RESEARCH PROBLEM Presentation Transcript:
1.Definition of Research Problem
A situation for which we have no ready and successful response by instinct or by previous acquired habit. We must find out what to do i.e , the solution can be found out only after an investigation. In other words a research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge based needed for professional practices.
The research problem should be clearly stated .
2.A research problem , in general , refers to
some difficulty which a researcher experiences in
the contest of either a theatrical or practical
situation & wants to obtain a solution for the same. Kothari , 2004
A research problem is a situation involving
an enigmatic, perplexing or troubling condition &
the purpose of it is to solve the problem
Polit , 1999
3.Characteristics of a good research problem
1. research problem is clearly , precisely and concisely articulated.
2. it clearly stated the variables, population & research setting under study .
3.variable are expressed in measureable term .
4. The type of study also may be included in the statement of the research problem.
4.E.g. -A descriptive study on the prevalance
Of pin site infection among patient with external skeleton fixation admitted in orthopaedic ward of P.G.I.M.S. Rohtak .
5.COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Specific research question
Different ways to obtain objective
Key variables in research
6.E.g. There is a critical need for modifying patient care strategies in a hospital having acute shortage of qualified nursing personnel
causing severe inadequacy in patient care.
In the above e.g. The area of concern is inadequate patient care in a hospital.
7.Sources of research problem
8.1. personal experiences: personal experiences is a good source of idea to formulate a research problem. E.g. A researcher observed domestic violence suffered by wives of alcoholic husbands. This experience may provide ideas to identify several research problems related to domestic violence against women.
2. practical experience: we gets plenty of ideas to formulate research problems from our clinical experiences.e.g. We find that unrestricted visiting hours in surgical wards reduced the analgesic demand among postoperative patients.
9.3.critical appraisal of literature: when we read books and articles al related to our interested subject many question may arise in our mind by stating what additional research is needed.e.g.when we read a n article on the prevalence of the pin site infection among patients with external fixators.while reading this article we find that there is lack of consensus about pin site care.this information may serve as a basis to formulate a research problem.
4. previous research: a body of knowledge should be developed on a sound foundation of research findings. After reading the previous research several ideas come in our mind what should be investigated more we can modifide the research study.
10.5.existing theories: research is a process of theory development and theory testing. we use many theories from other disciplines in our practices. If an existing theory is used in developing a researchable problem , a specific statement from the theory must be isolated . Generally, a part or parts of the theory are subjected to testing in the clinical situation . The testing of an existing theory is definitely needed in nursing; therefore, they serve as good sources of research problems .
11.6.Social issues :- sometimes , topics are suggested by more global contemporary social or political issues to the health care community . For eg , HIV/AIDS , female foeticide , sexual harassment, domestic violence , and gender equality in the health care & research are some of the current social and political issues of concern for health care professionals. An idea for a study may stem from a familiarity with social concerns or controversial issues .
12.7.Brainstorming :- these sessions are good techniques to find new question , where an intensified discussion among interested people of profession is conducted to find more ideas to formulate a good research problem, for eg ideas from studies may emerge from reviewing research priorities by having this sessions with other nurses , researchers , or nursing faculty .
13.8.Intuition :- traditionally intuitions are considered good sources of knowledge as well as sources to find new research problems. It is believed that reflective mind are good sources of ideas , which may be used to formulate a good research problem .
9.Folklores :- common beliefs could be right or wrong . For eg it is generally believed that just studying before the tests decreases the score . We believe we should not study just before test to relax our mind . Researchers can conduct a study on whether one should study before the test or not .
14.10.Consultations with experts :- experts are believed to have sound experience of the respective field, which may suggest a significant problem to be studied . In addition , experts may help in finding a current problem of discipline to be solved , which may serve as basis of formulation of research problem .
15.Factors responsible for selecting a good research problem
1. significance to nursing profession: a problem which a researcher is selecting should have significance to nursing profession.a research problem is significant for nursing profession when it is directed to develop or refine the body of professional knowledge. A research problem could be considered significant for nursing profession if it fulfils the following criteria:
-nursing profession and patientsv,nurses and health care fraternity will benefit from the study.
-promotes nursing theory development or testing.
-provides solutions of current nursing practice needs..
-generate information to get practical implications for nursing profession.