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Monday, August 12, 2013

PPT On Basic Concepts of Motivation


Basic Concepts of Motivation Presentation Transcript:
1.Basic Concepts of Motivation & Management BY Objectives

The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

3.Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

4.Theory X
Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.
Theory Y
Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.

5.Goal-Setting Theory
The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship:
Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.
The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.

6.Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participative set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.

7.Why MBO’s Fail
Unrealistic expectations about MBO results
Lack of commitment by top management
Failure to allocate reward properly
Cultural incompatibilities

8.Employee Recognition Programs
Types of programs
Personal attention
Expressing interest
Appreciation for a job well done
Benefits of programs
Fulfill employees’ desire for recognition.
Encourages repetition of desired behaviors.
Enhance group/team cohesiveness and motivation.
Encourages employee suggestions for improving processes and cutting costs.

9.What is Employee Involvement?
Employee Involvement Program
A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success.
Participative Management
A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors.

10.Job Design and Scheduling
Job Rotation
The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another.
Job Enlargement
The horizontal expansion of jobs.
Job Enrichment
The vertical expansion of jobs.


12.Variable Pay Programs
A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organization measure of performance.
 Piece rate pay plans
 Profit sharing plans
 Gain sharing plans   

13.Piece-rate Pay Plans
Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
Profit-Sharing Plans
Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability.
Gain Sharing
An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.

14.Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
Benefits of Skill-based Pay Plans:
Provides staffing flexibility.
Facilitates communication across the organization.
Lessens “protection of territory” behaviors.
Meets the needs of employees for advancement (without promotion).
Leads to performance improvements.

15.Drawbacks of Skill-based Pay Plans:
Lack of additional learning opportunities that will increase employee pay.
Continuing to pay employees for skills that have become obsolete.
Paying for skills which are of no immediate use to the organization.
Paying for a skill, not for the level of employee performance for the particular skill.

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