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Wednesday, August 10, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Alzheimer's Disease

PPT On Alzheimer's Disease



2. The Impact of AD
Once considered a rare disorder, Alzheimer’s disease is now seen as a major public health problem that is seriously affecting millions of older people and their families.

3. What is Alzheimer’s disease (AD)?
Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills.
Although the risk of developing AD increases with age – in most people with AD, symptoms first appear after age 60 – AD is not a part of normal aging. It is caused by a fatal disease that affects the brain.

4. AD is the most common cause of dementia among people age 65 and older.
Scientists estimate that around 4.5 million people now have AD.
For every 5-year age group beyond 65, the percentage of people with AD doubles.
By 2050, 13.2 million older people are expected to have AD if the current numbers hold and no preventive treatments become available.

5. Inside the Human Brain
To understand Alzheimer’s disease, it’s important to know a bit about the brain…
The Brain’s Vital Statistics
Adult weight:about 3 pounds
Adult size: a medium cauliflower
Number of neurons: 100,000,000,000 (100 billion)
Number of synapses (the gap between neurons): 100,000,000,000,000 (100 trillion)

6. Inside the Human Brain
The Three Main Players
1. Cerebral Hemispheres – where sensory information received from the outside world is processed; this part of the brain controls voluntary movement and regulates conscious thought and mental activity:
accounts for 85% of brain’s weight
consists of two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum
is covered by an outer layer called the cerebral cortex
2. Cerebellum – in charge of balance and coordination:
takes up about 10% of brain
consists of two hemispheres
receives information from eyes, ears, and muscles and joints about body’s movements and position
3.Brain Stem – connects the spinal cord with the brain
relays and receives messages to and from muscles, skin, and other organs
controls automatic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing

7. Other Crucial Parts
Hippocampus: where short-term memories are converted to long-term memories
Thalamus: receives sensory and limbic information and sends to cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus: monitors certain activities and controls body’s internal clock
Limbic system: controls emotions and instinctive behavior (includes the hippocampus and parts of the cortex)

8. The Brain in Action
Different mental activities take place in different parts of the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans can measure this activity..

9. Neurons
The brain has billions of neurons, each with an axon and many dendrites.
To stay healthy, neurons must communicate with each other, carry out metabolism, and repair themselves.
AD disrupts all three of these essential jobs.

10. Plaques and Tangles: The Hallmarks of AD
The brains of people with AD have an abundance of two abnormal structures:
beta-amyloid plaques, which are dense deposits of protein and cellular material that accumulate outside and around nerve cells
neurofibrillary tangles, which are twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell

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