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Friday, October 9, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On AMF PANEL

Presentation On AMF PANEL


AMF PANEL Presentation Transcript:

2. Diesel Generators
 A Generator basically consists of two main parts- a) The prime mover b) The alternator.

3. The Engine
IT HAS A RATING OF :- 16.8KW, 1500 R.P.M.

4. Alternators:
The alternator is manufactured by PRAKASH Ltd (FARIDABAD) and KIRLOSKAR Ltd.
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to alternating current electrical energy.
The specifications of the alternators are:-
OUTPUT CURRENT: - 11 AMP. R.P.M.: - 1500

5. AMF Panels

With the generator in 'Auto' mode, the incoming main is monitored continuously. If the mains voltage falls outside the preset limits, a 'mains failure' has occurred and the process of starting the generator set is initiated.

7. Manufacturing Process
Sheet metal of 2mm thickness is taken and sent to the shearing machine for being cut into the required size. The sheet metal is then sent to the bending machine for being bent at the angles required. After the outer surface is ready the mounting plate is attached and holes are drilled for attaching the relays and other devices.

8. Conclusion:
In today's world DG sets have become very common and due to the regular failure of the supply the use of AMF panels has become a must as switching on and switching off a DG set again and again at odd hours or even in industries is not feasible as it causes discomfort and delay.

Thursday, October 8, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Railway

Presentation On Railway


PowerPoint Presentation On Microvia Technology

Presentation On Microvia Technology


Microvia Technology Presentation Transcript:
The development of very complex ICs with extremely high input output has forced the electronic manufacturer to develop new packaging and assembly techniques. Components with pitches less than 0.30mm,chip scale packages and flip chip tech are underlining this trend and highlight importance of new PCBs

Clean vias without residue. No delamination of copper and substrate. Big land diameter for robust interconnection to the inner layer.

Mechanically drilled vias. Etching. Plasma etching. Laser drilling.

The following graph shows the dynamic range in hole sizes that different methods offer:

In Automobile industries. Intelligent devices and systems. Mobiles phones. Also expected in Computers

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PowerPoint Presentation On Load Sharing

Presentation On Load Sharing


Load Sharing Presentation Transcript:
1. Base Papers
“Epoch load sharing” by Helen D. Kartza and Ralph C. Hilzer. “Effective Load Sharing on Heterogeneous Networks of Workstations” by Li Xiao, Xiaodong Zhang and Yanxia Qu.

2. Objectives
Define “Load Sharing”. What is Epoch Load Sharing? Define other load sharing strategies. Comparison. Examine Load Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks of Workstations. Compare all the techniques available.

3. Definition
Load balancing is to divide work evenly among the processors. Load sharing is to ensure that no processor remains idle when there are other heavily loaded processors in the system.

4. Algorithms
With sender-initiated algorithms, load-distribution activity is initiated when an over-loaded node (sender) tries to send a task to another under-loaded node (receiver). In receiver-initiated algorithms, load-distribution is initiated by an under-loaded node (receiver), when it requests a task from an over-loaded node (sender).

5. Scheduling Policies
Static Dynamic or Adaptive Probabilistic Deterministic

6. Static Policy
Scheduling policies that use information about the average behavior of the system and ignore the current state, are called static policies. The principle advantage of static policies is simplicity, since they do not require the maintenance and processing of system state information.

7. Static Policy
In the probabilistic case, the scheduling policy is described by state independent branching probabilities. Jobs are dispatched randomly to workstations with equal probability. In the deterministic case, routing decisions are based on system state, so jobs join the shortest of the all workstation queues.

8. Dynamic Policy
Policies that react to the system state are called adaptive or dynamic policies. Adaptive policies tend to be more complex, mainly because they require information on the system's current state when making transfer decisions. improve performance benefits over those achievable with static policies.

9. Dynamic Policy
When workstations become idle, jobs can migrate from heavily loaded workstation queues to idle workstations. Job Migration can be Receiver initiated or Sender initiated. It balances the job load and can improve overall system performance.

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PowerPoint Presentation On ESSAR

Presentation On Essar Power Limited


ESSAR Presentation Transcript:
Essar is one of India's largest corporate houses with leadership positions in the high-growth infrastructure sectors of Steel, Energy, Power, Communications, Shipping & Logistics, and Construction. Essar Power Holdings Ltd. was established in1991. The combined cycle power plant in Hazira with a generating capacity of 515MW is strategically located at Hazira in the state of Gujarat. It supplies power to Gujarat State Utility (300MW) and Essar Steel (215MW).

Generator Differential Protection Generator rotor earth fault protection Generator negative phase sequence current protection Stator over voltage protection Stator under voltage protection Under frequency relay Overall differential relay

Differential Current Protection High Impedance Relay Scheme Frame leakage Protection

System kept in auto mode Bus voltages may not be synchronous. Incomer / Bus coupler breaker trips. NO overcurrent on the bus which has tripped. (ie: no bus fault.) Voltage of the tripped bus less than 70%. Time taken for changeover is about 1.2 sec.

System kept in auto mode. Bus voltages shall be synchronous. Incomer / Bus coupler breaker trips. NO overcurrent on the bus which has tripped. (ie: no bus fault.) Voltage of the tripped bus less than 90%. Time taken for changeover is less than 100 mS

Using advanced infrared technology locate and identify problems not visible to the eye.  Verify many items, giving  hard copy documentation of the conditions inspected. A MIKRON infrared camera with temperature measurement and recording capabilities is used to produce images from the infrared spectrum.  Infrared radiation consists of electromagnetic wavelengths greater than visible light and shorter than microwaves.   All materials whose surface temperature is above absolute zero (-273 0C) emit infrared radiation; infrared radiation can be correlated to the objects surface temperature.   Temperature differences are shown by color/gray scale with temperature scale shown to the right..

Definition of Infrared Thermography Infrared thermography is equipment or method, which detects infrared energy emitted from object, converts it to temperature, and displays image of temperature distribution. To be accurate, the equipment and the method should be called differently, the equipment to be called as infrared thermograph and the method to be called as infrared thermography. It is an electromagnetic wave.Wavelength is 0.7┬Ám or longer Wavelength is 1mm or less = Frequency is 300GHz or more.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Energy Meters

Presentation On Energy Meters


Energy Meters Presentation Transcript:
GENUS was established in 1995 in Jaipur. Accredited with ISO-9001:2000, IECQ, EMC, ISI and C-DOT Certifications Turnover of more than US$ 65 Million most modern plant with Class 10,000 and 100,000 clean room work areas Work areas include (i) Power Projects (ii) Inverters (iii) Energy Meters

2. Some of esteemed clients of Genus:
Reliance Energy Ahmedabad Electricity Co. Surat Electricity Co. Tata Power KSEB, ASEB, RSEB, MSEB, MPSEB (Electricity boards) UPPCL, UPCL, DHBVNL, JKPDD among others ITI - Bangalore / Mankapur / Rai Bareli CDOT - Bangalore / New Delhi Central Electronics Ltd. BSNL - Bangalore / Thiruvanthpuram / Chennai DRDO - Jodhpur Maruti Udyog Ltd. Instrumentation Ltd. - Kota BEL - Bangalore / Kotdwar

The designing of PCB is done in the first stage. The designing of PCB includes the use of following aids and tools VISULA Software from ZUKEN REDAC for HMC's and PCB's. ORCAD Software for PCB Designing. Powerful SUN SPARC Workstations. Auto Interactive Routing. Floor planning Capabilities with Advanced Placement Tools. Connection Density/Thermal Mapping. Design Rule Checks. In-House Photo plotting Facility

SCREEN PRINTING DEK 1762 with print accuracy of better than 15 microns to process Ceramic substrates of size 152 x 152mm

 In SMT technology very small components are placed on the surface of the PCB The SMT is done in three steps (i) FIRING (ii) AUTOMATIC COMPONENTS PLACEMENT (iii) REFLOW SOLDERING

After the PCB designing is completed, pasting of solder paste is done to make the PCB ready to be processed for SMT technology. FIRING OF thick film pastes is performed on Computer controlled,
 7 Zones BTU furnaces

The components are then placed by an automatic pick and place machine JUKI KE 2020 C. This machine get an input feed of different components and as fed in the software of the machine, components are picked and placed on the PCB.

8 PCB’s can be developed at the same time in the machine. High speed Pick & Place Machine with CCD Vision camera from MYDATA having placement rate of 4600 components per hour to place components of all types is shown in photo 8. REFLOW SOLDERING Soldering of the components placed is then done. This is done by Reflow Temperature Controller machine UIP 70. The temperature for the soldering in the different chambers of this machine range from 137 degree to 270 degree. The temperature is set according to the thickness of the board. More temperature is needed for a thick board. Solder re-flow on BTU Re-flow Furnace having 10 Zones.


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PowerPoint Presentation On Cables

Presentation On Cables


Cables Presentation Transcript:
1. Establish in1981 Brand name is UNICAB Certified with ISO 9001 & 9002 One of its most modern mfg. plant is in Umbergaon, Gujarat

2. Energy Transfer Signal Light Power

3. Transfer data in the form of light Thin strand of pure glass Diameter approx human hair

4. Speed Bandwidth Distance Resistance Maintenance

5. Telecommunication cable 2-2400 pairs Copper conductor, gauge 0.5mm

6. Wire drawing PVC coating Twisting Final Sheath

7. Higher rating Under ground transmission line High power transfer 6.6kV-33kV XPLE material

8. Wire drawing stranding C.C.V line (Catenary Continuous Vulcanisation) Copper taping Laying Inner sheathing Armoring Outer sheathing

9. C.R test H.V test Partial discharge test Tensile strength test Synthetic material Property Application PVC insulation Size, Types Application

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PowerPoint Presentation On Brain Fingerprinting

Presentation On Brain Fingerprinting


Brain Fingerprinting Presentation Transcript:
1. What is Brain Fingerprinting?
Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain.

2. Quick Overview
Invented By Dr Lawrence A. Farwell. It’s a patented technique of proven accuracy in US government tests. Ruled Admissible in one US Court as scientific evidence. It has a record of 100% Accuracy.

3. How it works ?
On seeing a previously known information, a specific measurable brain response known as a P300 or MERMER i.e. Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response, is elicited by the brain of a subject.

4. What is P300/ MERMER?
A MERMER is a part of the brainwave observed in response to familiar information. When the brain recognizes something, neurons are fired synchronously, eliciting characteristic changes in brain activity. It is these changes, that investigators look for when trying to determine whether someone recognizes a particular piece of information.

5. Continued…
When a person is exposed to a rare, but meaningful information, there is increase in neuron activity which results in an increase in voltage, typically within 300–1000msec after the stimulus, and that response with increases voltage is known as P300. The utility of the P300 in detection of deception was recognized as early as 1988, However, the P300 has only a 87.5% success rate in revealing the presence of relevant information in one’s brain.

6. Continued...
But Farwell’s test is based on the discovery that the P300 is only a subcomponent of a more complicated response called a MERMER. The MERMER, includes the P300 and another longer latency, electrically negative subcomponent with a latency of up to two seconds post-stimulus

7. It incorporates the following procedure:
A sequence of words, phrases, or pictures is presented on a video monitor to the subject, wearing a special headband designed for detecting the brain wave responses. Three types of stimuli are presented: 1.Target 2. Irrelevant 3. Probe

8. Continued…
Target : The target stimuli are made relevant and noteworthy to all subjects. Irrelevant : These have no relation to the situation under investigation. Probes : Probes are the stimuli that are relevant to the situation under investigation.

9. Continued…
The targets provide a template for a response that will be generated when a subject recognizes a stimuli familiar to the situation under investigation. The irrelevant provide a template, for a response that will be generated when a subject don’t recognizes a stimuli familiar to the situation under investigation.

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Related Project Report:

Brain Fingerprinting

PowerPoint Presentation On Wind Farm

Presentation On Wind Farm


Wind Farm Presentation Transcript:
Sim Power Systems software and other products of the Physical Modeling product family work together with Simulink software to model electrical, mechanical, and control systems.

Introduction Single-Line Diagram SimPowerSystems of the Wind Farm Connected to the Distribution System (power_wind_dfig) SimPowerSystems of the 2 MVA Plant with its Protection System Turbine Data Menu and the Turbine Power Characteristics Turbine Response to a Change in Wind Speed Simulation of a Fault on the 25-kV System Conclusion

The wind farm consists of six 1.5 MW wind turbines connected to a 25 kV distribution system exporting power to a 120 kV grid through a 30 km 25 kV feeder. A 2300V, 2 MVA plant consisting of a motor load (1.68 MW induction motor at 0.93 PF) and of a 200 kW resistive load is connected on the same feeder at bus B25. A 500 kW load is also connected on the 575 V bus of the wind farm. Both the wind turbine and the motor load have a protection system monitoring voltage, current and machine speed.

4. Wind turbines use a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) consisting of a wound rotor induction generator and an AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter. The stator winding is connected directly to the 60 Hz grid while the rotor is fed at variable frequency through the AC/DC/AC converter Another advantage of the DFIG technology is the ability for power electronic converters to generate or absorb reactive power, thus eliminating the need for installing capacitor banks as in the case of squirrel-cage induction generators

The waveforms associated with this simulation. At t=5 s, the generated active power starts increasing smoothly (together with the turbine speed) to reach its rated value of 9MW in approximately 15s. Over that time frame the turbine speed increases from 0.8 p.u. to 1.21 pu. Initially, the pitch angle of the turbine blades is zero degree and the turbine operating point follows the red curve of the turbine power characteristics up to point D. Then the pitch angle is increased from 0 deg to 0.76 deg to limit the mechanical power. Observe also the voltage and the generated reactive power. The reactive power is controlled to maintain a 1 p.u. voltage. At nominal power, the wind turbine absorbs 0.68 Mvar (generated Q=-0.68 Mvar) to control voltage at 1pu. If you change the mode of operation to Var regulation with the Generated reactive power Qref set to zero, you will observe that the voltage increases to 1.021 p.u. when the wind turbine generates its nominal power at unity power factor

6. Simulation and Model-Based Design Simulink is an interactive tool for modeling, simulating, and analyzing dynamic, multidomain systems. It lets you accurately describe, simulate, evaluate, and refine a system's behavior through standard and custom block libraries. Simulink models have ready access to MATLAB, providing you with flexible operation and an extensive range of analysis and design tools.

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PowerPoint Presentation On Touch Screen Technology

Presentation On Touch Screen Technology


Touch Screen Technology Presentation Transcript:
Parts of Touch Screen System :
1.Touch Sensor

1.Resistive Touch Screens
2.Acoustic Wave Touch Screens
3.Capacitive Touch Screens

1.Five wire technology
2.Four and Eight wire technology Advantages of Resistive Touch Screens Disadvantages of Resistive Touch Screens

How Touch Screen Controller Interprets Screen Measurement? Advantages and disadvantages of Acoustic Wave Touch Screen

Working of Capacitive Technology Advantages and disadvantages of Capacitive Touch Screens

1.Resistive: 1.Top 2.Inside 3.Bottom 2.Surface Acoustic Wave 3.Capacitive

Public Information Displays Retail and Restaurant Systems

Customer Self-Service Control and Automation Systems

Computer Based Training Assistive Technology

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PowerPoint Presentation On Electrical Instruments

Presentation On Electrical Instruments


Electronic Testing


PowerPoint Presentation On Industrial Automation

Presentation On Industrial Automation


Industrial Automation Presentation Transcript:
1. Energy Medical engineering Real estate Control systems Transportation systems Information and communication systems Industrial projects Automation systems

2. Swichgear Motors Drives Automation system

3. It is an electronic device that controls machines and processes. With the introduction of micro controllers and development in the field of software technology has replaced the physical wiring of control devices A plc monitors inputs ,makes decision based on its program and controls outputs to automate a process or machine.

4. PLC’s are effective in totally eliminating the possibilities of human error. It is effective in the potentially high explosive chemical processes. It also ensures good quality under repetitive processes.

5. Statement list (stl) Function block diagram (fbd) Ladder logic (lad)

6. S7-200 CPU s support a variety of communication protocols :- Point to point interface Multipoint interface PROFIBUS - DP

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PowerPoint Presentation On Geophysical Instrumentation

Presentation On Geophysical Instrumentation


Geophysical Instrumentation Presentation Transcript:
1. Providing the location on land for the geophysical survey. Types of Survey :- - 2D Survey - 3D Survey - 4D Survey ( Time Lapse )

2. Theodolites
Total Station Unit GPS

3. Theodolites -
Used to measure horizontal & vertical angles - Very old technique. - Not equipped with internal compass. - Principle of taking reading is based on optics. - Line of Sight is required.

4. Digital Display of angular measurements Capable of performing the calculation of slope to horizontal distances Advantage in speed and accuracy

Eliminating Cables and enables one person to carry out all the field measurements Allows person to determine the time and the precise location anywhere on earth

Accelerometers Geophone HydroPhones

7. Accelerometers
Hydrophones Used in Marine Work Based on the principle of Piezoelctricity Also known as Pressure Phones

8. Geophone
Based on the principle that the relative motion b/w coil and Magnet produces emf Spring is used for damping

9. Explosive Sources
- Dynamite - Gas Gun Non Explosive Sources - Weight Drop Technique - Vibrator

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PowerPoint Presentation On Control Panels

Presentation On Control Panels


Control Panels Presentation Transcript:
1. Control Circuit Components Push Button Contactor Relay d.c. a.c. 1.Voltage relay 2.Current relay 3.Thremal overload relay Fuse


3. Types of motor Connection
Direct on-line motor connection Reverse Direct on-line motor connection Manual star-delta motor connection Automatic star-delta motor connection

4. Direct on-line Motor
Control Panel Bus bar Selector switch Fuse Contactor Over load relay Transformer Emergency feeder Wiring diagram Terminals Testing

5. Direct reverse
on-line motor Bus bar Selector switch Fuse Contactor Over load relay Transformer Emergency feeder Wiring diagram Terminals Testing

6. Protection devices
 Overload protection Overload relay Short circuit protection Fuse Thermal protection Thermistor type relay

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PowerPoint Presentation On Aditya Cement

Presentation On Aditya Cement


PPT On Birla Cement


Wednesday, October 7, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On BSNL

Presentation On BSNL


Practical Training At BSNL






Industrial Training At BSNL


PowerPoint Presentation On Neural Networks

 PPT On Neural Networks


Neural Networks Presentation Transcript:
1. Introduction
What Is Neural Network? An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.

2. Why Use Neural Networks?
A trained neural network can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyze. The Other advantages include: 1.Adaptive learning 2.Self-Organisation 3.Real Time Operation 4.Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding

3. Neural Networks Vs Conventional Computers
1.Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach i.e. the computer follows a set of instructions in order to solve a problem . 2. The network is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurones) working in parallel to solve a specific problem. Neural networks learn by example.

4. Network Layers INPUT:
The activity of the input units represents the raw information that is fed into the network. HIDDEN:The activity of each hidden unit is determined by the activities of the input units and the weights on the connections between the input and the hidden units. OUTPUT:The behaviour of the output units depends on the activity of the hidden units and the weights between the hidden and output units.

5. Perceptrons

6. Applications of neural networks
Neural networks in medicine Electronic noses Instant Physician Neural Networks in business sales forecasting industrial process control customer research data validation risk management target marketing

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PowerPoint Presentation On Maglev Trains

PPT On Maglev Trains


Maglev Transportation


Presentation on Maglev Trains


Related Project Report:

Maglev Trains Report

PowerPoint Presentation On GSS

PPT On 220 KV Sub Station




132 KV PPT






PowerPoint Presentation On GPS



GPS Presentation Transcript:
1. Introduction
GPS is the Global positioning system is to determine your position on earth :east- west north-south and vertical(longitude,latitude and altitude). GPS is provided on mid 1990. Today many different standard was used which are WAAS LAAS DGPS NDGPS. DGPS is used to correct bias errors at one location with major bias error at one position. Local area augmentation system focus its service on the airport area. It work using very high frequency radio data link.

2. Basics of GPS
In order to understand how the GPS system works we use for this high school physics. If we send out a pulse of sound or radio waves then we can determine resistance of object by dividing the time it took for reply by the speed of sound. Distance = speed * time Time = Distance/ Speed GPS works on much the same principle. GPS satellite only transmit timing data pulse, GPS receive units, only receive.

3. Shouting From the Stars
The GPS works on this principle, although it uses much more precise clocks and the speed of light. If each GPS unit had to have an atomic clock, it would be expansive. With three satellites we can solve three of these four variables. X, Y = Horizontal Position Z = Altitude T = Time With only three satellites and an imprecise clock, we have to assume altitude to be a known constant. Eg: Sea level. Since we can only solve for three variables using three satellites X , Y and Time. But if we have four visible satellites we can solve for all four variables X, Y, Z and T.

4. Contd-
GPS signals work in microwaves bands. They can pass through glass, but are absorbed by water molecules and reflect off concrete, steel and rock. This means that GPS unit have trouble operating in rain forest, urban jungle, deep canyons, inside automobiles and roads and in heavy snowfalls-among other things. These environmental obstacles degrade positional accuracy or make it impossible to get a fix on your location.

GPS elements consist of three basic parts: Space segment User segment Control segment

6. Space segment
Space segment of the system consist of the GPS satellites. These space vehicles (vs.) send radio signal from space. The nominal GPS operation constellation consist of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth in 12 hours. There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to repeat older satellites. The satellites orbit repeats all most the same ground track once each day the orbit altitude is such that satellite repeat the same track. There are six orbital plane equally spaced (60 degree apart) and inclined at about 55 degree with respect to the equatorial plane

7. User segment
User segment consist of receivers, which you can hold in your hand or mount in your path. The GPS receiver converts SV signals into position, velocity and time. Four satellites are required to compute the 4 dimensions: X, Y, Z and Time. GPS receivers are used for navigation, position, time and other research.

8. Control segment
Control segment consist of a system of tracking stations located around the world. These stations measure signals from the sves which are incorporated into orbital model for each satellites. The models compute precise orbital data and sv clock correction for each satellites. The master clock station uploads ephemeris and clock data to sves. The master control facility determines the orbit and clock parameters using measurements from five monitor stations distributed around the world.

9. GPS Error sources
There are various types of error in GPS . These are: Satellite clock Receiver clock Satellite orbit error Atmospheric error: Ionosphere and troposphere Multi-path errors These errors in the satellites produce error in distance measurements Satellite clock error

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PowerPoint Presentation On GPRS

Presentation On GPRS


GPRS Basics




PowerPoint Presentation On Space Optics

Presentation On Free Space Optics


Free Space Optical Communication


Free Space Optics


Related Project Report:

Space Optics Report

PowerPoint Presentation On Embedded Linux

Presentation On Embedded Linux


Embedded Linux Presentation Transcript:
Introduction give a brief idea to the thrilling and exciting world of Linux and Embedded systems. It also remove FUD’s (fear,uncertainty and doubt) that people normally associate with Linux. There are three points consider in it. Brief History Of Linux. What Are Embedded Systems. What’s The Deal About Embedded Linux.

2. Brief History Of Linux : -
MINIX operating system written by Andrew s. Tanenbaum was good but it is not an industry standard. At that time, Richard Stallman started GNU project which was a software movement to provide free and quality software. In 1984, Stallman started to writing GNU C Compiler(GCC). GNU provide a lot of tools. In Aug.25,1991 Linus Benedict Trovalds introduce a free operating system Linux 0.01 and ask his fellow net users for feedback to make it better and improved. Soon Linux 0.02 Came on Oct. 5. This started a remarkable journey of Linux. LINUX proved its reliability during attacks of CIH and love bug viruses. Linux like RedHat find a great response from public. Biggest problem with Linux is its text mode. So professional advent desktop environment such as KDE(K Desktop Environment) and GNOME. Linux is cheaper then other OS. It can run on various platforms.

3. What Are Embedded System :-
Embedded Systems are basically electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually in the form of microprocessor) within their implementation.Embedded Systems area are Hot because of following reasons. 1.Embedded system make a system more autonomous and smart then other system. 2.Embedded Microprocessors account for almost 100% of worldwide microprocessor production. 3.The ratio of Embedded microprocessor with their desktop is 100:1. 4.Average home has about 40-50 Embedded Processors.

4. What’s The Deal About Embedded Linux :-
Today Embedded Systems are are intricate due to the increasing complexity of the nature of the task they handle. Traditional embedded design methodology where the application developer use the issues of memory management and process scheduling Embedded linux provid a reliable and customizable platform for the developers to create their applications.

5. The Why’s of Embedded Linux :-
Free and Open Source. Well Documented. Network Friendly. Linux is Real-Time Too. Free Development Tools and Software.

6. Free and Open Source:-
Linux is free because it is distributed under GPL(GNU public license).With the source code always accessible, development of Embedded System is Easier and straightforward as Embedded Systems demand a high degree of customization. Well Documented:- Source code can not be usable without any documentation.Linux Open Source Community’s volunteer put several ‘How to’ and other guides on the net. It gives speed to the development process of Embedded Linux.

7. Network Friendly :-
Linux is pre-configured with TCP/IP protocol stack and IPX, SNA stacks are fully supported. Incorporation of TCP/IP reduces development time of Embedded Linux Systems. Linux is Real-Time Too :- Real-time systems produce the output response within a certain time limit.The time critical functions need to be done at interrupt level.The priority of these interrupts and the functions that they perform need to be carefully designed.RT-Linux fulfill this type of interrupt control. Free Development Tools and Software :- The most prominent tools is GNU tool chain consisting gcc(GNU C Compiler), gdb(GNU Debugger), gas(GNU assembler),GNU Linker. There are other development tools 16-bit compiler,assembler and linker for 8086 like bcc,as86and id86.

8. The How’s of Embedded Linux :-
Understanding application and Requirements. Size and Functionality Trade-off. Hardware and Platform Issues. The Linux Boot Process. Linux Device Drivers and the Kernel. Memory Management Issues. process and Threads. Inter process Communication. Interrupt Handling. RAM/ROM File Systems. TCP/IP Networking.

9. Understanding application and requirements :-
This is the first logical step towards creating an embedded System. Only those features are added which are most vital to the functioning of the System.This improves efficiency and reduces size of Embedded system. Size and Functionality Trade-off :- Embedded Linux distributions are available for all kinds of hardware and functional configuration that one can think of. The size-functionality trade-off is what should be considered with great care while choosing a particular distribution. Hardware and Platform Issues :- The same platform used for development and deployment of Embedded Linux for easily debugging and administering a system.

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PowerPoint Presentation On DNA Computing

Presentation On DNA Computing Research


PPT On DNA Computing


Presentation On DNA Computing


PowerPoint Presentation On CODA

Presentation On CODA File System


Presentation On Weak Connectivity(Mobile Access)


Related Project Report:

CODA Report

PowerPoint Presentation On Artificial Intelligence

Presentation On Artificial Intelligence


Presentation On Basics Of Artificial Intelligence  


Tuesday, October 6, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Solar Cell

Presentation On Basics Of Solar Cell


PPT On Hetro-Junction Solar Cell


Presentation On Solar PV Energy


Solar Cell PPT


Training PPT


Sunday, October 4, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Cable Modem

Presentation On Cable Modem


Cable Modem Presentation Transcript:
1. Modems: An Introduction
The middlemen between the computer and the telephone system Convert analog data suitable for transmission over a phone line to digital data suitable for a computer (modulator/demodulator) Can be either an external device or an internal device that is installed in an expansion slot inside a computer A phone line connects to a modem or telephone using either an RJ-11 or older RJ-12 connector

2. Modem Types
Telephone modem Optical Modem (Optical fiber) Cable modem DSL Modem etc

3. What is a Cable Modem & how does it work?
A Cable Modem is a digital modem that uses a coaxial cable connection for the data transmission. This data connection is received by a cable modem that decodes the signal into your PC.

4. Who Makes Cable Modems?
Bay Networks -- LANcity Motorola Zenith General Instruments Hewlett-Packard Scientific Atlanta Phasecom

5. Who Doesn’t Make Cable Modems?
Intel Announced, then backed out in 1996 DEC Resold LANcity modems in 1995, left business soon thereafter

6. A Typical Cable Modem ... …
Connects 1 single host computer Though some can connect dozens of hosts Has its own IP address Though some share an IP address with the single connected host Operates at speeds from 1 megabit / second to 10 megabits / second Though some claim up to 30 megabits / sec Is bidirectional Though some use “telco return”

7. How Fast is a Cable Modem?
Variable Bit Rate: Bandwidth on Demand Asymmetric Configuration Downstream Transmission Frequency Range: 50-860 MHz Transmission Speed: up to 36 Mbps (3~10 Mbps realistic) Upstream Transmission Frequency Range: 5-42 MHz Transmission Speed: up to 10 Mbps (200 Kbps ~ 2 Mbps realistic)

8. How secure is a Cable Modem?
Cable connections are not 100% secure in any instance like many other connections on the Internet. Even though most cable providers block ports 137-139, cable modems are likely to be generated in any case where a user has file and print sharing turned on, or possibly other services like SMTP (Simple mail transfer protocol), Web Servers and Telnet services. A general rule is to keep passwords long and turn off any service that you don't absolutely need running. A firewall type application should be used to keep a network as secure as possible.

9. Who makes Cable Modems & what are some Cable Modem Service Providers?
There are many cable modem brands, and some of the most common ones are from Com21, Motorola, Bay Networks, RCA, Cisco, Toshiba, 3Com, and Terayon. There are several popular cable modem providers. A few of them are: @Home available at http://www.Home.Com, Mediaone Express available at, and Road Runner, a service by Time Warner available at http://www.RR.Com.

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

Saturday, October 3, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On SQL

 Presentation On SQL  Simple

Presentation On SQL Intermediate


PPT On Microsoft SQL Server 2005


Friday, October 2, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Banking

Presentation On Retail Banking


Money Market


Commercial Banks In India PPT


E-Banking Service Of SBI Bank PPT


Tuesday, September 29, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Oracle 9i

Presentation On Oracle 9i


PPT On Oracle 9i


PowerPoint Presentation On PHP

Presentation On PHP




Patient Billing System


Online Cinema Booking


PHP Training At Maxheap Technologies


Hotel Resource Management System


PowerPoint Presentation On AJAX

Presentation On AJAX


AJAX Presentation Transcript:
1. Contents
This presentation demonstrates the following topics.

Appin Knowledge Solutions is an education consulting company dedicated to providing quality consulting, training & e-learning solutions in education sector. Appin group of companies was incorporated in March 2003 in Austin Texas under the XIRS Ventures Inc. The first ones in the industry to come up with Distance learning programs in Embedded Systems, VLSI & Nano-Technology. Appin Knowledge Solutions, with its Asia-Pacific Head Quarters in New Delhi, is an affiliate of Appin Group of Companies based in Austin, Texas

3. What is AJaX?
A name given to an existing approach to building dynamic web applications. Web pages use JavaScript to make asynchronous calls to web-based services that typically return XML allows user to continue interacting with web page while waiting for data to be returned page can be updated without refreshing browser results in a better user experience there are AJaX libraries that reduce the amount of JavaScript code that must be written Uses a JavaScript class called XMLHttpRequest

4. A is for “asynchronous” requests can be made asynchronously technique allow web page to be updated without refreshing it J is for “JavaScript” typically JavaScript is used on the client-side (in the browser) can use any language on server-side that can accept HTTP requests and return HTTP responses X is for “XML” request and response messages can contain XML can contain any text

5. XML Http Request
A JavaScript Class that lets you make asynchronous HTTP requests from JavaScript. Make an HTTP request from a JavaScript event. A call back JavaScript function is invoked at each state of the HTTP request and response.

6. onreadystatechange - call back function for state changes readyState - the current state of the HTTP call responseText - the text result of the request responseXML - DOM xml object from the request status - HTTP status code of the response statusText - HTTP status text

7. DWR
DWR, stands for Direct Web Remoting. Is a combination Java/JavaScript open source library that allows you to simply and easily build Ajax applications. Allows to call server-side code in a way that looks like it is running locally in the browser from the point of view of the client-side.

8. About the Project
 It provide the ability to see a tree view of the directory structure of the server the application is running on. Provides facility to perform basic operations of copying files and directories, moving files and directories Provides the ability to edit the files. Uploading and downloading files. When select a directory from the tree, it shows the contents of that directory in a grid, showing us the item’s name, size, type, and last modified date/time. Implement security check using container-managed J2EE security UI look similar to Windows Explorer.

9. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On DBMS

Presentation On DBMS(Relational Calculus)


DBMS Overview PPT


PowerPoint Presentation On I Mode

Presentation On I Mode


I Mode Presentation Transcript:
1. i mode - History
i-mode was launched in Japan on 22 February 1999. The content planning and service design team was led by Mari Matsunaga, while Takeshi Natsuno was responsible for the business development. Further Developments: Dec. 1999 i-mode compatible handsets with color screens were marketed Jan. 2001 i-appli service launched Jul. 2001 i-area service launched Nov. 2001 i-motion service launched Jun. 2002 i-shot service launched Jan. 2003 i-motion mail service launched Sep. 2005 i-channel service launched Oct. 2006 keyword search service for i-mode launched

2. What is i mode???
NTT DoCoMo's i-mode is a wireless internet service popular in Japan. Unlike WAP, i-mode encompasses a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail and the packet-switched network that delivers the data. i-mode users have access to various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, games, financial services and ticket booking. Content is provided by specialized services, typically from the mobile carrier, which allows them to have tighter control over billing.

3. i mode Server
The iMode server is a regular Web server. It can reside at NTT DoCoMo or at the Enterprise. DoCoMo has been acting as a portal and so “normally” maintains the iMode server. For future implementations with advanced security requirements, it is possible to host the iMode server at the Enterprise.

4. (PDC-P) Personal Digital Cellular-Packet
iMode provides Internet service using Personal Digital Cellular-Packet (PDC-P) and a subset of HTML 3.0 for content description . iMode allows application/content providers to distribute software (Java applets) to cellular phones and also allows users to download applets (e.g., games). iMode uses packet switched technology for the wireless part of the communication and is carried over TCP/IP for the wired part of the communication. The mobile packet communications system has a network configuration in which the packet communications function is added and integrated into DoCoMo’s Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) which is the digital system for portable and automobile telephones.

5. Protocols
TLP Improved efficiency in PDC-P network over TCP (uses fewer packets to save charges) Higher data packet ratio No 3-way handshake, control signals can piggyback data ALP Supports both pull (HTTP) and push style communication Direct HTTP communication between mobile phone and iMode server UITP (User Information Transfer Protocol) sends subscriber information from PDC-P network to iMode server NWMP (Network Management Protocol) performs signaling Start/end of packet communication E.g. email delivery, push content notification

6. How does i-Mode work?
The i-Mode service uses an additional packet communication network that is built onto DoCoMo's main network. This packet data transmission technology allows for constant connectivity.Thus, users are not charged for how long they are online, since this time is unlimited. Rather, users are charged only for how much information they retrieve. There are essentially 4 main components that are required for the i-Mode service. 1)A cellular phone capable of voice and packet communication and with a browser installed. 2)A packet network. 3)An i-mode server. 4)Information providers.

7. Security Issues
1. Security of the radio link between iMode handset and the cellular base station. 2. Security of the transparent public Internet connection between iMode sites and the handset in the cHTML layer. 3. Security of private networks on iMode. 4. Security of private network links between the iMode center and special service providers such as banks. 5. Password security.

8. Security Protocols
iMode security relies on “standard” Internet security as provided by SSL(Secure Sockets Layer). The security protocols used within the DoCoMo network and over the air are proprietary protocols that run over SSL (using the packet switched capabilities of the DoCoMo network). iMode recently adopted SSL (in March, 2001). Before this, iMode provided ‘only air interface security’.

9. i-mode Related Services
i-appli: i-mode with Java This service group consists of software (programs) used with i-mode compatible mobile phone terminals. Downloading the software makes it possible to automatically update the news and weather forecast displays as well as to play new games. i-area: Location Based Service This is DOCOMO's location information service. The i-area service enables the user to check the weather forecast, traffic and store information and other convenient information for local areas as well as the map information to the user's current location.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Virtual Keyboard

Presentation On Virtual Keyboard

Virtual Keyboard Presentation


PowerPoint Presentation On Java Projects

PPT On Bank Management System In Java


Online Examination In Java


The Exam Simulator In Java


Related Project Report:

Java Project Report

PowerPoint Presentation On Holography

Presentation On Holography


Holography Presentation Transcript:
1. What is Holographic Memory ?
It is a memory that can store information in form of holographic image. It is a technique that can store information at high density inside crystals or photopolymers. It provides data to be written beneath the surface of the disc. Holographic memory can store up to 1 Tb in a storage medium the size of a sugar cube crystal.

2. Why do we need this ?
“For Internet applications alone, industry estimates are that storage needs are doubling every 100 days” By the year 2010, a storage system serving an average LAN will need … 100 TB and a WAN server will require 10TB to 1 petabyte …of storage” (Red Herring)

3. Properties of Hologram
A block or sheet of photosensitive material which records the diffraction of two light sources. A laser beam is splatted into two beams: Source beam Reference beam The two beams diffracts to form the image on the recording medium

4. Spatial light modulator
It is used for creating binary information out of laser light. It is a 2D plane, consisting of pixels which can be turned on and off to create binary 1.s and 0.s. It contains a two-dimensional array of windows, which are only microns wide.

5. Page Data Access
As the data is stored in the form of holograms, data retrieval must be in the same form. So, a holographic system sends data in the form of pages. It provides fast access times.

6. Error Correction
As the density of data is massive, it is prone to errors. Errors can be controlled by: Recording errors Page level parity bits Interfacing

7. Recording Errors Cause:
Noise generated by laser beam Result: Can change a binary 0 to binary 1 Possible Solution: Improvement in laser beam and recording material

8. Page-level Parity Bits
Data is stored in the form of 2-D array Odd no. of bits accounts for parity 1 Even no. of bits accounts for parity 0 Parity check bits are used to identify any errors present in the array

9. Interfacing
While reading the data, they are sent to the computer as sheets. Such thing may exceed the processor throughput Remedy: Defining set of rules which can be used for correction and reading of data efficiently.

10. For more please refer our PPT. Thanks.

Monday, September 28, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On Symbian OS

Symbian Operating System PPT


Symbian OS Presentation Transcript:
1. 1.5 billion mobile phone users (ITU) Mobile device capabilities are significantly advanced than those in the past Key question Are we going to face the same level of threat to security of mobile devices as that of in desktop environment?

2. Operating System (OS) Process Management Memory Management File Management I/O Management Networking

3. Real Time Operating System (RTOS) Characterized by timing constraints Mobile Operating System (Mobile OS) RTOS running on a mobile device

 4. Symbian established as a private independent company in June 1998, owned by Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola and Psion. Symbian is a software licensing company that develops and supplies the advanced, open, standard operating system – Symbian OS – for data-enabled mobile phones.

5. Release v6.1 2001, Release v6.2 Q1/2002, Release v7 2003 including Multimedia Framework (MMF) Release v8 2004 allowing manufacturers to build Symbian OS Release v9 2005 supporting the latest generation .

6. Browsing: full web browser support and WAP stack for mbile browsing Messaging: support MMS, EMS, SMS, POP3, IMAP4, SMTP; standard attachments; fax Multimedia: shared access to screen, keyboard, fonts and bitmaps; audio recording and playback, and image related functionality , including API for graphics acceleration, streaming and direct screen access Communication protocols: including TCP, IP version 4, IP version 6 and WAP, IrDA, Bluetooth, USB Mobile telephony: abstract API for cellular standards.

7. Data caging allows applications on a Symbian OS device to have private data which is not accessible by other applications. It is about file access control. Opposite to traditional “Access Control List”, it is “Fixed Access Control Policy

8. Small and mobile, but always available Mobile phones are both small and, by definition, mobile. This creates high user expectations. Addressing the mass-market Reliable. Data loss in a personal mobile phone causes a loss of trust between the user and the phone

9. Handling occasional connectivity Mobility constraints generally make a wireless connection preferable - whether wide area (using wireless telephony) or personal area (such as infrared or Bluetooth). Wireless connectivity is patchy, caused by different protocols Open platform An operating system for the mass-market must be open for third-party development.

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On Grid Computing

Grid Computing


Grid Computing Presentation Transcript:
The term grid computing originated in the early 1990s for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid The ideas of the grid were brought together by Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman. Initially Globus Toolkit was designed incoorporating storage management, security provisioning, data movement, monitoring e.t.c. In 2007 the term cloud computing came into popularity, which is conceptually similar to the canonical Foster definition of grid computing

Grid computing is the application of several computers to a single problem at the same time It allows flexible resource sharing among geographically distributed computing resources in multiple administrative domains It is basically used for Grid applications rich in graphics and multimedia. Controlled shell and controlled desktop mechanisms are used to restrict the user to execute only authorized commands and applications

Grid computing depends on software to divide and apportion pieces of a program among several computers It can also be thought of as form of network-distributed parallel processing. It can be small confined to a network of computer workstations or it can be a large, public collaboration across many companies or networks.

Virtualization of resources Applications can be executed by specifying the requirements, rather than identifying the individual resources to be used

Grid computing is a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers connected to a network supercomputer, has many processors connected by a local high-speed computer bus. Primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware

disadvantage is that the various processors and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections The high-end scalability of grids is generally favorable, due to the low need for connectivity between nodes It is costly and difficult to write programs that can be run in the environment of a supercomputer

Distributed grids can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple indivisuals Computers which are actually Performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. Measures were introduced to prevent participants from producing misleading results, and from using the system as an attack vector. Measures include assigning work randomly to different nodes and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit.

There is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. Uing different platforms with many languages, leads to tradeoff between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported Cross platform languages can reduce the need to make this tradeoff, though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node

The segmentation of the Grid computing market, two perspectives need to be considered: the provider side and the user side: The Provider Side The overall Grid market comprises several specific markets. Like Grid middleware market, The market for Grid-enabled applications, The utility computing market, and the software-as-a-Service (SaaS) market.

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

Related Project Report:

Grid Computing

PowerPoint Presentation On Windows Server

 PPT On Windows Server


Windows Server Presentation Transcript:
1. Overview
Windows Server 2008 enables you to increase the reliability and flexibility of your server infrastructure. New virtualization tools, web resources, and security enhancements help you save time, reduce costs, and provide a platform for a dynamic and optimized datacenter. Windows Server 2008 can help you in many scenarios Some of these scenarios are available today, with your existing windows 2003 infrastructure.

2. Session Objectives and Agenda
Gain the required knowledge to integrate Windows Server 2008 into your existing IT infrastructure: Active Directory Group Policy Terminal Services Tons of demos

3. Active Directory
Windows Server 2008 Benefits for Active Directory Domain Considerations Schema Updates Get your RODC today DCs on Server Core Backing up and recovery

4. Windows Server 2008 Benefits for Active Directory What you get TODAY: Read Only Domain Controllers Restartable Directory Services Group Policy Enhancements Active Directory Snapshots Improved Install From Media (IFM) Directory Services Auditing

5. Domain Considerations
Domain Function Level must be Native or Windows Server 2003 mode. BDCs running Windows NT 4.0 are not supported with Windows Server 2008. No Mixed Mode No Interim Mode The first Windows Server 2008 DC in a forest must be a Global Catalog server and it cannot be an RODC. After you insert your first Windows Server 2008 DC, you can install your first RODC.

6. Prepare for the first RODC
RODCs are fantastic because they: Increase end user productivity Mitigate poor physical server security Lower impact of compromise, theft , or error Meet requirements of specific LOB applications

7. Prepare for the first RODC
Before you can install an RODC in a Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 forest, you must prepare the forest by running Adprep/rodcprep on any domain member, but it’s best to run it on the domain naming operation master. In a new Windows Server 2008 forest you do not need to run anything. You must already have at least one Writable DC running Windows Server 2008 before you install your first RODC.

8. DCs on Server
Core Installing Active Directory on Server Core is performed by using an unattended file for DCPROMO. After the reboot, the Server Core acts just like any DC on the network, and you can manage it by using RSAT.

9. Group Policy
Windows Server 2008 Benefits for Group Policy Using ADMX/ADML files Creating the Central ADMX repository Interoperability

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On ERP

Training On ERP At Future First




Sunday, September 27, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On 4G

4G wireless Technology PPT
4G technology is the next step of 3G technology.In this PPT you get the whole idea about 4G technology,For more information Click Here (PPT)

4G Technology(Cell Phone)
How 4G technology work with cell phone technology,Here you get your all answers.For more information Click Here (PPT)



4G Presentation


PPT On 4G Technology


PowerPoint Presentation On DSA



 Pattern Matching PPT


PowerPoint Presentation On IBM AS/400

 PPT On IBM AS/400


IBM AS/400 Presentation Transcript:
1. KSFL is a joint venture of Krishk Bharti Cooperative (Kribhco) Fertilizers & Shyam Telecommunications Limited. It is one of the major eminent fertilizer projects in the country, which encounters the scarcity of fertilizer in India. It is spelled over an area of about 1150 acres of lush green land and the whole project values at around Rs. 2,200 Crores INR. Urea is the primary product of the company along with Ammonia as the secondary product. Output 7, 26,000 MTPA (Urea). 3, 34,000 MTPA (Ammonia). Rs. 800 Crores/Year.

2. What is IBM AS/400 ???
 IBM AS/400 stands for “IBM Application System/400”. IBM AS/400 is a versatile all purpose midrange server (Midframe) designed for small businesses and departments in large enterprises to work in distributed environment.

3. Five Sacred Principles Of AS/400
Technology Independance Object-based Design Hardware Integration Software Integration Single-Level Store

4. Began at IBM Rochester Introduced in 1988 Initially was named System 35. AS/400 design was based on customer needs. Immediately successful. IBM Rochester became second biggest computer company . (behind rest of IBM)

5. Capacity on demand Dynamic Logical Partitioning Shared resources Moveable resources Manual Automatic Uncapped partitions

6. Choice of operating systems Native:
OS/400 Linux AIX Hosted: Windows Linux

7. Programming Languages Available RPG ILE COBOL ILE C ILE C++ Java SQL XML PHP

8. Object Oriented Operating System File can’t become a program Program can’t be created without authenticating user Security Written into microcode Can’t be circumvented Superior backup and recovery

9. The Program Development Manager (PDM) is a set of utilities under OS/400 designed to simplify the creation and development of software. It automates file and member creation, editing, compilation and program execution, and allows the programmer to manage their environment from a set of standard menus.

10. For more info. please refer our PPT. Thanks.

PowerPoint Presentation On IBM



1. IBM DB2

2. Introduction
First Release in 1982
DB2 is Relational DBMS (R-DBMS)
Relational Data or Binary Data
Support Pure XML for Easy Storage and Retrieval
Support Both GUI and CLI

3. DB2 Instance
A DB2 instance is a logical database server environment. There can be multiple DB2 instances on a server. Multiple Databases can be created within a DB2 instance.
The default instance for a particular system is defined by the ‘DB2INSTANCE’ environment variable. Initially for Windows default is ‘DB2’ and for Linux/Unix it is ‘db2inst1’.

4. DB2 tablespace

A tablespace is a logical layer between data and storage space.
Tables, regular data, indexes and long data reside in tablespace.

SYSCATSPACE: where the DB2 system kept tracks of all of the metadata associated with DB2 objects .

TEMPSPACE1: A temporary work area where DB2 can place intermediate results.

USERSPACE1: A place where all user objects (tables, indexes) reside by default.

5. Constraints

Primary Keys: Used to enforce uniqueness on one or set of column values.
Foreign Keys: Used to establish a referential relationship b/w two tables, can be referred as Child and Parent.
Unique Keys: Used to enforce on one or set of column values. A table can have multiple unique keys.
Checked Constraints: They are used to enforce rules for those table column so that data inserted or updated in those columns meets the conditions predefined in the check constraints.

6. DB2 Object: Table

All data is stored in tables in the database. A table consists of one or more columns of various data types. The data is stored in rows or records.
May be defined using:
The CREATE TABLE SQL statement
A GUI tool, the DB2 Control Center

7. DB2 Object: view

A view provides a transparent view of the data in underlying tables. Contains no data itself. Appears just like a table to the user. Can also be used to restrict which rows and columns can be viewed or updated.
You can create a view on an existing table (or tables) or on another view or any combination. A view defined on another view is called a nested view.
CREATE VIEW nonfictionbooks AS
SELECT * FROM books WHERE booktype = 'N‘

8. DB2 Object: Triggers

A trigger is used to define a set of actions that are to be executed whenever an insert, update, or delete operation is performed against a table or updatable view.
Like constraints, triggers are often used to enforce data integrity and business rules.
Unlike constraints, triggers can also be used to update other tables, automatically generate or transform values for inserted or updated rows, and invoke functions to perform tasks such as issuing errors or alerts.

9. Thank You

PowerPoint Presentation On NTPC

Training At NTPC






National Thermal Power Station


Thursday, September 24, 2009

PowerPoint Presentation On JSP

What is relation between JSP And HTML? This PPT gives all answers of relation sheep between JSP And HTML, For more information Click Here (PPT)

JSP Coding PPT
Here you know about JSP Coding And how it works with HTML, For more information Click Here (PPT)

PPT On Banking System In JSP


JSP Presentation

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