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Monday, August 12, 2013

PPT On Individual Behavior


Individual Behavior Presentation Transcript:
1.Foundation of Individual Behavior

2.Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.

3.Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities.
Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains subparts: social, emotional, and cultural.

4.Nine Physical Abilities

5.The Ability-Job Fit

Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

7.Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.

8.Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

9.Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and direct experience.

10.Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.

11.Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

12.Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.
Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

13.OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

14.Well Pay versus Sick Pay
Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.
Employee Discipline
The use of punishment can be counter-productive.
Developing Training Programs
OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.
Reduces the need for external management control.

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