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Thursday, June 19, 2014

PPT On Importance of formulation of objectives in Nursing education


Importance of formulation of objectives in Nursing education Presentation Transcript


  •  The intentions of any course are determined to a large extent by the form in which the Aims and Objectives are stated. Whereas the aims are general statements broadly indicating the intention of the course, the objectives are specific statements of what the learner is supposed to do as a result of a course of study.
  •     Aims and objectives form the fundamental part of the teaching. Once the intended learning has been specified by the learning objectives they provide the basis for determining the scope and nature of content to be learned, the choice of teaching methods and strategies and the form of assessments for determining whether or not learning has taken place.
  •     When formulating objectives be they for the acquisition of knowledge and intellectual skills (cognitive), physical skills (psycho motor) and feelings (affective), they must be specific, measurable and relevant for the intended learning.
 Purpose  toward which an endeavor is directed. It is desired result that a person wishes to achieve.


 Specific knowledge, skills, or attitudes that students are expected to achieve through their college experience

The object toward which one strives for which something exists.            

5.Types of objectives:
 Classified in two major categories:

1) Educational objectives

2) Teaching/learning objectives.

1) Educational objectives:

  •      Educational objectives tell us what the learner should be able to do after undertaking an educational program.
  •     Educational objectives are statements of those changes in behavior which are desired as a result of specific learner and teacher activity, which is a two way process.
  •     BS Bloom believes that education is a tripolar process.
Types of educational objectives:
According to Guilbert:

  1.     General objectives : correspond to functioning of types of health personnel trained in an establishment. E.g. Providing preventive and curative care to individuals , families, and community in health and sickness.
  2.     Intermediate objectives : arrived at by breaking down professional functions into components which together indicate the nature of functions.Eg. Planning and carrying out a demonstration session on breast feeding for group of mothers in community.
  3.     Specific / instructional objectives: corresponding to precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria.E.g. Demonstrates correct use of blood pressure apparatus in taking blood pressure of patient.
2) Teaching objectives:
  •     Teaching objectives are relating to learning outcome or change of behavior of learners. These are specific, direct and practical in nature.
  •     BS Bloom has classified teaching objectives in three categories-cognitive objectives, affective objectives, and psychomotor objectives.
6.Specific / instructional objectives:

Corresponding to precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria .These are based on specific outcome and these helps to identify terminal outcomes of instruction in terms of observable performance of learner .These are presented in behavioral terms so we can name them learning outcomes

For teachers:

  •      It serves as a guide in selection of important and desirable subject matter.
  •      It describes behavior in terms of student performance.
  •     It serves as basis for evaluation.
  •     It indicates direction towards which behavior is to be geared.
For student:
  •       They indicate to the learner what needs to be learned.
  •      Gives direction to students towards in depth study.
  •      They provide guidance for all remaining aspects involved in planning, implementing and evaluating instructional programme
  •     Learner should be able to demonstrate possession of large quality of facts ,concepts, greater ability to manipulate in more complex ways.
For nurses:
  •     To prepare nurses for rendering community services through primary health care.
  •     To prepare nurses for providing care at institutional level
  •      To prepare nurse educators to handle teaching- learning situations in all learning areas
For all:
Overall evaluation of course gives feedback to planners , administrators ,and others concerned about efficacy of education program

7. Characteristics :

  •     It should be written in behavioral terms (what the students must do)
  •      It should reflect the condition (under what circumstances ) the activities  checked be performed to achieve the objectives
  •      It should reflect standard and condition
  •      It must be reasonable in number
  •      It should be consistent with one another.
  •      It should be distinctive but not completely independent.
  •      It should be approximately of same level of generality or specificity.
  •      It should be descriptive.

8. Terminology to be used

  •     While defining objectives in behavioral terms ,one should be careful in choosing appropriate verbs .These are observable and measurable
  •     Examples of verbs:
  •       Descriptive verbs: describe, state, define , explain , write ,etc.
  •       Discriminative verbs : explain , infer , defend ,compare , differentiate
  •      Motor performance verbs: draw, measure , drive ,type
9.Qualities :
  1. SMART : specific,measurable,attainable,reasonable,timely
  2.   Other qualities should be:                 
  •      Relevant : stated objective should be free from any superfluous material but should cover every point relating to the aims in view. 
  •      Unequivocal : loaded words which are open to a wide range of interpretations should not be used.
  •     Feasible and achievable : It must be ensured that what the student is required to do can actually , within time allowed and facilities available at hand. 
  •      Logical : There should be internal consistency in objective stated.
  •      Observable : There should be some means of observing process towards an objective
  •       Measurable : objective must include an indication
10.Elements of objectives:
1)Condition:It is the condition under which learner should display the desired behaviour.
2)Activity: it denotes the behaviour the learner is expectd to perform after attending a class
3)Standard: It states the norms expected from the student .
4)Content : It describes the subject ,object in relation to which activity is performed.

Formulation of educational objectives is the main step of any curriculum development which must be consistent with the philosophy of the education programme and institution . The faculty should maintain the qualities in setting objectives in behavioral terms in Nursing Practice

12. For more information regarding this topic refer to PPT.

13. Thank You

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