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Wednesday, September 4, 2013

PPT On Pathology Of Diabetes


Pathology Of Diabetes Presentation Transcript:
1. What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus, or as it also known, simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases. It occurs when a person has high blood sugar. It can happen either because of the lack of insulin production from the pancreas or because of the difficulty that cells show to respond to it.

2. What is diabetes?
The most common symptoms of high sugar in blood circulation is :
polyuria, which is frequent urination, 
polydipsia; the increased thirst
polyphagia; the increased hunger

3. Types of diabetes
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM).
1) Type 1 DM 
2)Type 2 DM 
3) gestational diabetes  occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

4. Type 1: Juvenile diabetes
This type of diabetes is the result of the body's failure to produce insulin. Treatment to this kind of disease is not an easy thing to do, as it requires regular injections of insulin or to wear and carry around an insulin pump. It is also known as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".

5. Type 2: Adult-onset diabetes
This type is the result of insuline resistance. In this case insulin can not be used properly from cells and sometimes it is combines with absolute insulin deficiency.This form is also known as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".

6. Type 3:  Gestational diabetes
This form of diabetes occurs when pregnant women with no previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede to the development of type 2 diabetes.

7. More types…
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include:
1)congenital diabetes, which occurs because of genetic defects of insulin secretion, 
2) cystic fibrosis-related diabetes,
3) steroid diabetes because of high doses of glucocorticoids,
4) several forms of monogenic diabetes.

8. Pathology of diabetes
Insulin is a hormone that mainly regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into cells and especially muscle and fat cells. That’s why insulin deficiency or insensitivity of its receptors is crucial in diabetes mellitus, no matter what form.

9. Humans can digest carbohydrates, and in particular those that are most common in food they consume in everyday life; starch, as well as some disaccharides (sucrose for example), are converted to simpler forms, usually to monosaccharide glucose, the most used carbohydrate energy source for the human body.

10. Insulin, the hormone we referred before, is released into the blood by beta cells (╬▓-cells), which can be found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is released in response to high levels of blood glucose, typically after eating and is used to absorb glucose from the blood for consumption as fuel, for conversion to other molecules, or for storage.

11. If the available amount of insulin is insufficient or if cells don’t respond effectively to it (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if insulin is defective by its construction and form, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by body cells, nor will it be stored appropriately. This problem can cause poor protein synthesis, persistent high levels of blood glucose, and other metabolic derangements, like acidosis.

12. Thank you for your attention

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