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Monday, August 5, 2013

PPT On Introduction to Microprocessor and Computer


Introduction to Microprocessor and Computer Presentation Transcript: 
1.Introduction to Microprocessor and Computer

2.Mechanical Computing
The abacus circa 500 B.C. – the first calculator
Blaise Pascal – the first modern mechanical adder
Charles Babbage – the first true computer
50,000 machine parts
Herman Hollerith – the punched card system and founder of IBM

3.Early electronic computersKonrad Zuse – Z3 (relay logic at 5.33 Hz)
Alan Turing – Colossus
Fixed program computer
University of Pennsylvania – ENIAC
Could be reprogrammed by rewiring the circuit and could several man hours
17,000 vacuum tubes, 500 miles of wires
100K operations per second

4.Early milestones
1948 – the transistor at Bell Labs
1958 – the integrated circuit
1961 – RTL digital logic (resistor-to-Transistor Logic)
1971 – the microprocessor (4004)

5.Early programming
Countess of Lovelace (1823) wrote programs for the Analytical Engine
Machine Language then Assembly Language
Grace Hopper (1957) develops FLOW-MATIC
COBOL –first wide spread language
BASIC and PASCAL as teaching languages

6.Modern programming
Visual BASIC (most common business)
Visual C/C++ (most common technical)
JAVA (most common web)
ADA  (used by DoD
PASCAL -control programs
C# (gaining on web)

7.Early Microprocessors
4004 the first microprocessor (4-bit) 16K RAM
4040 improved speed
8008 (8-bit)
Fairchild, MOS tech., Motorola, National semiconductor, Rockwell, Zilog
8080 (8-bit) 64K RAM, 2Mhz clock
8086 (16-bit) 1M RAM, 5MHz clock
80286 (16-bit) 16M RAM, 16MHz clock

8.32-bit Microprocessors
80386, 4G RAM, 33 MHz clock
80486, 4G RAM, 66 MHz clock
Pentium, 4G RAM, 66 MHz clock
Pentium Pro, 64G RAM, 133 MHz clock
Pentium II, 64G RAM, 233 MHz clock
Pentium III, 64G RAM, 500 MHz clock
Pentium 4, 64G RAM, 1.5 GHz clock

9.The P nomenclature
P1 – 8086/8088 class
P2 – 80286 class
P3 – 80386 class
P4 – 80486 class
P5 – Pentium class
P6 – Pentium Pro/Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium 4 class

10.Cache Memory
A temporary high speed memory that buffers the slower DRAM from the higher speed microprocessor.
Usages in bursts of 4 memory-sized chunks of data (today 4, 64-bit numbers)
Level 1 (small cache for local high-speed storage)
Level 2 (larger cache for local high-speed storage.
Level 3 (large cache on Pentium 4 chip)

11.High End Computers
Processor: Intel Pentium 4
Frequency: 3.2GHz
Power consumption: 103 W max.*
Process: 90nm

12.Lower Scale of Computers
Processor can consume no more
 than 250-300mW

13.Speed of Evolution
2X in speed every 1.5 years; 100X performance in last decade
DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in last decade
Cost per bit:  improves about 25% per year
capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years
Cost per bit:  improves about 100% per year
250X size in last decade

14.Memory Organization   
Memory is organized in byte-sized (wide) chunks of data
Memory is numbered in bytes
Memory is number in hexadecimal addresses or locations
Modern memory is 64-bits wide containing 8 bytes per memory physical location.
Modern DRAM is SLOW! (40 ns per a random access)
Buffering and double clock edge transfers can speed memory access times to about 25 MHz

15.Microprocessor Internals

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