in the C/C++ family
Everything really is an object
Next generation robust and durable software
Preservation of investment

3. C# – The Big Ideas
A component oriented language
C# is the first “component oriented” language in the C/C++ family
Component concepts are first class:
Properties, methods, events Design-time and run-time attributes Integrated documentation using XML Enables one-stop programming
No header files, IDL, etc. Can be embedded in web pages

4. C# – The Big Ideas
Everything really is an object
Traditional views
C++, Java: Primitive types are “magic” and do not interoperate with objects Smalltalk, Lisp: Primitive types are objects, but at great performance cost
C# unifies with no performance cost
Deep simplicity throughout system
Improved extensibility and reusability
New primitive types: Decimal, SQL… Collections, etc., work for all types

5. C# – The Big Ideas
Robust and durable software
Garbage collection
No memory leaks and stray pointers
Error handling is not an afterthought
No uninitialized variables, unsafe casts
Pervasive versioning considerations in all aspects of language design

6. C# – The Big Ideas
Preservation of Investment
C++ heritage
Namespaces, enums, unsigned types, pointers (in unsafe code), etc. No unnecessary sacrifices Interoperability
What software is increasingly about MS C# implementation talks to XML, SOAP, COM, DLLs, and any .NET language
Millions of lines of C# code in .NET
Short learning curve Increased productivity

7. C# Program Structure
Contain types and other namespaces
Type declarations
Classes, structs, interfaces, enums, and delegates
Constants, fields, methods, properties, indexers, events, operators, constructors, destructors
No header files, code written “in-line” No declaration order dependence

8. For more please refer our PPT Thank You.

Sunday, September 23, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation on BOILERS FUNDAMENTALS


BOILERS FUNDAMENTALS Presentation Transcript:
In early 19th Century boiler were low pressure
Invention of water tube removed the pr barrier and boiler pr rise to super critical
Between 70- 90 utility operated conservatively and used low steam pr in boiler .
Now renewed interest in high efficiency supercritical boiler .The interest arose from the environmental need to attain higher efficiency and dividend of higher eff is reduce CO2

2. Boiler/ steam generator
Steam generating device for a specific purpose.
Capable to meet variation in load demand
Capable of generating steam in a range of operating pressure and temperature
For utility purpose, it should generate steam uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature for running steam turbines.

3. Basic Knowledge of Boiler
Water side then water cycle explained by other , air cycle , from where each comes explain it Phenomenological Model: Combustion is happening , heat transfer is happening , how heat is exchanged ,how heat is being

4. Drum
The boiler drum forms a part of the circulation system of the boiler. The drum serves two functions, the first and primary one being that of separating steam from the mixture of water and steam discharged into it. Secondly, the drum houses all equipments used for purification of steam after being separated from water. This purification equipment is commonly referred to as the Drum Internals.

5. Waterwall construction
Made of carbon steel (Grade-C) hollow circular tubes and DM water flows inside
Waterwalls are stiffened by the vertical stays and buck stays to safeguard from furnace pressure pulsation & explosion/ implosion
The boiler as a whole is hanging type, supported at the top in large structural columns.
Vertical expansion is allowed downwards and provision is made at bottom trough seal near ring header.

6. Superheater & Reheater
Heat associated with the flue gas is used in superheaters & Reheater, LTSH, economiser.
Maximum steam temperature is decided by the operating drum pressure and metallurgical constraints of the turbine blade material.
Reheating is recommened at pressure above 100 ksc operating pressure. Reheating is done at 20-25% of the operating pressure.
Carbon steel, alloy steel & SS used for tubing of SH & RH.

7. Steam Theory
Within the boiler, fuel and air are forced into the furnace by the burner.
There, it burns to produce heat. From there, the heat (flue gases) travel throughout the boiler.
The water absorbs the heat, and eventually absorb enough to change into a gaseous state - steam.
To the left is the basic theoretical design of a modern boiler.
Boiler makers have developed various designs to squeeze the most energy out of fuel and to maximized its transfer to the water.

8. Properties of Steam
Liquid Enthalpy
Liquid enthalpy is the "Enthalpy" (heat energy) in the water when it has been raised to its boiling point is measured in kcal/kg, its symbol is hf Also known as "Sensible Heat”
Enthalpy of Evaporation
It is the heat energy to be added to the water in order to change it into steam. There is no change in temperature, the steam produced is at the same temperature as the water from which it is produced. Also known as latent heat and its symbol is hfg

9. The temperature at which water boils, also called as boiling point or saturation temperature (It increases as the pressure increases. )
As the steam pressure increases, the usable heat energy in the steam (enthalpy of evaporation), which is given up when the steam condenses, actually decreases.
The total heat of dry saturated steam or enthalpy of saturated steam is given by sum of the two enthalpies hf +hfg
When the steam contains moisture the total heat of steam will be hg = hf +q hfg where q is the dryness fraction.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Combustion Theory

PPT On Combustion Theory

Combustion Theory Presentation Transcript:
1. What is COMBUSTION ?
High speed, high temperature chemical reaction
Rapid union of an element or compound with oxygen to liberate heat – controlled explosion
Combustion occurs when elements of fuel such as carbon and hydrogen combine with oxygen

2. Chemical reaction in Combustion
Stoichiometric or theoretical air is ideal amount of air required for burning 1 kg of fuel
Ex:1 kg of fuel oil requires ~14.1 kg of air for complete combustion

3. 3 Ts of Combustion
TIME All combustion requires sufficient Time which depends upon type of Reaction
TEMPERATURE Temperature must be more than ignition temperature
TURBULENCE Proper turbulence helps in bringing the fuel and air in intimate contact and gives them enough time to complete reaction.

4. 3 Ts of Combustion
Ignition Time and Residence Time- Furnace volume to be large enough to give the mixture time for complete combustion.

5. 3 Ts of Combustion
Ignition Temperature- Fuel-Air Mixture maintained at or above the Ignition Temperature

6. 3 Ts of Combustion
Oxygen and Fuel thoroughly mixed.

7. What are the three types of combustion?
Perfect Combustion is achieved when all the fuel is burned using only the theoretical amount of air, but perfect combustion cannot be achieved in a boiler.
Good / Complete Combustion is achieved when all the fuel is burned using the minimal amount of air above the theoretical amount of air needed to burn the fuel. Complete combustion is always our goal. With complete combustion, the fuel is burned at the highest combustion efficiency with low pollution. 
Incomplete Combustion occurs when all the fuel is not burned, which results in the formation of soot and smoke.

8. Combustion of Fuel oil
Viscosity of 100 Redwood/ secs at burners
Atomising air 1- 3 Kg/cm2 (about 2 % of total air requirement)
14 Kg of air/kg fuel is required for complete combustion. Optimum efficiency with 10 % excess air
Flue gas should be analysed for CO2 or O2
Sulphur dewpoint at 160oC. Corrosion max at 30oC below dew point

9. Combustion of Fuel oil (contd.)
Slightest damage to burner tip may increase fuel consumption by 10-15 % and hence worn out tips should be replaced immediately
Oil pressure at burner should be 17-20 Kg/cm2
Correct flame is normally short. Impingment on walls, tubes cause carbon formation
Too short a flame indicates high excess air and air supply to burners should be adjusted for light haze brown out of chimney

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Air And Draft system

PPT On Air And Draft system

Air And Draft system Presentation Transcript:
1. Presentation Plan
Various auxiliary equipments in a boiler
Need for Draft System
Primary and secondary air system in Boiler and their fans
Other fans in a boiler
Basic of fans: Fan Types and selection
Fan laws and factors affecting fan performance
Performance curves

Ambient air is drawn into the primary air ducting by two 50% duty, motor driven axial reaction fans.
Air discharging from each fan is divided into two parts, one passes first through a air pre-heater then through a gate into the P.A bus duct. The second goes to the cold air duct. The mix of both is used to carry the pulverized coal to the boiler.

3. Components of PA Fan
Suction Bend With volume Measurement instruments
Fan housing with Guide Vanes
Main Bearings (Anti Friction)
Rotor with impeller with adjustable blade with pitch control
Guide vane housing with guide vanes
Diffuser with pressure measurement instruments

Ambient air is drawn into the secondary air system by two 50% duty, motor driven axial reaction forced draft fans with variable pitch control.
Air discharging from each fan passes first through a air preheated then through a isolating damper into the secondary air bust duct.
The cross over duct extends around to each side of the boiler furnace to form two secondary air to burner ducts.
At the sides of the furnace, the ducts split to supply air to two corners. Then split again to supply air to each of nineteen burner/air nozzle elevations in the burner box.

5. Burner Box Dampers
Coal/Air Dampers
Secondary Air Dampers
Oil/Secondary Air Dampers
Bottom Tier Secondary Air Damper
Over Fire Damper

6. Induced Draft System
There are three induced draught fans per boiler, two operating and one standby
 In 500 MW fans are single-stage, double-inlet centrifugal fans. Principal fan elements of the fan are:
Inlet dampers
Rotor with Bearing
Shaft Seal

7. ID Fan
The rotor consists of shaft and assembled impeller and runs in two sleeve bearings that are arranged outside of the housing.
The impeller consists of a centre disc and two cover discs that are reinforced by forged rings. The bent blades are welded into position between the impeller discs.
The blades are protected by screwed - on wear plates.
The shaft is of hollow design. The fan shaft has been rated so that max. operating speed is below the critical speed. Impeller and shaft are connected by means of a flange. This screwing is protected by wear plates. The fan housing is sealed by means of two-part labyrinth seals.
Bearings are lubricated with oil.

8. Other Fans in The System
Ignitor Air Fan: Provide combustion air to the ignitors. Take suction air from the atmosphere and supplies air to the ignitor wind box.
Scanner Air Fan: Supplies cooling air to flame scanners. Normally there are two fans taking suction from FD Fan discharge duct.
Mill Seal air fan: Seal air fans provide air for the sealing of Mill bearing. Suction is from cold Primary air and pressure is boosted up to maintain the differential pressure

9. Difference between fans, blowers and compressors
As per ASME the specific pressure, i.e, the ratio of the discharge pressure over the suction pressure is used for defining the fans, blowers and compressors as highlighted below :

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Turbine Condensate System

PPT On Turbine Condensate System

Turbine Condensate System Presentation Transcript:
1. Presentation outline
Condensate System
Low Pressure Heaters
D/A Parts

2. What is condensate
The steam after condensing in the condenser known as condensate, is extracted out of the condenser hot well by condensate pump and taken to the deaerator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and series of LP heaters.

3. Condensate system
Condensate Extraction Pump : To pump out the condensate to D/A through ejectors, GSC and LPH
Gland Steam Condenser : To increase the temperature of condensate.
Condensate polishing unit : To remove cat-ion and an-ion from the condensate.

4. Condensate Systems
 D/A level controller : To control the level of D/A.
Drain Cooler : To increase the temperature of condensate
LPH : To increase the temperature of condensate
Deaerator : To remove the dissolved gases from the feed water

5. Condensate Pumps
The function of these pumps is to pumps out the condensate to the deaerator thru' ejectors, gland steam cooler, and L.P. heaters. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure, special arrangements have been made for providing sealing.

6. Stages: The pressure build up in 4 stages as suction is at negative pressure.
Recirculation: It is done when the de aerator level controller trips in order to prevent cavitations.

Vertical, Multi Stage, Multi-Shaft.
Can type construction with suction nozzle integral with Canister.
Double Suction first stage Impeller for minimum NPSHR.
Balancing holes and tilting pad Thrust Bearing for Axial Thrust.
Cutless rubber line bearings with axial flutes.
Shaft sealing by PTFE rope packing / Mechanical Seals.
Compatible materials for stationary and rotating parts.

8. HEAD PIECE : It incorporates the discharge and suction branches and supports Thrust Bearing Housing & Driving Motor.
It is sealed where the Shaft passes through Stuffing Box which incorporates soft packing and a Lantern Ring. Apertures are provided on Headpiece for accessing Coupling, Thrust Bearing and Stuffing Box. An air vent pipe is incorporated in the Headpiece for connection to the condenser tank.

9. L.P. Heaters
 Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions which are utilised for heating the condensate, from turbine bleed steam. There are 3 or 4 low pressure heaters in which LP turbine last extractions are used.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Electric Motors

PPT On Electric Motors

Electric Motors Presentation Transcript:
1. Training Agenda: Electric Motors
Introduction Types of electric motors
Assessment of electric motors
Energy efficiency opportunities

2. Introduction
An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. The mechanical energy can be used to perform work such as rotating a pump impeller, fan, blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc.
It is estimated that about 70% of the total electrical load is accounted by motors only. That is why electric motors are termed as “Work Horse” in an industry.

3. How Does an Electric Motor Work?
The general working mechanism is the same for all motors and shown in the figure
An electric current in a magnetic field will experience a force.
If the current carrying wire is bent into a loop, then the two sides of the loop, which are at right angle to the magnetic field, will experience forces in opposite directions.
The pair of forces creates a turning torque to rotate the coil. (note: a “torque” is the force that causes the rotation)
Practical motors have several loops on an armature to provide a more uniform torque and the magnetic field is produced by electromagnet arrangement called the field coils

4. Three types of Motor Load
In understanding a motor it is important to understand what a motor load means. Load refers to the torque output and corresponding speed required. Loads can generally be categorized into three groups:
Constant torque loads are those for which the output power requirement may vary with the speed of operation but the torque does not vary. Conveyors, rotary kilns, and constant-displacement pumps are typical examples of constant torque loads.
Variable torque loads are those for which the torque required varies with the speed of operation. Centrifugal pumps and fans are typical examples of variable torque loads (torque varies as the square of the speed). Constant power loads are those for which the torque requirements typically change inversely with speed. Machine tools are a typical example of a constant power load

 5. Type of Electric Motors
Motors are categorized in a number of types based on the input supply, construction and principle of operation. We will start at looking at various forms of the DC motor such as shunt and series, followed by the AC motors including synchronous and induction motors.

6. DC Motors – Components
Direct-Current motors, as the name implies, use a direct-unidirectional current. A DC motor is shown in the figure and has three main components:
Field pole. Simply put, the interaction of two magnetic fields causes the rotation in a DC motor. The DC motor has field poles that are stationary and an armature that turns on bearings in the space between the field poles. A simple DC motor has two field poles: a north pole and a south pole. The magnetic lines of force extend across the opening between the poles from north to south. For larger or more complex motors there are one or more electromagnets. These electromagnets receive electricity from an outside power source and serve as the field structure.
Armature. When current goes through the armature, it becomes an electromagnet. The armature, cylindrical in shape, is linked to a drive shaft in order to drive the load. For the case of a small DC motor, the armature rotates in the magnetic field established by the poles, until the north and south poles of the magnets change location with respect to the armature. Once this happens, the current is reversed to switch the south and north poles of the armature.
Commutator. This component is found mainly in DC motors. Its purpose is to overturn the direction of the electric current in the armature. The commutator also aids in the transmission of current between the armature and the power source.

7. DC motors
The main advantage of DC motors is speed control, which does not affect the quality of power supply. It can be controlled by adjusting: the armature voltage – increasing the armature voltage will increase the speed the field current – reducing the field current will increase the speed.
DC motors are available in a wide range of sizes, but their use is generally restricted to a few low speed, low-to-medium power applications like machine tools and rolling mills because of problems with mechanical commutation at large sizes. Also, they are restricted for use only in clean, non-hazardous areas because of the risk of sparking at the brushes.
 DC motors are also expensive relative to AC motors.

8. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Fluidized Bed Combustion System

PPT On Fluidized Bed Combustion System

Fluidized Bed Combustion System Presentation Transcript:
When a air or gas is passed through an inert bed of solid particles (supported on mesh) will initially sleek upward through sand. With Further increase in velocity the air starts bubbling through bed and Particles attain a state of high turbulence. Under such conditions Bed attains the appearance of fluid and exhibit the properties of Fluid.

Temperature of bed should be at least equal to ignition temperature of coal.
Bed temperature must not increase melting point of Ash.
Equilibrium temperature achieved through transfer tubes immersed in bed and walls of combustor.
Gas velocity must be maintained between fluidization velocity and the particle entrainment velocity.

As the velocity of a gas flowing through a bed of particles increases, a value is reaches when the bed fluidizes and bubbles form as in a boiling liquid. At higher velocities the bubbles disappear; and the solids are rapidly blown out of the bed and must be recycled to maintain a stable system.

AFBC : Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Bubbling fluidized bed combustion. Circulating fluidized bed combustion.
PFBC : Pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Distribution plate through which air is blown for fluidizing
Immersed steam-raising or water heating tubes which extract heat directly from the bed.
Tubes above the bed which extract heat from hot combustion gas before it enters the flue duct.

At high fluidizing gas velocities in which a fast recycling bed of fine material is superimposed on a bubbling bed of larger particles .
The combustion temperature is controlled by rate of recycling of fine material.
Hot fine material is separated from the flue gas by a cyclone and is partially cooled in a separate low velocity fluidized bed heat exchanger, where the heat is given up to the steam.

Coal is crushed to a size of 6mm
The air is blown inside by a high pressure fan
The velocity of air is 3-10 (ft/s)
The ignition takes place ,solid densities are reduced
A temperature of about 1500-1600f is produced

Heat energy is utilized by water in the water walls and gets converted into steam
Flue gases are collected by a cyclone separator.
 It separates the mixture into pure flue gas, ash & unburnt coal particles.
The unburnt coal particles are again re-circulated.

*Integral water cooled rectangular furnace is used
*A carbon reinjection is mounted ,which entraps Large particles ad re-circulate

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Flue Gas System

PPT On Flue Gas System

Flue Gas system Air pre Heater Presentation Transcript:
1. Presentation Plan
Air heaters
Types of air heaters
Materials Used
Sealing arrangement for air heaters
Air heater Performance
Performance tests

APH is the last heat exchanger in the boiler flue gas circuit. To achieve maximum boiler efficiency maximum possible useful heat must be removed from the gas before it leaves the APH. However certain minimum temperature has to be maintained in the flue gas to prevent cold end corrosion

3. Air Pre-Heater-functions
An air pre-heater heats the combustion air where it is economically feasible.
The pre-heating helps the following:
Igniting the fuel.
Improving combustion.
Drying the pulverized coal in pulverizer.
Reducing the stack gas temperature and increasing the boiler efficiency.
There are three types of air heaters:
Rotary regenerative
Heat pipe

4. Advantages by use of APH
Stability of Combustion is improved by use of hot air.
Intensified and improved combustion.
Permitting to burn poor quality coal.
High heat transfer rate in the furnace and hence lesser heat transfer area requirement.
Less un-burnt fuel particle in flue gas thus combustion and both r efficiency is improved.
Intensified combustion permits faster load variation and fluctuation.
In the case of pulverised coal combustion, hot air can be used for heating the coal as well as for transporting the pulverised coal to burners.
This being a non-pressure part will not warrant shut-down of unit due to corrosion of heat transfer surface which is inherent with lowering of flue gas temperature.

5. Types Of Air Preheater
Plate type Airheater
Steam Air Preheater
Langsdorm type
Rothemuhle type
Tri sector Air Heater

6. Rotary Plate (Regenerative) type Pre-Heater
Rotates with a low speed : 0.75 rpm.
Weight : 500 tons.
This consists of : rotor, sealing apparatus, shell etc.
Rotor is divided into 12 or 24 sections and 12 or 24 radial divisions.
Each sector is divided into several trapezoidal sections with transverse division plates.
Heat storage pales are placed in these sections.

7. The Material used in APH for heat storage
Material used Cold end in the basket is a special type of steel (corten steel (trade name)) which has high resistance to the low temperature sulphur corrosion, thus prolonging operational life.
In the hot end mild steels are used
The optimal geometric shape is usually corrugated and sizes are determined based on design modelling and experimental data. The turbulence of air and gas flow through the package increases the heat transfer rate.

8. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On FUEL OIL SYSTEM


FUEL OIL SYSTEM Presentation Transcript:
1. Types Of Fuel Oil
Light diesel oil (LDO)
High speed diesel oil (HSD)
Heavy Furnace oil (HFO)
Low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS)

2. Use of different types
LDO & HSD normally used in
Auxiliary boiler
Ignitor for certain boiler design.
HFO generally used for power boiler

3. Fuel Oil:
Three Liquid Fuel used in power plant
1.Heavy Fuel Oil(HFO)
2.LSHS(Light sulphur Heavy stock)
3.HSD(High speed diesel)
Oil firing is preceded by:
1.Lowering viscosity and increasing flowability on heating for better combustion
2.Droplet formation on atomization
3.Combustion initiation by High energy spark ignition.

Purpose: To establish initial Boiler Light up.
To support the Furnace flame during Low Load Operation
Unloading of fuel oil and storage system
Transfer of fuel oil to pressurising pump house
Drain oil system
Aux steam & condensate system
Electrical Tape tracing system:
Instrumentation & control system
Oil water separator system.

5. FO unloading system
Heavy oil is received at the site in railway tankers of 20 tonne capacity each
An unloading header with number of receiving points for number of wagons unloading is provided.
The connections between loading header and tankers are through rubber flexible hosepipes.
Railway tankers are equipped with steam heating coils.

The Fuel oil is supplied by railway wagons. The installation has been Provided for unloading 76 wagons simultaneously.For this purpose one Number unloading header of size 400 NB have been laid between two Railway tracks with 84 nos. 80 NB branches with plug valves which Surve as unloading points.400 NB branch is taken from the unloading Header to the pump house which surves as the suction header for 5 nos. Unloading cum transfer pump.4 nos. pumps is used for unloading and I number as stand by.Each pump is 100 cm3 per hour capacity.
At suction side of each pump simplex busket type strainer with 40 mesh Straining element is provided to make the oil free from foreign particles Which may cause damage to pump rotor.
For storing the unloaded oils 3 nos. vertical cylinder,fixed roof vented Type storage tank of nominal capacity 2826 cum has been stalled.

Oil from any of the 3 storage tanks can be transferred to the pressurising Pump house by gravity through 200 NB transfer header.It is also possibl To transfer oil from one storage tank to another , and for this purpose 200 Nb branch connection is taken from each section of transfer line of Each storage tank and a 350 NB common recirculation line is installed. Oil through this recirculation line would flow to suction header of un- Loading pumps and through the pump oil can be taken to any desired Storage tank by opening the desired inlet vv of storage tank.

8. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Saturday, September 22, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Fuel System

PPT On Fuel System

Fuel System Presentation Transcript:
1. Presentation Plan
Fuel oil System
Oil burners
Coal mills and feeder
Types of feeders
Classification of Mills
Features of different Mills
Burner arrangement

2. Fuel oil System
Purpose: (a) to establish initial boiler light up. (b) to support the furnace flame during low load operation. Fuel oil system Consists of Fuel oil Pumps Oil heaters Filters Steam tracing lines
Objective is to get filtered oil at correct pressure and temperature

3. Atomization
Atomization breaks the fuel into fine particles that readily mixes with the air for combustion. Oil should be divided up into small particles for effective atomization. The advantages of atomization are:
a) Atomizing burners can be used with heavier grades of oil.
b) Can be adopted to large applications because of large capacity range.
c) Complete combustion is assured by the ability of the small particles to penetrate turbulent combustion.

4. Classification: Oil burners
Oil burners are classified according to the method used for atomization, as follows:
a) Air-atomized burners
b) Steam-atomized burners
c) Mechanically atomized burners
Air atomizing system are not recommended for heavy oil system as they tend to chill the oil and decrease atomization quality

5. Steam Atomization
This System uses auxiliary steam to assist in the atomization of the oil. The steam used in this method should be slightly superheated and free cf moisture. As in the air atomizing system, the steam used for atomizing as well as heating the fuel as it pass through the tip and into the furnace. The main advantages of steam atomizing burners over other are:
a) Simplicity of its design
b) Initial cost of installation is low
c) low pumping pressure
d) low preheating temperature.
Disadvantage is steam used in atomizing process

6. Oil Burners
The types of oil used in the oil burners are:
a) Light Diesel Oil
b) Heavyfuel oil
c) Low sulpher heavy stock (LSHS).
Heavy oil guns are used for stabilizing flame at low load carrying. Warm up oil guns are used for cold boiler warm up during cold start up and ignitor are used for start up and oil flame stabilizing.

7. Oil Guns
The guns used in this system have two main components for atomization. They are:
a) Mixing plate
b) Spray Plate.

8. Features of Bowl Mills
Grinding chamber
Classifier mounted above it
Pulverization takes place in rotating bowl
Rolls rotating free on journal do the crushing
Heavy springs provide the pressure between the coal and the rolls
Rolls do not touch the grinding rings
Tramp iron and foreign material discharged.

9. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.



F.S.S.S. facilitates remote manual/automatic control of fuel firing equipments through mechanized system and suitable interlocks/logics.
It is designed to ensure the execution of a safe, orderly operating sequence in start up and shutdown of fuel firing equipments and to prevent errors of omission in following such a safe operating procedure.

2. The system provides protection against malfunction of fuel firing equipment and associated air system.
The safety feature of system are designed for protection in most common emergency situations.

3. F .S.S.S. Equipment can be grouped under three heads
The Operating and Indicating Console This consists of all switches for initiating controls and also indications of status of all fuel firing equipment & their auxiliaries.
2. Relay and Logic Cabinets: The cabinets consists of relays, timers, programmers, circuit breakers for AC and DC control suppliers flame scanner unit, number of coal flow units etc. They control the process logic

4. Field Equipments
Field equipments are those which help in actual remote operation of fuel firing equipments and those which provide the status to the operating console and relay logic cabinet.
Ignitor/H.O Trip Valves,
H.O atomizing steam,
Scavenging atomizing nozzle valve (Hydramotor type),
Gun advance/retract mechanisms,
Oil gun assembly,
 Ignitors and its cabinets,
Flame scanner and ignitor air fans,
Pressure switches, temperature switches, flow switches and limit switches,
Mill Discharge valves, hot air gates, sealing air valves, cold air, tramp iron gate etc.

5. Functions of FSSS
To start complete furnace purge when all technological conditions are fulfilled.
To start and monitor ignitors
H.O. guns, (oil guns) starting, stopping and supervision.
Pulveriser and feeder starting, stopping and supervision
Flame scanner intelligence and checking.
Furnace flame monitoring and overall furnace flame failure protection.

6. Functions of FSSS
To start-stop igniter and scanner air fans.
To effect secondary air damper control with indication of auxiliary and fuel air damper modulation/close.
To trip out all boiler fires when boiler safety is threatened
To provide boiler trip signal to other equipments such as P .A. Fan, Turbine, Generator etc.

Purpose: : Complete Removal of unburnt fuel from entire furnace Procedure:
Ensure that all fuel to furnace is cut off and all flame is out
Provide adequate air flow through furnace (30 to 40%)
Initiate a MANDATORY purge time cycle (9 min)
Master Fuel Trip Relays are reset
Firing of fuel into the furnace is allowed

8. Boiler Purge Logic
All HFO nozzle valves are closed
All Pulverizers are off
No MFT condition present
All feeders are off
All scanners sensing no flame.
All auxiliary air dampers modulating Both PA fans off
All HAGs closed
Air flow more than 30% and less than 50%
HFO trip valve is closed
Wind box to furnace DP is adequate.


10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation on Generation of Electricity from Coal

PPT On Generation of Electricity from Coal

Generation of Electricity from Coal Presentation Transcript:
1. In this Presentation
Basic of Power Generation
Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil
Combustion Process
Power Plant Cycle
4 Main Path come across in any thermal power plant
Boilers and Turbines
Transmission of Power and Switching

A thermal power station is a power plant in which the Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .
After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated, this is known as a Rankine cycle

3. Why Coal?
Advantages of Coal Fuel
Abundantly available in India Low cost Technology for Power Generation well developed. Easy to handle, transport, store and use
Shortcomings of Coal
Low Calorific Value Large quantity to be Handled Produces pollutants, ash Disposal of ash is Problematic Reserves depleting fast
India’s Coal Reserves are estimated to be 206 billion tonnes. Present consumption is about 450 million tonnes.
Cost of coal for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of coal Rs 1000/MT) is Rs 0.75. Cost of Gas for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of Gas Rs 6/SMC) is Rs 1.20.

4. Combustion of coal
Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur are sources of heat on combustion
Surface moisture removed on heating during pulverization.
Inherent moisture and volatiles are released at higher temperature, making coal porous and leading to char/ coke formation. (Thermal preparation stage)

5. Boiler/ steam generator
Steam generating device for a specific purpose.
Capable to meet variation in load demand
Capable of generating steam in a range of operating pressure and temperature
For utility purpose, it should generate steam uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature for running steam turbines.

6. Boiler/ steam generator
A 500MW steam generator consumes about 8000 tonnes of coal every day
It will be considered good, if it requires about 200 cubic meter of DM water in a day
It will produce about 9500 tonnes of Carbon di Oxide every day

7. Type of Boilers used in Thermal Power Plant
Water Tube Boiler: Here the heat source is outside the tubes and the water to be heated is inside. Most high-pressure and large boilers are of this type. In the water-tube boiler, gases flow over water-filled tubes. These water-filled tubes are in turn connected to large containers called drums. 8. Steam Flows from Boiler to turbine

9. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On ROCK SLOPE ENGINEERING


ROCK SLOPE ENGINEERING Presentation Transcript:
Rock mass is a non-homogeneous, anisotropic and discontinuous medium ; often it is a pre-stressed mass

Rock mechanics is defined as “ the theoretical and applied science of mechanical behavior of rock; it is that branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock to the force field of its physical environment “
 - As per ASEG (American Society of Engineering Geology )

3. Applications of Rock Mechanics
Rock mechanics is primarily applied in
Civil Engineering
Mining Engineering
Petroleum Engineering

The Civil Engineer is mainly concerned with
Competency of the rock mass to carry the loads of the structures built on it
Stability of the excavations undertaken involving a rock mass, whether surface or underground

Rock should be classified and its strength to be assessed in its simple state of existence i.e unconfined condition
Rock can be either “intact “ or “ jointed”
Parameters for assessing the rock strength/stability
In-situ stress/confining conditions
Environmental factors eg. seepage pressure etc.

INTACT ROCK No through going fractures
ROCK MASS Intact rock + Discontinuities

Shear zones
Makes the rock discontinuous
Makes the rock anisotropic
Makes the rock stress dependent

Nature of discontinuities
Location of discontinuities
Orientation of discontinuities

MASSIVE ROCK Rock mass with few discontinuities Excavation dimension < discontinuity spacing BLOCKY/JOINTED ROCK Rock mass with moderate number of discontinuities Excavation dimension > discontinuity spacing
HEAVILY JOINTED ROCK Rock mass with a large number of discontinuities Excavation dimension >> discontinuity spacing

10. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On INVENTORY MANAGEMENT


INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Presentation Transcript:
1. What is Inventory….?
Stock of items kept to meet future demand
It can be:
Raw materials
Purchased parts and supplies (Spares)
Partially Completed or Unfinished goods.
Items being transported (Stores in Transit)
Tools and equipment

2. Inventory Management….?
Definition It is concerned with planning, organizing and controlling the flow of materials from their initial purchase through internal operations to the service point through distribution.
OR Material management is a scientific technique, concerned with Planning, Organizing & Control of flow of materials, from their initial purchase to destination.

3. The Aim…
To get:
The Right quality
Right quantity of supplies
At the Right time
At the Right place
For the Right cost

4. Purpose…
- To gain economy in purchasing
- To satisfy the demand during period of replenishment
- To carry reserve stock to avoid stock out
- To stabilize fluctuations in consumption
- To provide reasonable level of client services

5. Inventory Management Functions
 Materials Planning
Inventory Control
Store Keeping
Stores Accounting
Transportation (Internal / External)
Scrap Disposal
Material Economics
Waste Management

IFS ERP INVENTORY MANAGEMENT MODULE has been implemented across 41 locations of NHPC.
As on date stock exists in 56766 items approximately.
Items are being centrally codified at Corporate Office based upon the codification schema developed by TCS.

7. Inventory In NHPC
Our Inventory includes:
- Material involved in Survey & Investigations.
- Drilling Equipments & Accessories.
- Explosives/ Detonators
- Construction Material issued to Contractors
- Steel , Cement, Explosives etc.
- Spares for Maintenance Repair & Operations
- Heavy Equipment/ Vehicle Spares
- Regular & Irregular Spares for GPM
- General Electrical & Hardware items
- General Administrative Items
- Medicines, Stationary & Liveries etc.

8. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.



The layout of hydro power plant envisages positioning of the various components of the plant to insure optimum use of available space for its efficient and convenient erection, operation and maintenance.

The power house can be positioned at the toe of the concrete masonry dam where the suitable rock to lay foundation is available. Each turbine is fed by a separate penstock which is embedded inside the non-overflow section of the dam. The power house is separated from the dam by expansion joints.

Power house may also be located further downstream and fed through a tunnel branching into individual penstocks near the powerhouse. The location of power house is dependent on several parameters like availability of head, geographical condition, quality of rocks, etc.

Most of the hydropower plants are conventional in design, meaning they use one way water flow to generate electricity.
Water is recirculated between two reservoirs.

There are two categories of conventional plants:
These plants use little, if any, stored water to provide water flow through the turbines. Although, some plants make use of running water, weather changes - especially seasonal changes – cause plants to experience significant fluctuations in power output.

Storage These plants have enough storage capacity in dams to off-set seasonal fluctuations in water flow and provide a constant supply of electricity throughout the year. Large dams can store several years worth of water. It caters to peak load requirement.

Pumped storage plants reuse water. Initially, water is made to flow from upper reservoir to lower reservoir through turbine, thereby producing power. During off-peak hours (period of low energy demand), water is pumped into the upper reservoir to be reused for power generation during periods of peak demand.

The same turbine-generator that generates electricity from falling water is also used to pump the water back into the storage tank. In this case, the generator changes the direction of the electric field, forcing the turbine to rotate in the reverse direction and act as a motor, which runs the pump. An important advantage is quick delivery of power during emergencies and power surges.

Surface power house: It is the best choice when sufficient area is available to accommodate the powerhouse within economical and convenient excavation.
The surface power house with setting of turbines below the minimum tail water level may involve substantial excavation and then backfilling with concrete to facilitate construction of high retaining walls for protections against floods. In this type, vertical shafts are driven in rock for housing part of draft tube, spiral casings and generators.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On SWITCHYARD


SWITCHYARD Presentation Transcript:
1. What is a Switchyard ?
 It is a switching station which has the following credits :
(i) Main link between Generating plant and Transmission system, which has a large influence on the security of the supply.
(ii) Step-up and/or Step-down the voltage levels depending upon the Network Node.
(iii) Switching ON/OFF Reactive Power Control devices, which has effect on Quality of power.

Equipments commonly found in switchyard :
Lightening arrestor
Current transformer
Voltage transformer
Power transformers / I.C.T.
Bus bar and clamp fittings
Support structure
Circuit Breaker
Wave traps
Earthing switch

3. Functions of various equipment :
* Transformers : - Transforms the voltage levels from higher to lower level or vice versa, keeping the power constant.
* Circuit breakers : - Makes or automatically breaks the electrical circuits under Loaded condition.
* Isolators : - Opens or closes the electrical circuits under No-load conditions.
* Instrument transformers : - For stepping-down the electrical parameter (Voltage or Current) to a lower and safe value for Metering and Protection logics.
* Earth switch : - Used to connect the charged body to ground to discharge the trapped charge to have a safe maintenance zone.

4. Functions of various equipment :
* Lightning arrestors : - Safe guards the equipment by discharging the high currents due to Lightning.
* Overhead earth wire : - Protects the O/H transmission line from Lightning strokes.
* Bus bar : - Conductors to which a number of circuits are connected.
* Wave Traps/Line traps : - Used in PLCC circuits for Communication and Protection of Transmission lines * Reactive Power control devices : - Controls the reactive power imbalance in the grid by switching ON/OFF the Shunt Reactors, Shunt Capacitors etc.,
* Current Limiting Reactors : - Limits the Short circuit currents in case of faulty conditions.

5. Bus Switching Schemes :
Bus Bar Schemes
* Single Sectionalised bus
* Main & Transfer bus
* Sectionalised Main bus with Transfer bus
* Sectionalised Double Main & Transfer bus
Breaker Schemes
* Ring bus
* One and Half breaker
* Double bus Double breaker

6. Factors effecting the selection of Switching Scheme :
* System Security
* Operational Flexibility
* Simplicity of Protection arrangements
* Ability to limit the Short Circuit levels
* Maintenance
* Ease of extension
* Total land area
* Cost

7. What is a Switchgear ?
 “The apparatus used for Switching, Controlling and Protecting the Electrical Circuits and equipment”.
Need of Switchgear :
* Switching during normal operating conditions for the purpose of Operation and Maintenance.
* Switching during Faults and Abnormal conditions and interrupting the fault currents.

8. Relay :
“A device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the Circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system”.
* The relays detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities which are different under normal and faulty conditions.

9. Requirements of Protecting relaying :
Selectivity - Ability to select the faulty part and isolate that part without disturbing the rest of the system. Speed - Ability to disconnect the faulty part at the earliest possible time.
Sensitivity - Ability of the relay to operate with low value of actuating quantity.
Reliability - Ability of the system to operate under pre-determined conditions

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On TEEN MARKETING


TEEN MARKETING Presentation Transcript:

They have plenty of discretionary income.
They spend family money and also influence their parents on both big and small purchases.
They shape and impact new fashion and lifestyle trends.
They hold a mirror to our society.

They are pretty much pragmatic, individualistic and exude optimism.
Teens have an unprecedented and unlimited access to cutting-edge technologies
They are driven by a sense of empowerment
Teens are quite self-assured

Eternal search for an identity
Streak of independence
Better cognitive power
Change in location
Enhanced buying power
Pester power
Identity and brand loyalty

Financial risk hitherto unheard of
Role models – not too far away
Radical change in the information realm
Teenagers discover their own world

Go to teens where they are
Tune into social networks
Promotions : the way forward
Espouse a cause
Be authentic
Address them like adults
Connect with the parent
Catch them young

Confluence of psychology and marketing
Cashing in on pester power
Catching them young
Buzz marketing
Commercialization in the realm of education
Using the power of internet

Use of graphics and animations
Spread the word
Design interactive web pages

Teens are more vulnerable to attractive and deceitful advertisements and purveyors of tobacco products. According to a recent study conducted by, as many tobacco smokers die each year due to illnesses, the tobacco industry aggressively tries to find replacements from among the younger population, including children, to keep their business growing.

It is important for parents to be conscious and alert to the high-impact marketing environment to which their children are exposed; and guide and advise them suitably so as not to fall into situations, which are harmful to them.
The buyer has to beware and decide carefully as to what is right and what is not.
Parents should try to spend as much time as possible with their children.

11. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Thermography

PPT On Thermography

Thermography Presentation Transcript:
1. Thermal Imaging has evolved into one of the most valuable diagnostic tools used for predictive maintenance (PM).
Thermal imaging, also called thermography, is the production of non-contact infrared, or "heat" pictures from which
temperature measurements can be made. By detecting anommalies often invisible to the neaked ey, thermography
 allows corrective action before costly system failures occure. Portable infrared (IR) imaging systems scan equipment and structures, then instantly convert the thermal images to visible pictures for quantitative temperatrue analysis.

2. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Friday, September 21, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Turbine Rolling And Synchronization

PPT On Turbine Rolling And Synchronization

Turbine Rolling And Synchronization Presentation Transcript:

Turbine Start up are classified as Cold, Hot & Warm Start up

3. General Preparation of Start up
All the repair works on the turbine are completed and all PTWs are cancelled.
All the Turbo-supervisory instruments are available.
Generator excitation system,GT & UAT cooling system,seal oil system etc.are OK
All the interlocks and protections of Turbine & Generator are already checked up and kept I/s.

4. Unit status before Turbine Rolling
Turbo-Generator on Burring gear with all Turbo supervisory parameters are normal.
Boiler is lighted up condition with one or two oil elevations are I/s.
HP-LP Bypass is in charged condition.
Boiler load index is 95 to 100 T/Hr.
Steam parameter are ready for rolling. M.S. Pr. 35-40 Ksc. HRH Pr. 12-14 Ksc. M.S. and HRH Tempr. – 320 to 3500C

5. Start up Considerations
During the startup the Turbine is subjected to “Non-Steady state operation”.
This covers the operating condn where Speed, steam Pressure and temperature change with time.
Under these condn turbine components which are exposed to temperature changes subjected to thermal stress and expansion.
For turbine life point of view, it is very much necessary to limit the extent of these temperature changes.

6. To take care of the above factor the operator has to follow the recommendations from Turbine Stress Evaluator and start the Rolling procedure by following Criteria curves X1 to X7 right from the beginning. TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR
The Turbine is equipped with the TSE which provides adequate guidance to the operator by indicating tempr margins and Load margins.
These Margins have been derived on the basis of Actual Thermal Stress and Material Fatigue.

7. Frequent and substantial departures from criteria curves and TSE Indication can result
a.Reduction in total life of Turbine
b.Non permissible deformation. and
c.Cracking of Turbine Components.

Why Turbine Resetting?
When the Turbine trips due to Electrical or Mechanical Protection Trip oil drains quickly. In the absence of the Trip oil Turbine Stop and Control vlvs closes quickly.
So the Trip oil is basically required for keeping the ESVs and IVs in open condn and getting required Secondary oil pressr for opening the HPCVs and IPCVs. .

9. The Trip oil again can be generated again by Resetting the Turbine.
Now to Reset the Turbine We have to
 Reset the Unit Or Master Trip Relay.
Bring the Starting Device to Zero.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On STEAM TURBINE


STEAM TURBINE Presentation Transcript
1. Presentation Outline
Theory of Turbine
Turbine casing
Rotor & Blades
Sealing system & barring gear
ESV’s, IV’s and CV’s
Coupling and Bearing

2. Steam Turbine
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work.

3. Impulse Turbines
An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it passes through the nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. As the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but its velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades.

4. Reaction Turbines
In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor.


 6. Turbine Casings
HP Turbine Casing
outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange.
Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading.
The inner casing--- cylindrical , axially split.
The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all directions and axially from a fixed point (HP-inlet side).

7. IP Turbine Casing
The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction.
Both are axially split and A double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades.
Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust.
Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom.

8. LP Turbine Casing
The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and has a triple shell welded casing.
The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction.
The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades, is attached kinematically in the middle shell.
Independent of the outer shell, the middle shell, is supported at four points on longitudinal beams.
Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides.

9. Anchor Point of Turbine
 Purpose: Taking care of thermal expansions and contractions of the machine during thermal cycling.
The fixed points of the turbine are as follows:
The bearing housing between the IP and LP turbines.
The rear bearing housing of the IP turbine.
The longitudinal beam of the I.P turbine.
The thrust bearing in rear bearing casing of H.P turbine.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On Turbine Vacuum System

PPT On Turbine Vacuum System

Turbine Vacuum System Presentation Transcript:
1. Presentation outline
Why Vacuum system is required ?
Parts of Vacuum system?
Steam Ejectors
Vacuum Pumps

2. Why is it required?
The steam turbine is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical power.
Enthalpy drop across the turbine decides the work output of the turbine. For increasing this enthalpy drop across the turbine we need effective condenser vacuum system.
By condensing the exhaust steam of turbine, the exhaust pressure is brought down below atmospheric pressure, increasing the steam pressure drop between inlet and exhaust of steam turbine. This further reduction in exhaust pressure gives out more heat per unit weight of steam input to the steam turbine, for conversion to mechanical power.

3. Parts of Vacuum System
CW system
Ejectors/Vacuum pumps
Gland Sealing System

The functions of condenser are:
To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature for the steam. Thus saving on steam required per unit of electricity.
To convert exhaust steam to water for reuse for thus saving on feed water requirement.
De-aeration of make-up-pump water introduced in the condenser.
To form a convenient point for introducing make up water.

5. Steam Condenser
Steam condenser is a closed space into which steam exits the turbine and is forced to give up its latent heat of vaporization.
It is a necessary component of a steam power plant because of two reasons.
It converts dead steam into live feed water.
It lowers the cost of supply of cleaning and treating of working fluid.
It is far easier to pump a liquid than a steam.
It increases the efficiency of the cycle by allowing the plant to operate on largest possible temperature difference between source and sink.
The steam’s latent heat of condensation is passed to the water flowing through the tubes of condenser.
After steam condenses, the saturated water continues to transfer heat to cooling water as it falls to the bottom of the condenser called, hotwell.
This is called subcooling and certain amount is desirable.
The difference between saturation temperature corresponding to condenser vaccum and temperature of condensate in hotwell is called condensate depression.

6. Thermal Processes Occurring in Condensers
The condenser never receives pure seam from the turbine.
A mixture of steam and non-condensable gases (Air-steam mixture) enters the condenser.
The ratio of the quantity of gas that enters the condenser to the quantity of steam is called the relative air content.

7. Condenser
Steam from last stage of LPT Exhausts on condenser tube
condensation of steam takes place
Water collected in hot well

8. Surface Condenser ( shell and tube)
A surface condenser is basically a shell and tube heat exchanger with phase change. The main parts of a condenser are as follows.

9. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

Thursday, September 20, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Multiple Intelligences

PPT On Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligences Presentation Transcript:
1. This presentation is meant to be used as
self-learning material for the study of the unit
“Multiple Intelligences” for all students of Education.
It has also been found to be very effective when used by a teacher-educator as visual aid for her talk.

2. Multiple Intelligences
The theory of Multiple intelligences is based on research by Dr. Howard Gardner of Harvard University.
Multiple Intelligences are different ways of demonstrating intellectual ability.

3. Definition of Intelligence
 “The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings” (Gardner & Hatch, 1989).
In addition to mathematical and linguistic (language) ability, Gardner expanded the concept of intelligence to include areas such as music, spatial relations, interpersonal knowledge, and knowledge about self.

4. There is both a Biological and Cultural basis for multiple intelligences.

5. Biological basis for multiple intelligences.
The Brain is a massive net containing trillions of cells called neurons.
The neurons are connected to each other by synapses.
Electric impulses can pass from one neuron to another if a synapse connects them.
 Learning involves destruction, creation or strengthening of synapses between these neurons.
Different type of learning affects synaptic connections in different areas of the brain.

6. Cultural basis for the multiple intelligences.
All societies value different types of intelligences.
Culture motivates and hones multiple intelligences
Cultural differences are reflected in degree of development of these intelligences

 7. The slides that follow present information about each type of intelligence under four headings: Characteristics of people high on that intelligence
Their skill sets
Their possible career interests
Implications in education It will help to actively take notes while reading about these intelligences.

8. Seven distinct intelligences were initially identified by Gardner.
These intelligences constitute the ways in which:
Individuals take in information
Retain and manipulate that information
Demonstrate their understanding (and misunderstanding) to themselves and others

9. Mathematical / Logical Intelligence
Intelligence most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On BUSINESS Setup


BUSINESS Setup Presentation Transcript:
RAINBOW INCORPORATED is a professional product development, outsourcing and third party inspection firm. This Company work with clients from around the world that have ASIAN outsourcing needs. Made up of a team of business owners with a combined experience in manufacturing, import/export. Their corporate office is in INDORE - INDIA and their Offices/Associates/Representatives in Southern China, France, Dubai and Africa. STEEL & ALUMINUM

2. Internship Stepping Stones
How to Setup a Business
Learning on Export & import in International Business
Market survey for Enhancing the company’s Business
Developing and Implementing Marketing & Advertising Strategies

3. How to setup a Business
Nagar Nigam Gumasta License
 Bank A/C (Current A/C, RTGS, NEFT, SMS Alerts, Online Banking)
Sales Tax ID number
Excise Registration
 IEC – Import Export Code

4. Risks in International trade:
Credit risk
Currency risk
Carriage risk
Country risk

5. How to Export
Export Procedure
How To Export
Register with Export Promotion Council
Dispatching Samples
Appointing Agents
Acquire an Export License
Acquire Export Credit Insurance
Arranging Finance
Procuring/Manufacturing Goods for Export & Their Inspection by Government Authorities
Labeling, Packaging, Packing & Marking Goods

6. How to Import
Import Procedure
How to Import
Registration with Regional Licensing Authority and obtaining IEC Code
License Application Fees
Selecting the Overseas Supplier
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PowerPoint Presentation On Krispy Kreme

PPT On Krispy Kreme

Krispy Kreme Presentation Transcript:
1. Krispy Kreme Profile
Founded In 1937
Headquartered in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Products – Doughnuts (30 kinds), soft drinks (espresso, chillers), hot drinks (coffee)
Revenue – 510.21 million USD (2006)
Net Income - 88.45 million USD (2006)
Employees – 4,250

2. Store Locations
Krispy Kreme have stores located all over the US
Stores have not been limited to only the US (Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico, and Australia)
Krispy Kreme can be found in grocery stores (Wal-Mart & Target), convenience stores, and gas stations

3. Two Locations in Oregon
16415 NW Cornell Road Beaverton, OR 97006 US
9950 S.E. 82nd Avenue Portland, OR 97266 US

4. Store Layout/Design
Freestanding: Most free-standing Krispy Kreme stores are constructed with a long window between the customer area and the kitchen, allowing customers to watch the operation of the doughnut-making machines. Smaller Stores: Most of the smaller stores get their donuts from other locations rather than producing them on-site.
Atmosphere: Very welcoming, with bright lighting. Seating is limited but available. Factory tends to pull curious customers inside.

5. Advertisement / Marketing
Free doughnut strategy – “Hot Now”; free doughnut while waiting in line.
TV ad campaign
Gifts/Accessories – shirts, sweatshirts, hats, boxers, coffee, mugs, toys.
Fundraising – helped schools raise over $30 million last year (selling doughnuts, coffee, certificates, and partnership cards).

6. Distinguishing Aspects
Store Layout: Factory inside the store where you can watch how the donuts are made.
Reputation: Krispy Kreme has always been known as and has had a reputation of being the best.
Hot Now: When the Hot Now sign outside the store is lit you can get hot and fresh original glazed donuts.

7. Recent Activity
KK went public in April 2000 at $21/share, and within a year that number doubled.
All seemed well for a couple of years, in spite of a few renegade analysts declaring KK stock “too high, given its modest quarterly net income.”
Merrill Lynch downgraded stock to “sell” in October 2002; J.P. Morgan cut the rating to “underperform” in August 2003.

8. Downward Spiral
Many credible Wall Street names held on ‘til May 2004, when KK stock fell 29% in one day after KK issued a profit warning (they blamed the low-carb craze seizing the nation). By Sept ’04, the stock had plummeted 77%.
Shares took another hit in late July ’04, when KK announced federal regulators were investigating the company.
KK failed to file its SEC reports for over a year (failure to meet accounting and financial reporting obligations).

9. . . . and it gets worse . . .
defaulted on loans
unable to borrow more money
two important franchises bankrupt (owed lots to KK)
class-action lawsuit by stockholders
CEO, COO & CFO unloaded shares at peak
caught boosting profits by extorting franchises
sold equipment and booked the revenue before payment was received – “cooking the books”
“sweetheart deals”
independent auditors refuse to sign off on KK’s financial statement
CEO and six key officers fired
rumors of de-listing on the NYSE

10. What next?
Krispy Kreme is struggling back into the market eye after a desperate tussle with near extinction.
January 29th, 2007: KK announced it has finally become current in its SEC filings, and has since maintained that status.
February 2007: introduction of a new whole-wheat doughnut: “made with 100% whole wheat . . . and, to make it even better, the doughnut is ONLY 180 calories!”
April 2007: announces change in its board of directors and names new corporate officers.
May 2007: Files its UFOC (Uniform Franchise Offering Circular), essentially declaring that it is once again, finally, licensing franchises.

11. Thank You.
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