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Thursday, July 25, 2013

PPT On Generations of Computer

Presentation On Generations of Computer

Generations of Computer Presentation Transcript:
1.Generations of Computer

2.Generations of Computer
The computer has evolved from a large-sized simple calculating machine to a smaller but much more powerful machine.
The evolution of computer to the current state is defined in terms of the generations of computer.
Each generation of computer is designed based on a new technological development, resulting in better, cheaper and smaller

3.computers that are more powerful, faster and  efficient than their predecessors.
Currently, there are five generations of computer. In the following subsections, we will discuss the generations of computer in terms of.

4.the technology used by them (hardware and software),
computing characteristics (speed, i.e., number of instructions executed per second),
physical appearance, and
their applications.

5.First Generation (1940 to 1956): Using Vacuum Tubes
Hardware Technology The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes (Figure) for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. The input to the computer was through punched cards and paper tapes. The output was displayed as printouts.      Figure1.1Vacuum tube

6.Software Technology The instructions were written in machine language. Machine language uses 0s and 1s for coding of the instructions. The first generation computers could solve one problem at a time.
Computing Characteristics The computation time was in milliseconds.

7.Physical Appearance These computers were enormous in size and required a large room for installation.
Application They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest computing device of their time.
Examples UNIVersal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC), and Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC).

8.The first generation computers used a large number of vacuum tubes and thus generated a lot of heat. They consumed a great deal of electricity and were expensive to operate. The machines were prone to frequent malfunctioning and required constant maintenance. Since first generation computers used machine language, they were difficult to program.

9.Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Using Transistors
Hardware Technology Transistors (Figure) replaced the vacuum tubes of the first generation of computers. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, energy efficient and reliable. The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory. They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. The input was still through

10.punched cards and the output using printouts. They used the concept of a stored program, where instructions were stored in the memory of computer.

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