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Thursday, August 15, 2013

PPT On Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method


Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method Presentation Transcript: 
1.Production Of Enzymes By Fermentation Method

2.What is fermentation?
Pasteur’s definition: “life without air”, anaerobe
    redox reactions in organisms.
New definition: a form of metabolism in which the end products could be further oxidized.
   For example: a yeast cell obtains 2 molecules of
   ATP per molecule of glucose when it ferments it
   to ethanol.

3.What is fermentation?
   Microorganisms, typically grown on a large scale, to produce valuable commercial products or to carry out important chemical transformations. This process is commonly referred to as Fermentation.

4.Types of fermentation process
There are two methods of fermentation used to produce enzymes.
submerged fermentation
solid-state fermentation.

5.Submerged fermentation/ Solid-state fermentation
Submerged fermentation involves the production of enzymes by microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, yeast) in a liquid nutrient media (water content of the media: > 95%)
Solid-state fermentation is the cultivation of microorganisms on a solid substrate.
Carbon containing compounds in or on the substrate are broken down by the micro organisms, which produce the enzymes either intra-cellularly or extra-cellularly.

  6.The enzymes are recovered by methods such as centrifugation, for extra cellularly produced enzymes
    and lysing of cells for intracellular enzymes.
Many industries are dependent on enzymes for the production of their goods.
Industries that use enzymes generated by fermentation are the brewing, wine making, baking and cheese making.

7.   Advantages:
Measure of process parameters is easier than with solid-state fermentation.
Bacterial and yeast cells are evenly distributed throughout the medium.
There is a high water content which is ideal for bacteria.
High costs due to the expensive media.

8.Solid State Fermentation
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is another method used for the production of enzymes.
In solid state,  water content is  40~ 80%.
Solid-state fermentation involves the cultivation of microorganisms on a solid substrate, such as rice husk, wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, wheat and corn flour.

9.SSF has many advantages over submerged fermentation. These include:
High volumetric productivity
Relatively high concentration of product
Less effluent generated
Simple fermentation equipment.


11.Aerobic fermentation
Adequate aeration.
Bioreactors- adequate supply of sterile air.
In addition, these fermentors may have a mechanism for stirring and mixing of the medium and cells .
  eg.  Antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins.

12.In anaerobic fermentation, a provision for aeration is usually not needed.
   e.g. Lactic acid, ethanol, wine
When referring to fermentation regarding food, there are no distinctions between
   anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.

13.Fermentation changes the characteristics of the food by the action of the enzymes produced by bacteria, mould and yeasts, which can occur in aerobic or anaerobic conditions

14.The process of fermentation requires a food source (e.g. glucose); enzymes form
   bacteria or yeast and (depending on the product) anaerobic or aerobic conditions.

15.Of all the microbial products manufactured commercially, antibiotics are the most important.
Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms to kill other microorganisms.
They are used in the treatment of infectious diseases.

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